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III. Read the following drug information and discuss it with your group-mates.

Drug class and mechanism: Omeprazole is in a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPI) that block the production of acid by the stomach.

Preparations: Capsules: 10, 20 and 40 mg. Tablets: 20 mg (Prilosec OTC). Powder for oral suspension: 20 and 40 mg

Storage:Capsules should be stored at 15 to 30 C and tablets at 20 to 25 C. They should be kept away from moisture and light.

Prescribed for: Omeprazole is used for treating acid-induced inflammation and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), heartburn; prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. It also is used in combination with antibiotics for eradicating H. pylori infection of the stomach.

Dosing:For ulcers, GERD, erosive esophagitis and eradication of H. pylori the recommended dose for adults is 20-40 mg daily. Ulcer healing usually occurs within 4-8 weeks.

H. pylori infections are treated for 10-28 days.

The usual dose for prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients is 40 mg daily for 14 days.

Drug interactions:Omeprazole potentially can increase the concentrations in blood of diazepam, warfarin, phenytoin by decreasing the elimination of these drugs by the liver. The absorption of certain drugs may be affected by stomach acidity. Therefore, omeprazole as well as other PPIs reduce the absorption and concentration in blood of ketokonazole and increase the absorption and concentration in blood of digoxin. This may reduce the effectiveness of ketoconazole or increase digoxin toxicity.

 

IV. Translate into English.

1. , , . 20 1 .

2. , , . 1 2 ( ) 4-8 .

3. , (, ). . 2 .

4. . , . 4 (2 ), 2 (1) .

5. . . 15-30 .

 

IV. Grammar Exercises

 

I. Insert the Infinitive, Participle I or II, or the Gerund. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. Before (to take, taking took) phenolphthalein as a potent laxative it is necessary to know that such adverse reactions as kidney irritation or skin rash may occur.

2. Ondasteron works by (blocking, to block, blocked) the 5HT3 receptors (founding, found, to find) in the brain and intestine.

3. Omeprazole stops excess acid (to flow, flowing, flowed) back into the esophagus and can be used (relieving, to relieve, relieved) heartburn symptoms.

4. By (to act, acting, acted) on opioid receptors loperamid reduces the muscular contraction of the intestines that move food and faecal matter.

5. It is required to avoid (to take, taking, took) other medications at the same time you take aluminum hydroxide because antacids can make it harder (to absorb, absorbing, absorbed) certain other drugs.

6. Prescription famotidine comes as a tablet and a suspension (to take, taking, took) by mouth.

7. Do not take ipecac syrup unless told (doing, to do, done) so by a health care provider.

8. (To add, adding, added) more dietary fibers can prevent constipation problems.

9. The dosage of castor oil will vary (depended, depending, to depend) on ones age.

10. Psyllium seed husk is a partially (fermenting, fermented, to ferment) dietary fibre from Plantago ovata that increases stool weight and promotes laxation by its presence in stool and by (increased, increasing, to increase) the moisture content of stool.

II. Translate into English.

1. .

2. ³, .

3. ˳ , .

4. ˳ , .

5. , , .

6. , .

7. .

8. - ﳿ.

 


Lesson 7

Drugs for Cough

Text:Drugs for Cough

Grammar:Conditional Mood

I. Active Vocabulary

 

annoying expectorant suppressant antitussive mucus chest congestion to counteract hacking cough dehydration decongestant to rub stuffiness [q'nPIInN] [Ik'spektqrqnt] [sq'presqnt] ["xntI'tAsIv] ['mjHkqs] [kqn'GesCqn]   ["kaVntq'xkt] ['hxkIN"kPf] ["dIhaI'dreISn] ["dJkqn'Gestqnt] [rAb] ['stAfInIs] ; ; , ;

 

II. Read the following text.

Drugs for Cough

When suffering from an annoying cough, there are several types of cough remedies that may offer some relief. Some of the most popular remedies are over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, like cough syrups.

Three types of cough medicines are available OTC for the temporary relief of cough caused by a cold or bronchitis. These cough medicines include cough suppressants, oral expectorants, and topical (externally applied) drugs.

Many people are confused when they need to purchase a cough drug. Should they purchase an expectorant or a suppressant? Knowing the difference between these two medications is important. Taking the wrong type of cough syrup can actually keep a person from getting better when ill.

Expectorants thin the mucus that blocks the air tubes leading to the lungs. This makes the mucus easier to cough up. This is very important for conditions that require the patient to cough up mucus. For example, for someone with pneumonia, coughing is helpful and should not be stopped because it clears the airway of mucus build-up. Expectorants make coughing up mucus easier and less irritating. This relieves chest congestion so breathing is easier. The main expectorant used is guaifenisin, available under many brand names. Some other common expectorants available over the counter include Robitussin and Mucinex. If the main problem is a wet sounding cough, do not use preparations that contain other drugs, such as antihistamines, which dry up the mucus and counteract the expectorants mucus-freeing action.

Cough suppressants or antitussives simply lessen the urge to cough. They should not be used if the cough is wet sounding and produces mucus. However, if the cough is hacking and does not produce mucus, then a cough suppressant may be useful to minimize coughing, which in turn aids comfort and promotes sleeping better. The active ingredient in most cough suppressants is dextromethorphan, available under many brand names. Dextromethorphan does not have the pain-relieving and addictive properties of codeine, a narcotic cough suppressant that requires a doctors prescription. Some other common cough suppressants available over the counter include Delsym and Robitussin Cough. Following label instructions on cough suppressants is essential to avoid over-use and possible side effects.

Expectorants and cough suppressants can be purchased without a prescription. To avoid dehydration it is necessary to drink plenty of fluids while taking these medications. Pregnant women should consult their healthcare provider before taking any over-the-counter medication. Other people, including those with medical conditions, are advised to read product labels carefully and consult a pharmacist if they have questions about use.

Camphor and menthol are commonly used topical cough medicines. These natural, aromatic cough medicines are rubbed on the throat and the chest. The anaesthetic action of their vapors is thought to ease coughing and soothe stuffiness from a cold. Camphor and menthol cough medicines are also available for steam inhalation. Menthol is available in lozenges and in compressed tablets.

Many over-the-counter cold and cough syrups and cough medicines contain a cough suppressant (dextromethorphan) plus an expectorant (guaifenesin) along with other cold medicines and pain relievers. The combination cold and cough medicine may contain an antihistamine, a decongestant, and a pain reliever in addition to the cough suppressant and/or expectorant. The combination of medicines may give optimal relief if a patient has multiple cold symptoms, such as body aches, coughs, and congestion. The downside of the combination cold medicines is that a patient may be taking medication that he doesnt need, depending on his symptoms.

 

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