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Industry and Economy of Ukraine

Our Institute

1) National Technical University of Ukraine.

Science

2) Science in Ukraine.

Computer

3) From the History of Computer.

4) What is a Computer?

Ecology

5) Economic-Technological Development and Ecology Problems.

6) Pollution in Ukraine.

Automation

7) Automation and Labour.

8) Automatic Control.

Industry and Economy of Ukraine

9) Ukraine is a Highly Industrialized Country.

Industry and Economy of Great Britain

10)Great Britain the first country to become highly industrialized.

1st year 2nd semester

Metals

1) Metals.

2) Occurrence of Metals.

3) Properties of Metals.

Metallurgical Processes

4) Blast Furnace. Cupola Melting.

5) Bessemer Process.

6) Open-Hearth furnace. Electric Furnace.

Engineering Materials

7) Ferrous Metals.

8) Non-Ferrous Metals.

9) Properties of Engineering Materials.

10)Problem of Engineering Materials.

 

MODULE 1

UNIT 1

THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE

Task 1. What do you know about NTUU KPI and its history?

Task 2. What properties must person have for entering the University? What are the aims of your studying here? Present you decision in few words.

Task 3. Before reading the text pay attention to the pronunciation of the letter c:

centre, city, cybernetics, exceed, device, science, civil, facilities, certificate;

country, education, college, computing, acoustic, economy, contracts, co-operation;

specialities, specializations, specialists.

Task 4. You are going to read about NTUU KPI. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A The KPI has foreign economic relations with 45 foreign partners from 12 countries of the world.  
B Many students go in for different kinds of sport according to their liking.  
C Over its history the KPI has trained 200,000 specialists.  
D There are 25 departments, 3 institutes and a college in our University.  
E It has about 105x100m.  
F Some Institutes were organised on the KPI basis.  
G It had only four departments: mechanical, chemical, agricultural and civil engineering ones.  
H It is well known not only in our country but abroad as well.

The Kiev Polytechnic Institute is one of the oldest and biggest higher educational institutions in Ukraine. 1. ___H___.

This institute is situated not far from the centre of the city in a beautiful shady park. At present the number of students in the KPI exceeds 30000. They obtain qualifications on 68 specialities and 70 specializations at the KPI and in 3 branches of the Institute (in the towns of Zhitomir, Chernigov, Cherkasy). 2. _______. Among them there is the department of information and computing technique that trains students in such fields of technology as: electron instrument engineering, cybernetics, automation, computing technique. Electric power engineering automation faculty trains specialists in Electrical Networks and Electric Systems, Central Power Plants, High Voltage Technique, Cybernetics of electrical systems. The Electro-acoustic faculty trains specialists in such field of technology as hydroacoustics sound recording, measuring technique and microprocessors. At the Radio-Engineering faculty young people get diploma of the designers of the radio-electric devices. At the Physical-Engineering faculty students will become metallurgists and specialists studying metals and alloys, powder metallurgy and others.

The KPI graduates work at numerous enterprises and research institutions all over the country and abroad. Over four and a half thousand students graduate from the KPI annually.

The teaching staff of our institute consists of highly qualified teachers, professors and scientists. 70% of the KPI teachers have scientific degrees. Among them there are academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences, professors, merited scientists.

Training of full-time students lasts 5 years and 6 months, of tuition by correspondence - 5 years 10 months. 9900 students are accommodated in 21 hostels, 3 of them are at the disposal of married students. So all non-Kiev students are provided with hostel facilities.

The Institute was founded in 1898. 3. _______. The first enrolment constituted 360 students.

The first rector of the Institute was Professor V.Z. Kirpichov, an outstanding Russian scientist in the field of mechanics and strength of materials.

4. _______. Among them are: the Civil Engineering Institute, Technological Institute of Light and Food Industry, the Institute of Civil Aviation, Automobile and Road Building Institute, Agricultural (now Agricultural Academy) and others. In 1934 - 1944 the KPI was called an Industrial Institute.

A large number of prominent people worked and studied at the KPI: E.O.Paton, the founder of electric welding; M.L.Konovalov, a well-known chemist; LP.Bardin, the greatest metallurgist in the country; A.M.Lyulka, the chief of aeroplane engines and S.P.Korolyov, the great designer of spaceships. President of the First Examining Board in chemistry faculty was Dmitry Mendeleyev.

More than 1000 young people from 37 countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America get their education at the Polytechnic Institute. 5. _______. 29 agreements and 17 contracts have been concluded and 77 protocols have been signed: KPI received the certificate as a participant of foreign economic relations.

The most active international scientific and technological co-operation is carried out by the chairs of the Institute with the partners from Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Denmark, Lebanon. Lately the relations with China, USA, Italy, Vietnam, Spain have been more active. The Institute carries out the exchange of students according to the agreement on co-operation with the Oregon University (USA).

The Institute has at its disposal a decease-prevention centre for employers and students. Our Institute also takes care of students leisure for a well-organised leisure is a very important factor in bringing up young specialists.

The Knowledge square becomes the centre of the whole KPI complex. 6. _______. Meeting, festivals, consecration into students take place here. In summer the square is decorated with lamps, fountains, flowerbeds. The Knowledge square is connected with one of the main streets - Pobeda (Victory) avenue.

The assembly hall intended for 1750 seats is used for different meetings. The opening ceremony and the meeting of the teaching staff were held in August 1984.

Great importance is attached to the development of physical culture at our Institute. There are many sport grounds, football field, volleyball and basketball courts at students' disposal. 7. _______. It helps them to keep their body healthy and strong. There are lots of rated athletes among the students of the KPI. The names of many of them are well known all over the country.

Task 5. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 6. Make up word combinations from the following words:

1. teaching a) institution
2. numerous b) engine
3. outstanding scientist c) metallurgy
4. educational d) athlete
5. aeroplane e) enterprises
6. powder f) scientist
7. rated g) technique
8. measuring h) staff

Task 7. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

one of the oldest and biggest higher educational institutions, is situated not far from the centre, the number of students exceeds, to obtain qualifications on, electron instrument engineering, electric power engineering automation department, measuring technique, radio-electric devices, metals, alloys, powder metallurgy, merited scientists, first enrolment constituted, strength of materials, the founder of electric welding, foreign economic relations with, the chairs of the Institute, to have at the disposal, for employers and students, intended for, healthy and strong.

Task 8. Translate next sentences into English:

1. ϲ .

2. ϲ : , 㳿, , .

3. 5 6 .

4. .

5. ϲ , 糿.

6. ϲ .

7. .

8. ϲ.

Task 9. Put the verb to be in the necessary form:

1. I _____ the freshman.

2. She _____ very diligent student.

3. Studying at the NTUU _____ hard and interesting task for all students.

4. Our students _____ proud of their University.

5. We _____ the champions in the sphere of knowledge.

6. There _____ a book on the table.

7. There _____ two measuring devices.

8. There _____ an article about atoms and two scientific works.

Task 10. Put the following words into correct order to make sentences:

1. educational, one, Ukraine, of, higher, the oldest, is, The, institutions, in, KPI.

2. the rector, executive, head, The, a university, of, is.

3. academic, highest, Philosophy, is, the Doctor, The, of, degree.

4. KPI, studied, of, people, at the, number, A, large, prominent.

UNIT 2

SCIENCE IN UKRAINE

 

Task 3. You are going to read about science in Ukraine. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A The most prominent philosopher in Ukraine in the 18-th century was H.Skovoroda.
B British science has a lot of innovations, too.
C Numerous important researches have been conducted in Ukraine.
D Together with Oleksander Fersman he was the first to suggest the use of radioactivity in studying geological processes.
E A fundamentally new and highly efficient method of raising the quality of special steels and alloys, the electro-slag re-melting method has been devised in Ukraine under the direction of B. Paton.
F The first electronic computing machine in Europe was designed by our countryman S. Lebedev in 1951.
G Scientific achievements not only crystallise productive experience, but are also precursors of natural production.
H He is also considered to be the father of electronic welding.

The emergence of science as a system of knowledge of the laws of development of nature and society was preceded by a long period of gradual accumulation of the practical experience of men and the development of their thinking. 1. ___G___.

The Academy of Sciences of Ukraine which up to 1956 was called the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, is the highest scientific institution of Ukraine. In the autumn of 1918 group of well-known scientists, headed by V.Vernadsky, elaborated a project for the organization of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, which was realised in 1919. Its first president was Academician Vernadsky. He was a prominent naturalist, mineralogist, the founder of geochemistry and biochemistry, the creator of the biosphere theory. 2._______. He was also the first to estimate the age of the most ancient elements of the Earth surface as being 4.5 billion years old.

A significant event in the cultural life of Ukraine was the institution of the Kiev-Mohila College in 1652, which was converted into an academy in 1701. In the 18th century the Kyivo-Mohyla Academy was the main scientific centre of Ukraine whose most famous representatives of that time were N. Maksymovich and O. Shumlyansky. 3. _______. He dreamed of a society based on principles of social equality and democracy.

Ukraine has contributed many outstanding scientists to the world. The 19th and 20th centuries produced such outstanding scientists as the mathematicians M.Ostrogradsky and A. Pohorelov, the linguists O. Bodynsky, A. Potebnya, the historians V. Antonovich, M. Hrushevsky and D. Bahaliy, the orientalist A.Krumsky, the geologist P. Tutkovsky, the physicians V. Obraztsov, M. Strazhesko, V. Filatov, the lawyer M. Vasylenko and many others.

Ukrainians are also proud of the fact that only several months after the nucleus of the atom was split by the English physicists G. Cockroft and E. Walton in 1932, the same result was achieved in one of the laboratories of Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology headed by I. Kurchatov and A. Ioffe. Nobel Prize laureate Academician Lev Landau worked in Kharkiv for many years, heading the Institute of Physics and Technology. Another Nobel Prize laureate Ilya Mechnikov was born in Kharkiv region, studied in Kharkiv National University and worked there for a long time. 4. _______. The famous astronomer Academician Mykola Barabashov made significant discoveries concerning Mars, Moon and Venus. Ukrainian scientists made their contribution into the development of space explorations. The Southern Machine Building plant and Kharkiv "Khartron" designed and launched hundreds of artificial Earth satellites including the famous "Zenith".

The large body of scientists of Ukraine has contributed greatly to the development of world science. 5. _______. Among the results of such researches are: the development of the first computers in the former USSR, important advances in the field of electric welding, cybernetics, the technology and organisations of industrial production of artificial diamonds. Achievements in geological science and the application of new techniques in geological prospecting in Ukraine have led to the discovery of payable oil and gas deposits that has made it possible to supply gas to most of the large cities and many populated areas of the Republic and to increase its power resources. Ukrainian science develops through mutual enrichment with the experience of the scientific centres of different countries.

Ukrainian scientists have made significant contribution to the development of aerodynamics, the theory of mechanisms and machines, automatic control, filtration theory. Large scale research in mechanics was and is being carried on at university departments in Kiev and Lviv and at polytechnic institutes in Kiev and Odessa.

The world famous Ukrainian scientists are Volodymir Vernadsky and Yevhen and Boris Patons. Yevhen Paton was an outstanding Ukrainian constructor, famous for his contribution in bridge-building and welding. He studied Engineering in Dresden (Germany) and St. Petersburg, and in 1904 became a professor of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute where he headed the bridge-testing laboratory. Evhen Paton designed over 35 bridges, including the famous bridge across the Dnipro River that was named after him. 6. _______. Systematic and fundamental work in the field of electric welding in the Ukraine was started by this eminent scientist on whose initiative the Institute of electric welding was organized in 1954. The institute was universally recognized as one of the centres of world welding science. Work on different problems of welding is carried out in the Ukraine by B.Paton, V.Lebedev, B.Medovar, A. Makara and others.

The Institute of Electric Welding the director of which Evhen Paton had been till his very death, developed his theory and mastered the highly productive hidden welding technique which is used world-wide. His son Boris succeeded him and became an outstanding scientist, too. For many years he headed the institute founded by his father and was the President of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. 7. _______. The Ukrainian Institute of Electronic Welding and the American aviation and space firm "Pratt and Wiltny" established a joint research centre and an enterprise to develop the technologies of new materials, using the technique of speed electronic beam evaporation and vacuum condensation. They also founded a joint venture "Paton-Weld" to develop the Ukrainian metal-non-metal, ceramic and other combinations, and to market them in the USA and other countries.

Research in special alloy and powder metallurgy was started in Ukraine in the mid 19-th century at the Kharkiv and later at the Kiev Polytechnic Institutes.

Great achievements of the Ukrainian school of science are highly appreciated and recognized all the world over.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

emergence of science, the laws of development of nature and society, to crystallise productive experience, to elaborate a project, the creator of the biosphere theory, the Earth surface, significant event in the cultural life, society based on principles of social equality and democracy, to design and launch satellites, large body of scientists, the field of electric welding, cybernetics, industrial production of artificial diamonds, the father of electronic welding, hidden welding technique, to head, speed electronic beam evaporation.

Task 6. Find in the text antonyms to the following words:

the last, condensation, to decrease, natural, core.

Unit 3

Task 3. You are going to read about history of computer. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A But he never built it.
B In their opinion, computers block the imagination and spontaneity of young people.
C The educated man of 25 30 years ago did not need to know anything about computers.
D You can use a computer to write a letter, design a house, draw a picture or exchange messages with someone around the world.
E Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago there were no such things as computers.
F Every day we hear about new uses of the computer.
G There are three kinds of computers: digital, analogue and hybrid.
H It used thousands of electrical switches that clicked on and off to compute data.

 

The educated man of 200 years ago did not need to know anything about science. 1. C . But the educated man of today needs to have some significant knowledge of science and a little significant knowledge about computers.

The computer is no doubt the most amazing achievement of mankind. It is a data storage system created by man. A human tells the machine what to do, when to do it and how it should be done.

The word computer comes from a Latin word which means to count. 2. ______. Knotted ropes, marks in clay, the abacus are all methods of keeping track of numbers.

In 1833 an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage, professor of Cambridge University designed the first computer. 3. ______. If Babbage had been able to get enough money to build the computer, the analytical engine would have been as big as a locomotive. It would have been able to store 1,000 50-digit numbers.

During the 70 years following Babbage's death in 1871, computer scientists improved on Babbage's original idea. In 1939, Harvard University physicist Howard Aiken built the forerunner of today's computer. 4. ______. It was much slower than later computers, which use electronic components instead of switches.

In our country the first electronic digital computer MACM was constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S. O. Lebedev in 1950. Such computers as BESM, Minsk, Ural, Razdan-3, M-20, M-220, Nairi-3, Strela, Dniepr were created in our country.

5. ______. An analogue computer computes by using physical analogue of numerical measurements. A digital computer computes by using numbers or digits. A hybrid computer is a machine which combines some of the properties of digital and analogue computers.

Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. The significance of it can be compared with the invention of the steam-engine and the utilisation of atomic energy.

Nowadays computers greatly increase man's thinking capabilities of planning, analysing, computing and controlling. Hundreds of computers are already in daily use. They penetrate almost into all spheres of our modern society, from nuclear energy production and missile design to the processing of bank checks, weather forecasting, manufacturing, research and medical diagnoses. Computers are everywhere. 6. ______.

Computer technology is a rapidly growing industry. According to the technical experts it is very educational. They say that computers help children to learn much more quickly. In some Japanese elementary schools there are already lessons on using computers. For older children the electronic diary was produced. Many young people in Tokyo use it for taking notes, doing homework, drawing and keeping telephone numbers. There's also some equipment which is like an electronic teacher. This computer answers questions on all scholastic subjects from biology to geography. At home the computer is becoming a kind of technological grandmother. It sings nursery rhymes, tells fairy stories and helps with homework.

But young people's true passion is videogames. Some experts are alarmed. 7. ______. And there are a lot of videogames which are violent and not educational.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, / , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

a data storage system, knotted ropes, marks in clay, the abacus, keeping track of numbers, as big as a locomotive, the forerunner of today's computer, exchange messages with someone, rapidly growing industry, a kind of technological grandmother, true passion is videogames, communicate with the computer, the first mechanical calculator, a problem oriented high level programming language, a household word, to indicate the degree of modernity, the working out, one thing in common.

Task 6. Explain next words and word combinations in English without translation:

computer, knowledge, forerunner, digital computer, PASCAL, software, hardware.

Task 7. Make up word combinations from the following words:

1. analytical a) computer
2. missile b) knowledge
3. data storage c) schools
4. elementary d) engine
5. electronic digital e) measurements
6. weather f) system
7. significant g) design
8. numerical h) forecasting

Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. , .

2. , .

3. , .

4. .

5. .

6. 1950 .

Task 9. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The word computercomes from a Latin word which means to count.

2. Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind.

3. Experts say that computers help children to learn much more quickly.

4. A digital computer computes by using numbers or digits.

5. In our country the first electronic digital computer MACM was constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S. O. Lebedev in 1950.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. achievement
2. abacus ,
3. clay
4. to combine , ᒺ
5. to compare
6. to compute ,
7. daily use
8. data storage system
9. electronic diary
10. equipment
11. forerunner
12. hybrid
13. imagination
14. to improve
15. mankind
16. missile ,
17. modernity
18. notes
19. numerical measurements
20. scholastic ,
21. steam-engine
22. to store98
23. switch
24. violent ,
25. weather forecasting

UNIT 4

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

UNIT 5

UNIT 6

POLLUTION IN UKRAINE

Task 3. You are going to read about pollution in Ukraine. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-G) the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A Other Ukrainian cities with major chronic air pollution problems include Kyiv, Komunarsk, Makiivka and Odesa.
B The majority of states support initiatives and proposals of our country on Nature Conservation.
C Hundreds of small rivers supply water for three-quarters of the villages and half of Ukraine's cities.
D Moreover, surface runoff from industrial territories is highly contaminated.
E As a result the sea's salinity has increased by more than 40 per cent since the 1950s.
F Such contamination originates from human activities that create waste products.
G Almost all surface waters of Ukraine belong to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov basins.

Pollution is the contamination of the environment, including air, water, and land, with undesirable amounts of material or energy. 1 ___F___ An industrial and intensively fanned country, Ukraine contains some of the most polluted landscapes in Eastern Europe. Pollution became evident in Ukraine with industrial development in the 19th century.

Air pollution is especially severe in many of the heavily industrialized cities and towns of south-eastern Ukraine, notably in Kharkiv, Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia. Coal-using industries, such as metallurgical coke-chemical plants, steel mills, and thermal power plants are major sources of high levels of uncontrolled emissions of sulphur dioxide, dust, unburned hydrocarbons, and other harmful substances. 2. ______.

Over one-third of the emissions into the atmosphere originate from automobile transport. That source, which attains overwhelming proportions in cities with little industry, such as Uzhhorod, Yalta, Poltava and Khmelnytskiy, is aggravated by the use of leaded gasoline and inefficient engines as well as a lack of catalytic converters. 3. _______. The high population density, heavy industrial development, and relatively low freshwater endowment of those basins, and the low governmental priority placed upon environmental protection until very recently, have given rise to chronic and serious levels of water pollution throughout Ukraine.

The Dnister and the Danube are included among the most polluted bodies of water in the territory of the former Soviet Union. 4. _______. Widespread fear is growing in Ukraine that a substantial fraction of those water arteries are so polluted as to pose fatal health risks to the people who depend on them. About half of the chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides applied in the fields are washed off into rivers. 5. _______. One of the areas suffering most from serious and chronic coastal water pollution is the Sea of Azov. That shallow and previously biologically rich and commercially productive body of water has experienced serious problems of industrial and municipal waste-water contamination and increased levels of salinity since the early 1970s.

A primary cause of the sea's ecological deterioration has been the diversion for purposes of irrigation ( up to 80 per cent) of fresh, but not necessarily pure, water inflow from the Don and the Kuban rivers. 6. _______.Combined with pollution that increase has resulted in a dramatic drop in fish catches (by 6090 per cent). Despite repeated warnings and special government anti-pollution resolutions, the conditions in the Sea of Azov continue to deteriorate.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , - , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

contamination of the environment, intensively fanned country, the most polluted landscape, heavily industrialized cities, dust, unburned hydrocarbons, harmful substances, automobile transport, freshwater endowment, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, anti-pollution resolutions.

Task 6. Find in the text antonyms to the following words and word combinations:

integer, refining, profusion, to improve, destructive

Task 7. Write the following numerals by words:

12, 2nd, 135, 574234, 1111, 1985 (year), 1/6, ½, 1000000000

Task 8. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the word "pollution" mean?

2. Where does such contamination originate from?

3. What rivers are the most polluted?

4. Where are the chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides washed off?

5. Tell about the conditions in the Sea of Azov.

6. What caused a dramatic drop in fish catches in the Sea of Azov?

7. What has happened to the sea's salinity?

Task 9. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. to attain
2. coke-chemical plant
3. contamination ,
4. converter
5. density
6. deterioration
7. diversion
8. endowment
9. environment
10. evident ,
11. to fan ,
12. fertilizer
13. harmful substances
14. irrigation ,
15. landscape
16. mill , ,
17. notably ,
18. to originate from ,
19. overwhelming proportions
20. pollution
21. population density
22. severe
23. surface
24. thermal power plant ()
25. undesirable ,

 

UNIT 7

AUTOMATION AND LABOUR

UNIT 8

UNIT 9

UNIT 10

INDUSTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN

MODULE 2

UNIT 1

METALS

UNIT 2

OCCURRENCE OF METALS

UNIT 3

PROPERTIES OF METALS

UNIT 4

UNIT 5

BESSEMER PROCESS

UNIT 6

Unit 7

FERROUS METALS

Task 2. You are going to read about ferrous metals. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A It is very cheap, in fact, it is the cheapest of all the engineering metals used in machine-building.
B But very much carbon makes steel brittle, which reduces its strength.
C Various grades of copper are used for engineering purposes.
D Carbon is the most important of all elements to be presented in ferrous alloys.
E Cast iron is a general term applied to iron-carbon alloys containing more than 1.7 per cent of carbon.
F However, in comparison with other metals grey iron is weak.
G This process is known as casting.
H It has high resistance to corrosion.

To produce ferrous metals one must combine iron with carbon, silicon, other elements. 1) ___D___ Ferrous metals are used in industry in two general forms: steel and cast iron, which differ in the quantity of carbon content. These two ferrous alloys are derived from pig iron which is produced in a blast furnace in form of pigs. Metals are usually melted and poured into a form which is called a "mould". 2) _______ The cast metal is shaped in the mould where it cools and solidifies. Thus one can cast different objects known as castings. The shop where metals are cast is called a "foundry". Castings are used to produce different types of machinery.

Steel is a ferrous material with a carbon content from 0.1% to 1.0%, which makes it much stronger than iron and is therefore widely used in machine building. 3) _______ Therefore the carbon content in steel is confined to certain limits. Semisteel is a name to a metal made by melting 20 to 40% of steel scrap with cast iron in the cupola. Steel castings are more expensive but stronger and tougher.

Cast steel normally contains about 0.5% of carbon, and is used to replace cast iron when castings of considerable strength are required.

Forged steel is steel that has been hammered, drawn, pressed or rolled in the process of manufacturing of a particular part.

Alloy steels are those in which some alloying element in addition to the carbon is present in some appreciable quantity. The principal alloying elements used in steel are nickel, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, and to lesser extent, copper, tungsten, cobalt, beryllium and boron.

Cast iron contains a higher percentage of carbon than steel does (more than 2.0 %). 4) _______. Cast iron without the addition of alloying elements is weak in tension and shear, strong in compression and has low resistance to impact. It is obtained from the cupola furnace where pig iron is remelted in contact with coke.

Grey cast iron has the carbon present in the free or graphite state and is soft, easily machined, and only moderately brittle.

White cast iron has most of the carbon in the combined state and is therefore hard and brittle.

Malleable cast iron is made by heating white iron castings for a period of several days in airtight pots filled with an oxide of iron. 5) _______.

Grey iron foundries are the most numerous because grey iron can be cast into almost any conceivable shape and size. Grey iron is also adapted to a great variety of castings, such as automobile, gas, steam, and hydraulic engine cylinders, bed plates for machines, car wheels, agricultural machinery parts, furnace and stove parts, water pipes, gears, etc. The nature of the metal used for grey iron castings is such that castings can be made so hard that ordinary tool steel will not cut them or, on the other hand, so soft that they can be readily-machined. 6) _______. The alloy of grey castings is composed of iron, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, manganese, and sulphur. These elements are used in different proportions depending on the grade of castings.

There is one more kind of ferrous materials - wrought iron. It is quite ductile and can be easily rolled, drawn, forged and welded. 7) _______. The carbon content is generally less than 0.1% and the material must contain not less than 1% slag.

Task 3. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 4. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

ferrous alloys, the quantity of carbon content, a blast furnace, melted and poured into, to cool and solidify, casting, brittle, weak in tension and shear, easily machined, airtight pots, stove parts, water pipes, soft, grade of castings, to be rolled, drawn, forged and welded.

Unit 8

NON-FERROUS METALS

Task 2. You are going to read about non-ferrous metals. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A These characteristics are: high electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance, non-magnetic qualities, light weight, etc.
B It has high corrosion-resistant qualities and is used for plating other metals such as iron or brass.
C Aluminium is a soft, silvery white metal.
D On account of its low electrical resistance, aluminium is used in certain cases in wires and cables as conductors.
E It was replaced for these purposes by iron and steel.
F Aluminium is the most abundant of the metals and the most widely distributed.
G It is quite ductile and can be easily rolled, drawn, forged and welded.
H Metallurgists propose copper to be used for making electrical contacts, wires, water heaters, etc.

Non-ferrous metals are more expensive than ferrous metals and are used only when some characteristic not possessed by iron or steel is essential or desirable in application. 1) A .

The metals most frequently used to make non-ferrous metal castings are copper, tin, zinc, nickel, gold, aluminium and lead. Some of the basic non-ferrous metals and their characteristics are described below.

Copper was used in prehistoric times for making weapons and tools and later was alloyed with tin to form bronze, which was the most important metal of the Greeks and Romans. 2) _______. Various grades of copper are used for engineering purposes. The great development of the electric industries has resulted in such extensive uses of the metal that it now ranks next to iron in importance.

We know copper to be a reddish-brown tough metal. Among non-ferrous metals copper is the most important. Because of its high electric conductivity about 60 % of all the copper produced is used in electrical work. It has high corrosion-resistant qualities. 3) _______.

The copper alloys are more widely employed. The alloying of copper with other elements increases the strength of the metal in some cases and improves the anticorrosive and anti-friction properties in others.

Aluminium is the typical metal in the third group in the periodic classification of the elements. 4) _______. It is found in feldspars, micas, kaolin, clay, bauxite, cryolite, alunite, corundum and certain gems. Compounds of aluminium have been known for many years and they were recognised as being derived from a metal that had not been isolated. 5) _______. It is light in weight, has high corrosion-resistant qualities. Scientists suggest aluminium to be used for automobile and airplane parts. It can be used also for making different light-weight objects used in everyday life such as: frames, cooking utensils, chairs.

Aluminium has a very low density, 2.7; it is used in construction when a metal is required and weight is important. It is ductile, malleable, and can be rolled. Its tensile strength is low in comparison with that of iron; it cannot be machined and polished readily and does not yield good castings. These defects can be overcome by alloying it with other metals. The metals which alloy freely with aluminium are copper, zinc, and iron. Usually where aluminium alloys are made, aluminium predominates. 6) _______.

Zinc is a hard, brittle, bluish-white metal that is employed in the pure form as sheet zinc.

Lead is a very heavy bluish-grey metal which is very soft. We know lead to be supported by a core to strengthen it. Lead is used for lining pipes, acid tanks and coating electrical cables.

Tin is a silvery, corrosion-resistant metal. We suggest tin to be used as an alloying element. Tin is hardly used in pure form.

Nickel is a hard, tough, silvery metal. 7) _______.

There are many applications of non-ferrous metals in the unalloyed state, but in most cases, some alloying element is added.

Task 3. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

- -, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 4. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

more expensive, desirable in application, non-magnetic qualities, light weight, most frequently used, metal castings, making weapons and tools, engineering purposes, extensive uses, the anticorrosive and anti-friction properties, the most abundant of the metals, the most widely distributed, automobile and airplane parts,ductile, malleable, unalloyed state.

Unit 9

Unit 10

Our Institute

1) National Technical University of Ukraine.

Science

2) Science in Ukraine.

Computer

3) From the History of Computer.

4) What is a Computer?

Ecology

5) Economic-Technological Development and Ecology Problems.

6) Pollution in Ukraine.

Automation

7) Automation and Labour.

8) Automatic Control.

Industry and Economy of Ukraine

9) Ukraine is a Highly Industrialized Country.

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