Task 11. What career would you choose to follow and why? Discuss with your partner.

Task 12. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. abroad
2. annually
3. automation
4. branch ,
5. chair
6. computing technique
7. cybernetics
8. decease-prevention centre
9. designer
10. electric welding
11. enterprise
12. to exceed
13. healthy and strong
14. higher educational institution
15. hostel
16. measuring technique
17. metals and alloys
18. to obtain
19. powder metallurgy
20. radio-electric devices
21. relations
22. research institution
23. scientific degree
24. to sign
25. strength of materials





Task 1. What do you know about science in Ukraine?

Task 2. What branches of science do you prefer to study? Why? Present you decision in few words.

Task 3. You are going to read about science in Ukraine. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A The most prominent philosopher in Ukraine in the 18-th century was H.Skovoroda.
B British science has a lot of innovations, too.
C Numerous important researches have been conducted in Ukraine.
D Together with Oleksander Fersman he was the first to suggest the use of radioactivity in studying geological processes.
E A fundamentally new and highly efficient method of raising the quality of special steels and alloys, the electro-slag re-melting method has been devised in Ukraine under the direction of B. Paton.
F The first electronic computing machine in Europe was designed by our countryman S. Lebedev in 1951.
G Scientific achievements not only crystallise productive experience, but are also precursors of natural production.
H He is also considered to be the father of electronic welding.

The emergence of science as a system of knowledge of the laws of development of nature and society was preceded by a long period of gradual accumulation of the practical experience of men and the development of their thinking. 1. ___G___.

The Academy of Sciences of Ukraine which up to 1956 was called the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, is the highest scientific institution of Ukraine. In the autumn of 1918 group of well-known scientists, headed by V.Vernadsky, elaborated a project for the organization of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, which was realised in 1919. Its first president was Academician Vernadsky. He was a prominent naturalist, mineralogist, the founder of geochemistry and biochemistry, the creator of the biosphere theory. 2._______. He was also the first to estimate the age of the most ancient elements of the Earth surface as being 4.5 billion years old.

A significant event in the cultural life of Ukraine was the institution of the Kiev-Mohila College in 1652, which was converted into an academy in 1701. In the 18th century the Kyivo-Mohyla Academy was the main scientific centre of Ukraine whose most famous representatives of that time were N. Maksymovich and O. Shumlyansky. 3. _______. He dreamed of a society based on principles of social equality and democracy.

Ukraine has contributed many outstanding scientists to the world. The 19th and 20th centuries produced such outstanding scientists as the mathematicians M.Ostrogradsky and A. Pohorelov, the linguists O. Bodynsky, A. Potebnya, the historians V. Antonovich, M. Hrushevsky and D. Bahaliy, the orientalist A.Krumsky, the geologist P. Tutkovsky, the physicians V. Obraztsov, M. Strazhesko, V. Filatov, the lawyer M. Vasylenko and many others.

Ukrainians are also proud of the fact that only several months after the nucleus of the atom was split by the English physicists G. Cockroft and E. Walton in 1932, the same result was achieved in one of the laboratories of Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology headed by I. Kurchatov and A. Ioffe. Nobel Prize laureate Academician Lev Landau worked in Kharkiv for many years, heading the Institute of Physics and Technology. Another Nobel Prize laureate Ilya Mechnikov was born in Kharkiv region, studied in Kharkiv National University and worked there for a long time. 4. _______. The famous astronomer Academician Mykola Barabashov made significant discoveries concerning Mars, Moon and Venus. Ukrainian scientists made their contribution into the development of space explorations. The Southern Machine Building plant and Kharkiv "Khartron" designed and launched hundreds of artificial Earth satellites including the famous "Zenith".

The large body of scientists of Ukraine has contributed greatly to the development of world science. 5. _______. Among the results of such researches are: the development of the first computers in the former USSR, important advances in the field of electric welding, cybernetics, the technology and organisations of industrial production of artificial diamonds. Achievements in geological science and the application of new techniques in geological prospecting in Ukraine have led to the discovery of payable oil and gas deposits that has made it possible to supply gas to most of the large cities and many populated areas of the Republic and to increase its power resources. Ukrainian science develops through mutual enrichment with the experience of the scientific centres of different countries.

Ukrainian scientists have made significant contribution to the development of aerodynamics, the theory of mechanisms and machines, automatic control, filtration theory. Large scale research in mechanics was and is being carried on at university departments in Kiev and Lviv and at polytechnic institutes in Kiev and Odessa.

The world famous Ukrainian scientists are Volodymir Vernadsky and Yevhen and Boris Patons. Yevhen Paton was an outstanding Ukrainian constructor, famous for his contribution in bridge-building and welding. He studied Engineering in Dresden (Germany) and St. Petersburg, and in 1904 became a professor of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute where he headed the bridge-testing laboratory. Evhen Paton designed over 35 bridges, including the famous bridge across the Dnipro River that was named after him. 6. _______. Systematic and fundamental work in the field of electric welding in the Ukraine was started by this eminent scientist on whose initiative the Institute of electric welding was organized in 1954. The institute was universally recognized as one of the centres of world welding science. Work on different problems of welding is carried out in the Ukraine by B.Paton, V.Lebedev, B.Medovar, A. Makara and others.

The Institute of Electric Welding the director of which Evhen Paton had been till his very death, developed his theory and mastered the highly productive hidden welding technique which is used world-wide. His son Boris succeeded him and became an outstanding scientist, too. For many years he headed the institute founded by his father and was the President of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. 7. _______. The Ukrainian Institute of Electronic Welding and the American aviation and space firm "Pratt and Wiltny" established a joint research centre and an enterprise to develop the technologies of new materials, using the technique of speed electronic beam evaporation and vacuum condensation. They also founded a joint venture "Paton-Weld" to develop the Ukrainian metal-non-metal, ceramic and other combinations, and to market them in the USA and other countries.

Research in special alloy and powder metallurgy was started in Ukraine in the mid 19-th century at the Kharkiv and later at the Kiev Polytechnic Institutes.

Great achievements of the Ukrainian school of science are highly appreciated and recognized all the world over.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

emergence of science, the laws of development of nature and society, to crystallise productive experience, to elaborate a project, the creator of the biosphere theory, the Earth surface, significant event in the cultural life, society based on principles of social equality and democracy, to design and launch satellites, large body of scientists, the field of electric welding, cybernetics, industrial production of artificial diamonds, the father of electronic welding, hidden welding technique, to head, speed electronic beam evaporation.

Task 6. Find in the text antonyms to the following words:

the last, condensation, to decrease, natural, core.

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