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II. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the Participle.

1. The questions on antibiotics use (to put) _________ to the professor were important.

2. Who is the student (to do) ____________________ the task on the blackboard?

3. The report on widespread use of antibiotics for non-medicinal purposes (to write) ______________ by him is very interesting.

4. The translation (to do) _______________ by me was easy.

5. Do you know the pharmacist (to come) _________________ towards us?

6. (To write) ________________ out all the new words, I started to learn them.

7. (To hear) _________ my friends voice, I stood up to open the door of the ward.

8. (To buy) ____________________ erythromycin, Helen left the chemists.

9. We study at the university (to found) ______________________ in 1945.

10. (To be) ________________________ ill, she couldnt go to the library with us.

11. (To administer) _____________________ Amoxycillin, I asked my friend to buy it.

12. (To examine) ______________________ the patient, the therapist asked another person to come in.


 

Translation of different forms of the Participle into Ukrainian
Forms of the Participle Translation
discussing having discussed being discussed having been discussed discussed , , ,

III. Translate into English using the required form of the Participle.

1. - , .

2. , , .

3. , , .

4. , 1928 , .

5. , , .

6. , , , .

7. , , Streptococcusbeta-haemoliticus , Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis - .

8. , ?

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Lesson 3

Analgesics

Text:Analgesics

Grammar:The Objective and Subjective Participle Complexes

I. Active Vocabulary

 

to interfere relief opioid analgesic prostaglandin adjuvant to target fever to soothe arthritis to hinder to adhere neuropathic pain anticonvulsants ["Intq'fIq] [rI'lJf] ['qVpIOId "xnl'GJzIk] ["prPstq'glxndIn] ['xGVvqnt] ['tRgIt] ['fJvq] [sHD] [R'TraItIs] ['hIndq] [qd'hJq] [njV'rPpqTIk 'peIn] ["xntIkqn'vAlsqnts] ; , , , ,

 

II. Read the following text.

Analgesics

Analgesics are medications used to relieve pain without reducing the consciousness of the patient. They work by reducing the amount of pain felt and this is generally achieved by interfering with the way the pain message is transmitted by the nerves. Analgesics will not treat the cause of the pain but they will provide temporary relief from pain symptoms.

There are three main categories of analgesics. The first is the opioid analgesics which are prescription only medicines that are very potent, being chemically related to morphine. The second is the non-opioid analgesics. Non-opioid analgesics work by affecting the prostaglandin system, which is the system within the body responsible for producing pain. The last category is adjuvant analgesics, which are medicines typically used for purposes other than pain relief. This includes some antidepressants that may also help to relieve pain in specific circumstances.

Opioid pain relievers are used only for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of painkillers. When used carefully and under a doctors direct care, these drugs can be effective at reducing pain. These drugs work by binding to receptors in the brain and blocking the feeling of pain. They work well for short-term pain relief. Almost always, a patient should limit their use to no more than 3 to 4 months. Opioid analgesics include:

Codeine

Fentanyl (Duragesic)

Meperidine (Demerol)

Morphine (MS Contin)

Oxycodone (Oxycontin, Percocet, Percodan)

Tramadol (Ultram)

Hydrocodone (Vicodin)

Hydromorphone

Non-opioid analgesics act peripherally and not centrally like opioids that depress the central nervous system and inhibit the brain ability to feel pain. Non-opioid analgesics target the chemical substances released by the brain in response to injury that facilitate the transmission of the pain stimuli to the brain. The most prevalent of these chemical mediators is prostaglandin. Non-opioid analgesics are effective because they serve to block the release of prostaglandin at the peripheral nerve sites. Non-opioid analgesics include:

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Acetaminophen is called a non-aspirin pain reliever. It can be used to lower a fever and soothe headaches and other common aches and pains. This medicine is easier on the stomach than other pain medications, and it is safer for children. Most doctors recommend acetaminophen first for arthritis pain because it has fewer side effects than other pain medications. NSAIDs like aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, and ketoprofen block the pain impulse at the source of the pain. They work by hindering the bodys ability to biosynthesise prostaglandin by adhering to the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) that controls the amount of prostaglandin produced by the immune system. The special nerve endings that transmit the pain message are sensitised to prostaglandin so, by restricting its presence, the pain message is reduced. This weakens the physiological chemical process that results in the sensation of pain.

In patients with chronic or neuropathic pain, various other substances may have analgesic properties. Tricyclic antidepressants, especially amitriptyline have been shown to relieve pain. The exact mechanism of carbamazepine, gabapentin and pregabalin is unclear, but these anticonvulsants are used to treat neuropathic pain with differing degrees of success. Anticonvulsants are most commonly used for neuropathic pain as their mechanism of action tends to inhibit pain sensation.

 

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