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II. Transform the sentences according to the model.

Model: The boys who live in this house are the students of the medical university.

The boys living in this house are the students of the medical university.

1. Many students who learn English are the members of our English club.

2. The woman who teaches chemistry at our university studied in New York.

3. The doctor who examines our students works in the town hospital 1.

 

Model: The patient who is speaking to the pharmaceutist is my best friend.

The patient speaking to the pharmaceutist is my best friend.

1. The student who is making the report on antivirals for treatment influenza is our group-mate.

2. The workers who are repairing the pharmacy booth go home by bus.

3. The man who is checking our tests is our English teacher.

 

Model: When we arrived at the hospital, we went to the reception room.

Arriving at the hospital, we went to the reception room.

1. When she heard her name, she entered the doctors consulting room.

2. When the doctor saw his patient, he stopped and waited for him.

3. When I entered the chemists, I saw my friend buying rimantadine.

 

Model: When the students of our group took the exam in pharmacology they had to answer many questions on drugs action.

When taking the exam in pharmacology the students of our group had to answer many questions on drugs action.

1. When the students discussed antiviral drugs designed to help deal with HIV, they all agreed upon their beneficial effect.

2. When the pharmacy director hired a new pharmacist, he forgot to ask about the last places the candidate worked.

3. When Paul studied at the medical university, he published several scientific articles on antiviral drugs.

4. While I was waiting in the queer at the doctors consulting room, I got acquainted with a very pleasant man.

 

Model: After we had passed the examination we went to the hospital to see our friend.

Having passed the examination we went to the hospital to see our friend.

1. As I hurt my knee I couldnt attend classes.

2. After he graduated from the medical university, he came to work at this laboratory.

3. As she ate too much ice-cream she had a sore throat.

 

III. Replace one of the homogeneous predicates by Participle I.

Model: I read the article and made notes.

I read the article making notes.

1. The pharmacist looked at me and smiled.

2. The patient spoke and trembled.

3. The student turned over the pages of the textbook in virology and looked at the pictures.

4. The professor spoke about antiviral drugs and laid the emphasis their routs of administration.

5. The teacher explained a new rule and wrote examples on the blackboard.


Lesson 2

Antibiotics

Text:Antibiotics

Grammar:The PastParticiple

I. Active Vocabulary

 

antibiotic tuberculosis salmonella syphilis meningitis to cope accidentally mold bactericidal bacteriostatic ringworm penicillins cephalosporins macrolides fluoroquinolones sulfonamides tetracyclines aminoglycosides Gram stains species sensitivity resistance overuse common cold flue ["xntIbaI'PtIk] [tjV"bE:kjV'lqVsIs] [sxlmq'nelq] ['sIfqlIs] ["menIn'gaItIs] [kqVp] [xksI'dent(q)lI] [mqVld] [bxk"tI(q)rI'saIdl]   [bxk"tI(q)rIq'stxtIk]   ['rINwE:m]   ["penI'sIlIn] ["sefqlqV'spLrInz] ['mxkrqVlaIdz] [flV(q)rq'kwInq"lqVnz] [sAl'fPnq"maIdz] [tetrq'saIklaInz] [q"mInqV'glaIkqVsaIdz] ['grxm'steInz] ['spJSJz] ["sensI'tIvItI] [rI'zIstqns] ["qVvq'jHz] ['kPmqn 'kqVld] [flH] , , ( ( ) ( ) , ,

 

II. Read the following text.

Antibiotics

The word antibiotic comes from the Greek anti meaning against and bios meaning life. Antibiotics are also known as antibacterials, and they are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Such illnesses as tuberculosis, salmonella, syphilis and some forms of meningitis are caused by bacteria. Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms our immune system can usually destroy them. We have special white blood cells that attack harmful bacteria. Even if symptoms do occur, our immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. There are occasions, however, when our bodies need some help from antibiotics. The first antibiotic was penicillin, discovered accidentally from a mold culture. Today, over 100 different antibiotics are available to doctors to cure minor discomforts as well as life-threatening infections. Antibiotics are classified on the basis of their strength. Bactericidal antibiotics actually kill bacteria; bacteriostatic antibiotics merely prevent them from multiplying, allowing the body to eliminate the remaining bacteria.

Although antibiotics are useful in a wide variety of infections, it is important to realize that antibiotics only treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections (for example, the common cold) and fungal infections (such as ringworm). Your doctor can best determine if an antibiotic is right for your condition.

Although there are over 100 antibiotics, the majority come from only a few types of drugs. These are the main classes of antibiotics:

Penicillins such as penicillin and amoxicillin

Cephalosporins such as cephalexin (Keflex)

Macrolides such as erythromycin (E-Mycin), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and azithromycin (Zithromax)

Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), and ofloxacin (Floxin)

Sulfonamides such as co-trimoxazole (Bactrim) and trimethoprim (Proloprim)

Tetracyclines such as tetracycline (Sumycin, Panmycin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin)

Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (Garamycin) and tobramycin (Tobrex)

Most antibiotics have 2 names, the trade or brand name, and a generic name. Trade names such as Keflex and Zithromax are capitalized. Generics such as cephalexin and azithromycin are not capitalized.

In most cases of antibiotic use, a doctor must choose an antibiotic based on the most likely cause of the infection. For example, if you have an earache, the doctor knows what kinds of bacteria cause most ear infections. He will choose the antibiotic that best combats those kinds of bacteria. In another example, a few bacteria cause about 90% of pneumonias in previously healthy people. If you are diagnosed with pneumonia, the doctor will choose an antibiotic that will kill these bacteria. In some cases, laboratories may help a doctor make an antibiotic choice. Special techniques such as Gram stains may help narrow down which species of bacteria is causing your infection. Certain bacterial species will take a stain, and others will not. Cultures may also be obtained. In this technique, a bacterial sample from your infection is allowed to grow in a laboratory. The way bacteria grow or what they look like when they grow can help to identify the bacterial species. Cultures may also be tested to determine antibiotic sensitivities. A sensitivity list is the roster of antibiotics that kill a particular bacterial type. This list can be used to double check that you are taking the right antibiotic. One of the foremost concerns in modern medicine is antibiotic resistance. Simply put, if an antibiotic is used long enough, bacteria will emerge that cannot be killed by that antibiotic. This is known as antibiotic resistance. Infections exist today that are caused by bacteria resistant to some antibiotics. The existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria creates the danger of life-threatening infections that dont respond to antibiotics.

There are several reasons for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the most important is antibiotic overuse. This includes the common practice of prescribing antibiotics for the common cold or flu. Even though antibiotics do not affect viruses, many people expect to get a prescription for antibiotics when they visit their doctor. Although the common cold is uncomfortable, antibiotics do not cure it, nor change its course. Each person can help reduce the development of resistant bacteria by not asking for antibiotics for a common cold or flu.

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