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Biologically active supplements - for or against?

BAS biologically active supplements, we all have heard about the miracles of healing from the worst diseases with these unique drugs and the terrible effects, sometimes leading to irreparable consequences. What from these statements is true? Lets try to understand.

According the encyclopedic definition, biologically active supplements are compositions of natural or identical to natural biologically active substances intended for oral use, in order to enrich the diet of some nutrient or biologically active substances and their complexes. Dry, but in general understanding. Our food, especially in recent years can hardly be called healthy or at least normal, consisting almost totally from fast-food, snacks on the run, and these just cant replace a full meal. Supplements are designed to solve this problem and provide our bodies all necessary substances.

What are biologically active supplements is clear, now the next question, where did they come from? Nobody can certainly provide the answer to this question, but the approximate age of nutritional supplements refers to the time when people began to attempt long travels, discovery and exploration of new lands. The first who faced with a shortage of vitamins and minerals were sailors. Scurvy, pain and cramps, made people think about nutrition. The first BAS were: bee products, seafood, melted fat of animals and fish, extracts from various plants and the plants themselves in the dried form. Over time, technology evolved, there appeared products of fermentation and biochemical supplements, now are available synthetic analogs of natural food substances.

Supplements are divided into three main groups: nutraceuticals, parapharmaceuticals, eubiotics. Nutriceuticals are designed to adjust the chemical composition of food, improve health and prevent various diseases. Moreover, they can be considered an additional source of protein, amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber. Parapharmaceuticals are used for maintaining the physiological and functional activity of organs and systems of organs. The structure of eubiotics includes living microorganisms and their metabolites. This type of nutritional supplements has a normalizing effect on the biological activity of microflora and motility of the digestive tract.

It would seem that dietary supplements are very useful and indispensable products, but is not so easy. Biologically active supplements have many opponents, and oddly enough they are the doctors. Why? There are many arguments, lets start with the most important: dietary supplements are not drugs and therefore do not pass all the necessary laboratory studies and clinical trials. Their quality is checked only by sanitary service, as any other food: sausage, candy, etc. There are no serious medical research, the effectiveness of nutritional supplements is not proven by anyone and is based only on statements of manufacturers and distributors. In addition, like any other drug, dietary supplements cause side effects but nobody knows what king of consequences the can provoke; thats why the doctors mostly are against the use of unknown drugs.

Its only your choice to take or not take dietary supplements, but before you buy a pack with cherished capsules, promising to solve all problems at once, think about whether to trust a distributor, who only wants to make more money, and often bears no relation to medicine. Are you ready to give your health into his hands, or its better to go to the doctor and consult a specialist on this important issue.

What is biologically active additives and how they are used.

Dietary supplements or biologically active additives are a special arrangement of natural or identical to natural biological substances with primary purpose to enrich the daily diet of human with a specific essential elements and biologically active substances.

 

Dietary supplements are not a food, but a set of biologically active substances in some form, allowing to supplement diet with absent or inadequate vital substance that is essential for maintaining normal homeostasis.

 

The first and main factor affecting general mechanisms of our body and its natural needs is a complete and balanced nutrition. But, unfortunately, its not always enough. It happens so that the body needs extra support biologically active supplements to the daily nutritional diet.

 

 

Biologically active additives (BAA) are conditionally divided into three groups:

 

1. Parapharmaceuticals supplements, which are used for prevention or adjuvant therapy, aimed at supporting the body;

 

2. Nutriceutics supplements, which are used for correcting the chemical composition of the diet. They regulate and compensate the number of amino acids, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

 

3. Eubiotics supplements to the diet, affecting the composition of intestinal microflora and digestive tract. Probiotics, which contain live flora, also belong to the group eubiotics.

 

Supplements are intended for internal use in the following forms:

 

* Tablets

* Capsules

* Liquids

* Powder

* Soft capsules


IV. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper tense and voice form.

Yesterday patient K. (to hospitalize) _______________ with the multiple leg fracture. Two months before admission the patient (to have) __________________ the tibia fracture. While interviewing the patient the doctor (to find out) _________ that the patient (to suffer) _________________ from muscle spasms for more than a year. The doctor (to suspect) _____________ osteomalacia. This disease usually (to cause) _________________ by low calcium level with tetany (muscle spasms) being the first sign. In vitamin D deficiency, the calcium levels in the blood (to decrease) _____________________ , resulting in bone disease because not enough calcium and phosphate (to be) ____________ available to maintain healthy bones. The loss of calcium from bones, particularly the spine, pelvis and legs, (to cause) ________________ weakness and (to result) ____________________ in fractures. To confirm the diagnosis of patient K. some blood tests (to perform) __________ . The test (to show) ________________ low blood levels of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D by-products. The patient told the doctor that for many years she (to follow) _______________ a restrictive diet. She (to avoid) _______________ such foods as fish liver oil, egg yolks, and fortified milk supposing it to be unhealthy and harmful. The doctor (to explain) _____________ the patient that her condition (to cause) _____________________ by a lack of vitamin D in the diet. The patient (to prescribe) __________________ vitamin D by mouth in daily doses five times the recommended daily allowance for 2 weeks. The patient assured the doctor that she (to keep) ____________________ to all recommendations concerning the diet.

 


UNIT

TYPES OF MEDICATIONS

Lesson 1

Antivirals

Text:Antivirals

Grammar:Forms of the Participle. The Present Participle

I. Active Vocabulary

 

antviral Epstein-Barr virus cytomegalovirus herpes swine flue HIV resistant stockpile pandemic measles mumps replication reproduction binding viral load ["xntI'vaIqrql] ['epstaIn'bR] ["saItqV'megqlqVvaIrqs] ['hE:pJz] ['swaIn 'flH] ["eICIa'vI] [rI'zIstqnt] ['stPkpaIl] [pxn'demIk] ['mJzlz] [mAmps] ["replI'keISn] ["rJprq'dAkSn] ['baIndIN] ['vaIqrql 'lqVd] - ² , , , () ,

 

II. Read the following text.

Antivirals

Antivirals are very powerful drugs that kill viruses and prevent them from growing and spreading. They are often used against Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus, and herpes. Antivirals are also used to combat influenza, including swine flu.

It is difficult to develop drugs to combat viral infections because viruses live inside the cells in the body. In many cases the immune system cannot detect and fight these infections. Serious viral infections, such as HIV and severe cases of influenza, are often fatal. Antivirals can help cure patients with some viruses and help others with fatal illnesses, such as HIV, live a longer and better quality life.

Antivirals can be administered in several different ways. Most antivirals are administered orally in pill, tablet, or liquid form, or as an inhaled medication. Hospitalized patients often receive antiviral drugs intravenously. These medications are most effective when they are administered shortly after a patient gets sick or is diagnosed with a viral infection. Though antivirals do not cure most viruses, they can speed up the recovery process and make the symptoms less severe. Sometimes antiviral drugs are given to people who are not sick if they have been or will be exposed to a person with a highly contagious viral infection, such as influenza. About 70 to 90 percent of people who take antivirals to prevent influenza do not get sick.

The most common side effects of antiviral drugs are gastrointestinal problems, sinus problems, and headache. Most antiviral medications are safe for use in children and pregnant women. Children, pregnant women, and elderly people can benefit greatly from antiviral drugs since they have a higher risk of developing severe symptoms and complications as the result of an infection.

Some viruses are resistant to antiviral drugs, which makes further research and drug development necessary to create and discover new medications that can combat them effectively. Many countries stockpile antivirals so that they have enough on hand to treat the people most in need and those who are most at risk in the event of a pandemic.

Antiviral drugs administered for acute diseases, such as influenza, are typically taken for five to seven days to improve symptoms and shorten the course of the illness. Patients with chronic diseases that do not have a cure may be on antivirals for months, years, or even permanently to help them reduce symptoms and improve their quality of life. Individuals with chronic conditions, such as HIV and herpes, may need their antiviral medications and dosages adjusted regularly to get the maximum benefit, since viruses can adapt and become resistant to medications quickly.

Antivirals are used against viruses, which can only reproduce inside a host cell. There are thousands of known viruses, and they are found in every aspect of our environment. Today, antivirals are commonly prescribed for use in fighting and treating HIV, herpes simplex, measles and mumps, as well as various influenza strains.

The most commonly used antiviral drugs include acyclovir, used to treat herpes simplex viruses, and zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT), ddI (Didanosine) and lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC), penciclovir which are used to treat HIV. An antiviral called ribavirin is used to treat measles and mumps, while interferons are used to treat hepatitis B and C. The most common antivirus drugs used to treat A and B strains of influenza include oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Antivirals interrupt the processes used by viruses in infecting host cells. This includes replication (reproduction), binding to and entering human cells, and integrating themselves into the genetic code of host cells. By interrupting these processes, it is possible to keep viral load low, so the immune system can combat an infection more effectively.

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