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Task 7. Match the words in column A with their translation from column B.

A B
1. alloy a)
2. knowledge b)
3. powder c)
4. representative d)
5. exploration e)
6. satellite f)
7. contribution g)
8. welding h)

Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. .

2. .

3. , , .

4. - .

5. , .

6. .

Task 9. Put the verbs into the correct tense form (Present Simple or Present Continuous):

1. Scientist ______ (to work) at the laboratory every day.

2. More and more forests _____ (to disappear) because of fires.

3. More people _____ (to recycle) rubbish nowadays.

4. Water ___ (to boil) at 100C and _____ (to freeze) when the temperature ____ (to drop) below 0C.

Task 10. Make a plan to the text Science in Ukraine and be ready to retell.

Task 11. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. to achieve ,
2. artificial diamonds
3. to appreciate ,
4. bridge
5. to convert ,
6. Earth surface
7. to elaborate
8. emergence
9. to estimate
10. evaporation
11. gradual accumulation
12. to head
13. hidden welding technique
14. large scale research
15. nucleus of the atom
16. to precede
17. precursor ,
18. productive experience
19. to realise
20. significant discoveries
21. social equality and democracy
22. space explorations
23. to split , 璺
24. to supply
25. system of knowledge

 

Unit 3

FROM THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER

Task 1. What do you know about computer and its history?

Task 2. Imagine your own computer. What must it do? Present you decision in few words.

Task 3. You are going to read about history of computer. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A But he never built it.
B In their opinion, computers block the imagination and spontaneity of young people.
C The educated man of 25 30 years ago did not need to know anything about computers.
D You can use a computer to write a letter, design a house, draw a picture or exchange messages with someone around the world.
E Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago there were no such things as computers.
F Every day we hear about new uses of the computer.
G There are three kinds of computers: digital, analogue and hybrid.
H It used thousands of electrical switches that clicked on and off to compute data.

 

The educated man of 200 years ago did not need to know anything about science. 1. C . But the educated man of today needs to have some significant knowledge of science and a little significant knowledge about computers.

The computer is no doubt the most amazing achievement of mankind. It is a data storage system created by man. A human tells the machine what to do, when to do it and how it should be done.

The word computer comes from a Latin word which means to count. 2. ______. Knotted ropes, marks in clay, the abacus are all methods of keeping track of numbers.

In 1833 an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage, professor of Cambridge University designed the first computer. 3. ______. If Babbage had been able to get enough money to build the computer, the analytical engine would have been as big as a locomotive. It would have been able to store 1,000 50-digit numbers.

During the 70 years following Babbage's death in 1871, computer scientists improved on Babbage's original idea. In 1939, Harvard University physicist Howard Aiken built the forerunner of today's computer. 4. ______. It was much slower than later computers, which use electronic components instead of switches.

In our country the first electronic digital computer MACM was constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S. O. Lebedev in 1950. Such computers as BESM, Minsk, Ural, Razdan-3, M-20, M-220, Nairi-3, Strela, Dniepr were created in our country.

5. ______. An analogue computer computes by using physical analogue of numerical measurements. A digital computer computes by using numbers or digits. A hybrid computer is a machine which combines some of the properties of digital and analogue computers.

Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. The significance of it can be compared with the invention of the steam-engine and the utilisation of atomic energy.

Nowadays computers greatly increase man's thinking capabilities of planning, analysing, computing and controlling. Hundreds of computers are already in daily use. They penetrate almost into all spheres of our modern society, from nuclear energy production and missile design to the processing of bank checks, weather forecasting, manufacturing, research and medical diagnoses. Computers are everywhere. 6. ______.

Computer technology is a rapidly growing industry. According to the technical experts it is very educational. They say that computers help children to learn much more quickly. In some Japanese elementary schools there are already lessons on using computers. For older children the electronic diary was produced. Many young people in Tokyo use it for taking notes, doing homework, drawing and keeping telephone numbers. There's also some equipment which is like an electronic teacher. This computer answers questions on all scholastic subjects from biology to geography. At home the computer is becoming a kind of technological grandmother. It sings nursery rhymes, tells fairy stories and helps with homework.

But young people's true passion is videogames. Some experts are alarmed. 7. ______. And there are a lot of videogames which are violent and not educational.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, / , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

a data storage system, knotted ropes, marks in clay, the abacus, keeping track of numbers, as big as a locomotive, the forerunner of today's computer, exchange messages with someone, rapidly growing industry, a kind of technological grandmother, true passion is videogames, communicate with the computer, the first mechanical calculator, a problem oriented high level programming language, a household word, to indicate the degree of modernity, the working out, one thing in common.

Task 6. Explain next words and word combinations in English without translation:

computer, knowledge, forerunner, digital computer, PASCAL, software, hardware.

Task 7. Make up word combinations from the following words:

1. analytical a) computer
2. missile b) knowledge
3. data storage c) schools
4. elementary d) engine
5. electronic digital e) measurements
6. weather f) system
7. significant g) design
8. numerical h) forecasting

Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. , .

2. , .

3. , .

4. .

5. .

6. 1950 .

Task 9. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The word computercomes from a Latin word which means to count.

2. Invention of electronic computers is one of the greatest achievements of mankind.

3. Experts say that computers help children to learn much more quickly.

4. A digital computer computes by using numbers or digits.

5. In our country the first electronic digital computer MACM was constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S. O. Lebedev in 1950.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. achievement
2. abacus ,
3. clay
4. to combine , ᒺ
5. to compare
6. to compute ,
7. daily use
8. data storage system
9. electronic diary
10. equipment
11. forerunner
12. hybrid
13. imagination
14. to improve
15. mankind
16. missile ,
17. modernity
18. notes
19. numerical measurements
20. scholastic ,
21. steam-engine
22. to store98
23. switch
24. violent ,
25. weather forecasting

UNIT 4

WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

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