²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


TASK 5. DIALOGUE. Match the sentences in column A with their equivalents in column B and learn the dialogue by heart.

 

A   B
: , . , .   Have you got any evidence against him?
: ?   Why dont you arrest him, then?
: . . , . . , -.   He is being watched by the police. We want to trace all members of the gang through him. And we also expect Interpols assistance.
: ?   We suspect Mr. X. of violating the law that prohibits use and traffic of drugs.
: ³ . . , .   Yes. We have found drugs in his hotel room. Besides we have apprehended a drug dealer. And through him we have traced Mr. X. According to our data he is involved in international drug trafficking.

TASK 6. ROLE PLAY. Enact a role play Trying a criminal case. You are the jury and must decide whether to acquit the accused or sentence them to a term of imprisonment (minimum 3 months / maximum life). Or could you think of a more appropriate punishment?

Case 1.A driver while speeding hit a cyclist off her bike. She was badly injured and confined to a wheelchair for the rest of her life. The driver didnt stop so hes charged with hit and run.

Case 2. The accused is a doctor who gave an overdose to an 87-year-old woman. She had a terminal illness, was in constant pain and had asked for the overdose. Her family is accusing the doctor of murder.

 

Case 3. A. and B. mug Mr. X., take his money and leave him for dead. B. later returns alone and pushes the body in the river. An autopsy reveals that the man was still just alive when pushed in the water and subsequently drowned.

 


UNIT VI

 

Civil Law

 

 

Remember the following words and word combinations.

civil law
civil wrong
breach
common law
legal codes
tort
lawsuit
strict liability
strong legal institutions
commission
comprehensive code
authority
mixed legal system
to settle a dispute
attorney general . ̳ .
prosecutor , ;
agent
objectiv ,
wrong
revenge

 

TEXT A. CIVIL LAW

Civil Law is the body of private law used in those countries in which the legal system is based on ancient Roman law modified by medieval and modern influences. Civil law is used in most nations in Europe and Latin America, as well as in some countries in Asia and Africa. The law of Great Britain, the United States, Canada, and a number of other nations is besed on English commonlaw, which differs from civil law in origin and other important respects.

The term civil law is also employed to distinguish those legal codes that deal with civil relationships (such as citizenship, marriage, divorce, and certain contractual arrangements) from other codes such as those dealing with criminal law.

The civil law originated in ancient Rome. One of the principal characteristics of Roman civilization was the development of strong legal institutions. In the 6th century, a commission appointed by the Emperor Justinian collected and consolidated all the sources of law, including the opinions of the great legal scholars during previous centuries. Theresult was the Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law), also called the Justinian Code, a comprehensive code with the accumulated wisdom and experience of many generations of Roman jurists.

The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. It is the most prevalent and oldest surviving legal system in the world. Colonial expansion spread the civil law system and European civil law has been adopted in much of Latin America as well as in parts of Asia and Africa.

The primary source of law is the legal code, which is a compendium of statutes, arranged by subject matter in some pre-specified order; a code may also be described as "a systematic collection of interrelated articles written in a terse, staccato style." Law codes are usually created by a legislature's enactment of a new statute that embodies all the old statutes relating to the subject and including changes necessitated by court decisions. In some cases, the change results in a new statutory concept. The two other major legal systems in the world are common law and Islamic law.

Civil law systems may be subdivided into further categories:

− Countries where Roman law in some form is still living law and there has been no attempt to create a civil code: Andorra and San Marino

− Countries with mixed systems in which Roman law is an academic source of authority but common law is also influential: Scotland and the Roman-Dutch law countries (South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka and Guyana)

− Countries with codes intended to be comprehensive, such as France: it is this last category that is normally regarded as typical of "civil law" systems.

The Scandinavian systems are of an intermediate character, as they have a background of Roman and customary law together with partial codification. The laws of Louisiana and Quebec may also be considered as hybrid systems, in that a French-type civil code coexists with pre-revolutionary French customary law and considerable common law influence.

A prominent example of civil law would be the Napoleonic Code (1804), named after French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. The Code comprises three components: the law of persons, property law, and commercial law. Rather than a catalog of judicial decisions, the Code consists of abstractly written principles as rules of law.

Civil law is sometimes referred to as neo-Roman law, Romano-Germanic law or Continental law. The expression civil law is a translation of Latin jus civile, or "citizens' law", which was the Late Imperial term for its legal system, as opposed to the laws governing conquered peoples (jus gentium).

 

 

TASK 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What the difference between the civil law and criminal law?

2. Can you give any example of civil law case?

3. What branches of the civil law do you know?

4. What are the main principles of civil law?

5. What are the objectives of Civil Law?

 

 

TASK 2. Translate the following words and word combinations into English.

, , , , , , , , , , , .

 

 

TASK 3. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. .

2. .

3. , , .

4. ( . , , (car-owners)).

5. ᒺ .

6. , 1 2004 , .

7. ³ .

 

 

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