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Task 2. Have you mentioned any connection between economic-technological development and ecology problems in everyday life?

Task 3. You are going to read about economic-technological development and ecology problems. Define whether the following statements based on the text are true + or false -.

1. During centuries man was trying to live in harmony with nature, but did not survive.

2. A lot of animal and plant species suffer from industrial activity of a man.

3. The main problem of environmental protection is the acid rains.

4. To solve the ecological problem we have to work on cooperation.

For millennia man had to struggle against nature in order to survive and develop. For many thousands of years man remained weak while nature was omnipotent.

However as economy developed, the scientific and technological revolution increased the correlation of forces between man and nature changed. Man gradually grew so strong that he dared to declare himself the "king of nature" and contemplated conquering and remoulding nature to his liking. In his conquer of nature man became so great that his economic achievements began to have an increasingly negative effect on nature, on the biosphere.

Road and factory constructions, industrial development take away to seven million hectares of land every year. Forest disappears at a rate of 20 hectares a minute. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 76 animal species and several hundred plant species of the Earth became extinct in the last 60 years alone.

Today animals and plants perish not so much due to their physical extermination by hunting, fishing, or open-cast mining, as due to the production of chemical and other industrial pollutants, poisoning the biosphere.

Each year the world economy ejects into the atmosphere over 200 million of carbon monoxide, more than 50 million tons of diverse hydrocarbons, 120 million tons of ash and nearly 150 million tons of sulphur dioxide. They fall back upon the Earth in the form of "acid rains".

Expansion of man's activities in outer space and mastering nuclear energy make the relationship between man and nature still more complicated.

In view of this nature and environment protection is one of the major ecological problems. Today it is clear that economic, social, technological and biological processes are closely interrelated. We must consider modern production as a complicated ecological economic system. It is only a strictly scientific approach to the industrial-technological development that can solve ecological problems.

Nature and environment protection is one of the major functions of the state, reflecting concept of society's attitude to the environment. It became a constitutional principle. The State Committee for Hydro-meteorological and Environmental Control and other Government agencies together with public organisations supervise permanently ecological conditions in the country. The majority of states support initiatives and proposals of our country on Nature Conservation. Today more and more people in various countries begin to understand that countries both far and near one another are ecologically interdependent. Therefore all nations must cooperate in solving global problems of ecology.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

in order to, to be omnipotent, the correlation of forces, to declare, conquering and remoulding nature, at a rate of, animal species, to become extinct, to perish, hunting, fishing, open-cast mining, diverse hydrocarbons, acid rain, nature and environment protection, global problems of ecology.

Task 6. Explain next words and word combinations in English without translation:

protection, pollutants, biosphere, ecologically interdependent, outer space.

Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. 㳿 .

2. , .

3. .

4. - .

Task 8. Put the verbs in brackets in Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense:

1. Students (to spend) 3 weeks at the research laboratory last winter.

2. The environmental situation in Ukraine (to get worse).

3. State (to carry out) different laws, reflecting concept of society's attitude to the environment.

4. It (to rain) all day and the roads were very wet.

5. Last spring (to be) wonderful. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing).

Task 9. First, fill in the table. Then choose five verbs and make sentences using the past simple:

Infinitive Past Past Participle
be    
become    
build    
do    
get    
go    
have    
keep    
make    
write    

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. ash
2. conquer ,
3. constitutional principle
4. to contemplate ,
5. correlation of forces
6. to dare
7. to declare ,
8. to disappear
9. diverse
10. environment protection
11. factory construction
12. industrial pollutants
13. interdependent
14. millennia
15. omnipotent ,
16. open-cast mining
17. to remould ,
18. to perish ,
19. physical extermination
20. plant ,
21. to remain
22. scientific approach
23. to struggle
24. to survive ,
25. weak

 

UNIT 6

POLLUTION IN UKRAINE

Task 1. How can we protect our country from pollution?

Task 2. What kinds of pollution do you know?

Task 3. You are going to read about pollution in Ukraine. Seven sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences (A-G) the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (1).

A Other Ukrainian cities with major chronic air pollution problems include Kyiv, Komunarsk, Makiivka and Odesa.
B The majority of states support initiatives and proposals of our country on Nature Conservation.
C Hundreds of small rivers supply water for three-quarters of the villages and half of Ukraine's cities.
D Moreover, surface runoff from industrial territories is highly contaminated.
E As a result the sea's salinity has increased by more than 40 per cent since the 1950s.
F Such contamination originates from human activities that create waste products.
G Almost all surface waters of Ukraine belong to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov basins.

Pollution is the contamination of the environment, including air, water, and land, with undesirable amounts of material or energy. 1 ___F___ An industrial and intensively fanned country, Ukraine contains some of the most polluted landscapes in Eastern Europe. Pollution became evident in Ukraine with industrial development in the 19th century.

Air pollution is especially severe in many of the heavily industrialized cities and towns of south-eastern Ukraine, notably in Kharkiv, Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia. Coal-using industries, such as metallurgical coke-chemical plants, steel mills, and thermal power plants are major sources of high levels of uncontrolled emissions of sulphur dioxide, dust, unburned hydrocarbons, and other harmful substances. 2. ______.

Over one-third of the emissions into the atmosphere originate from automobile transport. That source, which attains overwhelming proportions in cities with little industry, such as Uzhhorod, Yalta, Poltava and Khmelnytskiy, is aggravated by the use of leaded gasoline and inefficient engines as well as a lack of catalytic converters. 3. _______. The high population density, heavy industrial development, and relatively low freshwater endowment of those basins, and the low governmental priority placed upon environmental protection until very recently, have given rise to chronic and serious levels of water pollution throughout Ukraine.

The Dnister and the Danube are included among the most polluted bodies of water in the territory of the former Soviet Union. 4. _______. Widespread fear is growing in Ukraine that a substantial fraction of those water arteries are so polluted as to pose fatal health risks to the people who depend on them. About half of the chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides applied in the fields are washed off into rivers. 5. _______. One of the areas suffering most from serious and chronic coastal water pollution is the Sea of Azov. That shallow and previously biologically rich and commercially productive body of water has experienced serious problems of industrial and municipal waste-water contamination and increased levels of salinity since the early 1970s.

A primary cause of the sea's ecological deterioration has been the diversion for purposes of irrigation ( up to 80 per cent) of fresh, but not necessarily pure, water inflow from the Don and the Kuban rivers. 6. _______.Combined with pollution that increase has resulted in a dramatic drop in fish catches (by 6090 per cent). Despite repeated warnings and special government anti-pollution resolutions, the conditions in the Sea of Azov continue to deteriorate.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , - , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

contamination of the environment, intensively fanned country, the most polluted landscape, heavily industrialized cities, dust, unburned hydrocarbons, harmful substances, automobile transport, freshwater endowment, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, anti-pollution resolutions.

Task 6. Find in the text antonyms to the following words and word combinations:

integer, refining, profusion, to improve, destructive

Task 7. Write the following numerals by words:

12, 2nd, 135, 574234, 1111, 1985 (year), 1/6, ½, 1000000000

Task 8. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the word "pollution" mean?

2. Where does such contamination originate from?

3. What rivers are the most polluted?

4. Where are the chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides washed off?

5. Tell about the conditions in the Sea of Azov.

6. What caused a dramatic drop in fish catches in the Sea of Azov?

7. What has happened to the sea's salinity?

Task 9. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. to attain
2. coke-chemical plant
3. contamination ,
4. converter
5. density
6. deterioration
7. diversion
8. endowment
9. environment
10. evident ,
11. to fan ,
12. fertilizer
13. harmful substances
14. irrigation ,
15. landscape
16. mill , ,
17. notably ,
18. to originate from ,
19. overwhelming proportions
20. pollution
21. population density
22. severe
23. surface
24. thermal power plant ()
25. undesirable ,

 

UNIT 7

AUTOMATION AND LABOUR

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