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II. Use the infinitives in brackets in the proper form.

1. She seems (to work) as a compounding pharmacist.

2. She seems (to work) as a compounding pharmacist some years ago.

3. The patient expects (to administer) antiallergic drugs by nasal route by this experienced allergologist.

4. The students are glad (to speak) with their professor now.

5. The nasal route can (to use) for the administration of polypeptide hormones such as desmopressin.

6. The patient seemed (not to understand) what the doctor told him about adverse effects of ophthalmic solutions containing beta-blockers.

7. The lecturer wants (to tell) if the student cant attend a lecture.

8. The student is sorry (not to work) hard all these years.

III. Translate into English.

1. ˳ , .

2. , .

3. , . , ( ).

4. , , .

5. , , .

6. , .

7. , , .

8. , .

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UNIT 11

FORMS OF DRUGS

Lesson 1

Preparations for Oral Route

Text:Preparations for Oral Route

Grammar: The Objective Infinitive Complex

 

. Active Vocabulary

 

excipient package sachet pouch spheroid protein gelatin polysaccharide plasticizer preservative lubricant diluent binder to enhance polymer coating shelf life caplet compression vial syrup nutriment yeast buffering chelating agent to disperse hydrosol [Ik'sIpIqnt] ['pxkIG] ['sxSeI]   [paVC] ['sfIqrOId] ['prqVtJn] ['GelqtIn] ["pPlI'sxkq"raId] ["plxstI'saIzq] [prI'zE:vqtIv] ['lHbrIkqnt] ['dIljVqnt] ['baIndq] [In'hRns] ['pPlImq] ['kqVtIN]   ['kxplIt] [kqm'preSqn] ['vaIql] ['sIrqp] ['njHtrImqnt] [jJst] ['bAfqrIN] ['kJleItIN] [dI'spE:s] ['haIdrq"sPl] ; , ( ) , , , , , ; ; () , ; , , , , ,

 

II. Read the following text.

 

Preparations for Oral Route

Knowledge of the various available preparations of the drugs is necessary to physicians. Indeed, if their prescription contains an error, for example capsule instead of tablet, the pharmacist who dispenses the drug and the patient who takes it can wonder about the error, if it concerns the presentation or the drug itself.

The principal available preparations containing powder (active substance + excipient) are as follows.

Packages and sachets are small disposable bag or pouch containing single-use quantities of medicines (generally about 10 to 20g).

The two main types of capsules are:

Hard-shelled capsules are made in two parts by dipping metal pins in the gelling agent solution. The capsules are supplied as closed units to the pharmaceutical manufacturer. Before use, the two halves are separated, the capsule is filled with powder or spheroids and the other half of the capsule is pressed on.

Soft-shelled capsules can be an effective delivery system for poorly soluble drugs. This is because the fill can contain liquid ingredients that help increase solubility or permeability of the drug across the membranes in the body. Liquid ingredients are difficult to include in any other solid dosage form such as a tablet. Softgels are also highly suited to potent drugs, where the highly reproducible filling process helps ensure each softgel has the same drug content.

Both of these classes of capsules are made from aqueous solutions of gelling agents like animal protein (mainly gelatin) or plant polysaccharides. Other ingredients can be added to the gelling agent solution like plasticizers, colouring agents, preservatives, disintegrants and lubricants.

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form which comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients in powder form, pressed or compacted into a solid dose. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting; disintegrants to promote tablet break-up in the digestive tract; sweeteners or flavours to enhance taste; and pigments to make the tablets visually attractive. A polymer coating is often applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredient, to make it more resistant to the environment (extending its shelf life), or to enhance the tablet appearance.

Sizes of tablets to be swallowed range from a few millimeters to about a centimeter. Some tablets are in the shape of capsules, and are called caplets. Medicinal tablets and capsules are often called pills. This is technically incorrect, since tablets are made by compression, whereas pills are ancient solid dose forms prepared by rolling a soft mass into a round shape.

These dry forms (capsules, tablets, caplets, pills, etc) must be taken with a glass of water in a sitting or upright position, but not lying, to facilitate their esophageal transit and to prevent their binding to the esophageal wall which they could damage with possible severe ulcerations.

The available preparations containing fluidare as follows:

Drinkable vials in coloured glass to distinguish them from the injectable vials in transparent glass.

Aqueous or alcoholic solutions, in bottle with a graduated dropper.

Medicated syrups are aqueous solutions containing sugar and at least one water soluble active ingredient. The sugar is mainly used to preserve the finished product, to aid in masking the unpleasant taste of the active ingredient(s) and to enhance the flavour.

The sugar concentration should be between 65 and 67% in weight. A lower percentage of sugar makes the syrup an excellent nutriment for yeast and other microorganisms. A sugar saturated syrup lead to crystallization of a part of the sugar under conditions of changing temperature.

Syrups may also contain the following excipients: preservatives and antioxidants, acids (like citric acid to prevent the recrystallization of sugar), buffering agents, chelating agents, flavouring agents and flavour enhancers, colouring agents, ethyl alcohol (3-4% in volume).

The syrups are administered by spoonfuls and preferably by a spoon/dose provided with each bottle.

Suspensions: the granules contained in a bottle are dispersed in a given quantity of water before use.

Hydrosols are pseudo-solutions containing water-soluble and liposoluble molecules.

 

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