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V. Solve the cross-word puzzle.

1. A semisolid emulsion in an alcohol base. Some insoluble drugs are administered in this form of a colloidal suspension.

2. A homogenous liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent).

3. A fatty or oily viscous medicated formulation applied to the skin or mucous membranes to emolliate, heal or protect.

4. A low- to medium-viscosity, usually oil mixed with water topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity.

5. A thick liquid or semisolid cosmetic or medical emulsion that is a mixture of oil and water, applied to the skin and sometimes mucous membranes.

6. A dry, bulk solid preparation composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted. It may be the pure drug or the drug mixed in a carrier such as corn starch.

7. It is often used in contraception. It is inserted vaginally prior to intercourse and must be placed over the cervix to prevent any sperm from entering the uterus. It is produced with spermicide already inside of it, which is used to prevent the sperm from moving.

8. An external medicament that has a stiffer consistency than an ointment and is less greasy because of its higher percentage of powdered ingredients and water.

 

  2.            
        5. 6.    
      4.     7. 8.
1.   3.          
               
L I N I M E N T
               
               
               
               
               

Do you know what the word liniment means?

Liniment (or embrocation) is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Preparations of this type are also called balm. Liniments are of a similar viscosity to lotions (being significantly less viscous than an ointment or cream) but unlike a lotion a liniment is applied with friction; that is, a liniment is always rubbed in.

Liniments are typically sold to relieve pain and stiffness, such as from sore muscles or from arthritis. These liniments typically are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar quickly evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicilate, benzoin resin, or capsaicin.

VI. Memorize the meaning of the following prefix.

ep(i)- [epI] prefix of Greek origin denoting on, upon, above, over

 

VII. Skim the text once more looking for the word having the prefixepi- in its structure. Give its definition.

VIII. Read the definition and fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets. Consult the glossary.

1. The thin tissue forming the outer layer of a bodys surface and lining the alimentary canal and other hollow structures _________________________.

2. Any relationship between two organisms in which one grows on the other but is not parasitic on it ____________________________________________.

3. The upper part of the sternum ___________________________________.

4. A serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium, attached to the muscles of the wall of the heart _______________________________.

5. The part of the upper abdomen immediately over the stomach ___________.

6. A secondary crisis occurring in the course of a disease _________________.

7. Animals living on the surface of the seabed or a river bed _______________.

8. The thin protective outer layer of the skin, composed of stratified epithelial tissue _______________________________________________________.

9. Upon or outside the dura mater ___________________________________.

(Epibiosis, epicardium, epicrisis, epidermis, epidural, epifauna, epigastrium, episternum, epithelium)

 

IX. Have a bit of fun.

Two friends are shopping in a drugstore when one of them tells the other, My husband says this brand here is the most effective ointment for hemorrhoids on the market today.

How does he know this for sure though? asked the other woman.

Because besides being my husband who thinks hes always right, hes also an asshole himself.

 

☺☺☺☺☺☺

 

Doctor! Theres fly in the ointment!

Yes, I know, hes recovering from a nasty soup-burn.

☺☺☺☺☺☺

 

Fred: That ointment the vet gave me for the dog makes my fingers smart.

Harry: Why dont you rub some on your head then?

 

IV. Grammar Exercises

I. Transform the following sentences using theSubjective Infinitive Complexinstead theObjective Infinitive Complex.

1. We consider the release of the active component from a transdermal patch to be controlled by diffusion through the adhesive which covers the whole patch, by diffusion through a membrane which may only have adhesive on the patch rim or by release from a polymer matrix.

2. I know some hydrophobic chemicals, such as steroid hormones, to be absorbed into the body after being applied to the skin in the form of a cream, gel or lotion.

3. The surgeon has ordered 2-Povidone Iodine Topical solution to be employed topically as a surgical scrub and non-irritating antiseptic solution.

4. They supposed this cream to have caused immunological sensitization due to preservatives.

5. The dermatologist thinks these eruptions on the skin to be cured by means of hydrocarbon base ointment.

6. The doctor observed the skin integument and visible mucosa be clear.

7. The physician expected the infants rash to disappear as the result of applying talcum powder.

8. Do you consider him to be the best specialist in this field of science?

9. The doctor let her use this paste.

 

II. Translate the following sentences into English using theInfinitiveor theInfinitive Constructions.

1. , 25% .

2. , , .

3. , .

4. ˳ , , .

5. ³ , .

6. , , , .

7. , . .

8. , , .

9. , .

10. , .

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UNIT 13

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

Lesson 1

Vitamins

Text:Vitamins

Grammar: Subjunctive II

 

. Active Vocabulary

 

deficiency nutrient restrictive diet vegetarian maintenance to furnish to utilize thiamine riboflavin pyridoxine pantothenic acid niacin biotin folate cobalamin allowance beriberi rickets scurvy xerophthalmia feasible phylloquinone [dI'fISqnsI] ['njHtrIqnt] [rI'strIktIv 'daIqt] ["veGI'teqrIqn] ['meIntInqns] ['fE:nIS] ['jHtI"laIz] ['TaIq"mJn] ["raIbqV'fleIvIn] ["pIrI'dPksIn] ["pxntq'TenIk] ['naIqsIn] ['baIqtIn] ['fqVleIt] [kqV'bRlqmIn] [q'laVqns] ["berI'berI] ['rIkIts] ['skE:vI] ["zIqrP'TxlmIq] ['fJzqb(q)l] ["fIlqVkwI'nqVn] , , 䳺 , , , 1 , 2 , 6 , 3 , , , 볺 , 12 ; ; -, , , , , 1

 

II. Read the following text.

Vitamins

Vitamins and minerals are a vital part of a healthy diet. If a person eats a variety of foods, the likelihood of developing a deficiency of these nutrients is very small. However, people who follow restrictive diets may not get enough of a particular vitamin or mineral. For example, strict vegetarians may become deficient in vitamin B12, which is available only in animal products. On the other hand, consuming large amount (megadoses) of vitamin and mineral supplements, without medical supervision, may have harmful (toxic) effects.

Vitamins are essential micronutrients, required by the body in small amounts for the maintenance of normal functioning of metabolism. They cannot usually be synthesized in the body but occur naturally in certain foods. They do not furnish energy and are utilized as building units for cellular structure.

Vitamins are either fat-soluble A, D, E, and K or water-soluble the B vitamins and vitamin C. The B vitamins include vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), and B6 (pyridoxine), pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin, folic acid (folate), and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). The recommended daily allowance (RDA) the amount an average person needs each day to remain healthy has been determined for each vitamin. A person who consumes too little or too much of certain vitamins may develop a nutritional disorder. The lack of specific vitamins leads to distinctive deficiency states such as beriberi, rickets, scurvy, and xerophthalmia, or to the conditions without definite symptoms.

Vitamins are distributed widely and are normally ingested as constituents of various food substances. Fresh fruits, leafy vegetables, whole grains, eggs, and liver are rich dietary sources of vitamins. Standardized, partially purified concentrates and isolated vitamins can be obtained for commercial purposes from a variety of animal, microbial, and plant sources; however, chemical synthesis is more feasible for many of the vitamins. Vitamins obtained from natural sources and those prepared synthetically are indistinguishable biochemically, nutritionally, and therapeutically.

When taken in daily doses that are more than 10 times the recommended daily allowance, vitamins A and D are toxic, but vitamins E and K (phylloquinone) are not. Niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin C are toxic when taken in high doses, but the other water-soluble vitamins are not.

Only two fat-soluble vitamins (A and E) are stored in the body to any extent. Vitamins D and K are stored in tiny amounts. Relative to requirements, vitamin C is stored in the smallest amounts, and vitamin B12 is stored in the largest amounts, requiring about 7 years to exhaust the bodys reserves of 2 or 3 milligrams.

The risk to health associated with daily ingestion of unnecessary vitamins is undoubtedly less than with over ingestion of caloric foods, but doctors, pharmacists and other health professionals must be alert to the need for detailed diagnostic assessment if an actual deficiency is suspected.

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