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V. Discuss pros and cons of various routes of drug administration.

Route Advantages Disadvantages
Oral Most convenient Usually least expensive Safe, does not break skin barrier Administration usually does not cause stress   Inappropriate for patients with nausea and vomiting Drug may have unpleasant taste or odour Inappropriate when gastrointestinal tract has reduced motility Inappropriate if patient cant swallow or is unconscious Drug may discolour teeth, harm tooth enamel Drug may irritate gastric mucosa Drug can be aspirated by seriously ill patients
Sublingual Buccal Same as oral route, plus Drug can be administered for local effect More potent than oral route because drug directly enters the blood and bypasses the liver If swallowed, drug may be inactivated by gastric juice Drug must remain under tongue or between the cheek and gums until dissolved and absorbed Drug is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream
Rectal Can be used when drug has objectionable taste or odour Drug released at slow, steady rate Dose absorbed is unpredictable
Vaginal Provides a local effect Limited use
Topical Provides a local therapeutic effect Few side effects May be messy and may soil clothes Drug can enter body through abrasions and cause systemic effects
Transdermal Prolonged systemic effect Few side effects Avoids gastrointestinal absorption problems Leaves residue on the skin that may soil clothes
Subcutaneous Onset of drug action faster than oral   Must involve sterile technique as it breaks skin barrier More expensive than oral Can administer only small volume Slower than intramuscular administration Some drugs can irritate tissues and cause pain Can produce anxiety
Intramuscular Pain from irritating drugs is minimized Can administer larger volume than subcutaneous Drug is rapidly absorbed Breaks skin barrier Can produce anxiety  
Intradermal Absorption is slow (an advantage in testing for allergies) Amount of drug administered must be small Breaks skin barrier  
Intravenous Rapid effect   Limited to highly soluble drugs Drug distribution inhibited by poor circulation
Inhalation Introduces drug throughout respiratory tract Rapid localized relief Drug can be administered to unconscious client Drug intended for localized effect can have systemic effect Of use only for the respiratory system

 

VI. Translate into English.

1. , , , , .

2. (, , , ) , ᒺ .

3. ˳, , , ; , .

4. , ( , , , , ).

5. - 1,5 , .

6. 䳿 . ˳ . , , , .

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VII. Have a bit of fun.

My grandfather always says ,If youre ill, go to the doctor after all, hes got to live. If he prescribes some medicine, then go to the chemist after all, hes got to live. But as soon as you get back home, throw everything away because, after all, youve got to live, too.

 

IV. Grammar Exercises

 

  Active Infinitive   Passive Infinitive
Indefinite The nurse is always glad to help the patients.   Patients are always glad to be helped by the nurse.
Continuous The nurse is glad to be helping this patient now.  
Perfect The nurse is glad to have helped the patient.   The patient is glad to have been helped by the nurse.
Perfect Continuous The nurse is glad to have been helping patients since morning.  

I. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to theInfinitive. Define the function of theInfinitive.

1. It was very important to introduce drugs into bronchial airways avoiding first-pass metabolism.

2. My mother is happy to have been working at this chemists for many years.

3. Pulmonary route could be used for drugs such as heparin and insulin.

4. The patient suffering from otitis hopes to be cured with the help of these otic drops.

5. The doctor was satisfied to have administered adequate ophthalmic solution to the patient suffering from severe conjunctivitis.

6. The dermatologist made a list of topical medications to be applied to the skin and mucous membranes.

7. To aid in coughing up sputum the patient was administered mucolytic in the form of spray.

8. She is likely to be wearing some transdermal device to continuously introduce progesterone.

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