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Task 3. Read about Industry of Great Britain and fill in the appropriate headings to each abstract.

The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to become highly industrialised. Eleven people work in mining, manufacturing and building for every one in agriculture. The United Kingdom is one of the world's largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population and the range of its industrial manufactures reflects its position as one of the most important workshops of the world. England is one of the most powerful capitalist countries in Europe. It has highly developed industries. There is a lot of industrial cities here, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield and many others. London is one of the biggest commercial centres of the world.

Coal is the main source for the development of British industry. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the north-east of England, near the industrial centres of Newcastle and Sunderland; in Lancashire and Yorkshire in the west and central England; in Scotland, near Glasgow, in Wales near Cardiff, the capital of Wales, and near the port of Bristol. The biggest centres of iron and steel industries are situated in the neighbourhood of coal basins. They are Middlesbrough, Newcastle, Cardiff, Glasgow, and Sheffield. The most ancient centres of English iron and steel industry are Birmingham and Sheffield. Iron smelting based on local ore deposits has been practised here since ancient times. In the period of England industrialization Birmingham and Sheffield played the leading role in the creation of England's heavy industry. Sheffield has specialised in producing high-quality steel and articles of steel: heavy armaments, wheels of railway cars, looms, knives, fine instruments. Producing 80% of Britain's crude steel, British Steel is the fourth biggest steel company in the Western world. Just under half of the total output is exported.

Each of the big towns became the centre of various industries. Especially great is the variety of industries in Birmingham, people call it "the city of 1500 trades". One can find any type of production here, from steel smelting to manufacturing the most delicate articles. Rifles, various machinery, railway cars, motor cars, electrical equipment, scientific instruments and many other things are produced in Birmingham in great quantities. Alongside with the most modern large plants a great number of old small enterprises are to be found in this town. Birmingham is Britain's "second city". The district around Birmingham is a land of factories and mines.

One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry. Britain produces a lot of wool, and the woollen industry is centred in Yorkshire. The main centres of cotton and woollen industry are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester which export their products to many countries. Britain imports cotton from America and other countries through the port of Liverpool, and cotton industry is at home in Lancashire, mainly Manchester, and also in Glasgow and Belfast. Textile machines are also made in all these and other towns. Plants producing textile machinery not only satisfy the needs in British industry but also export great quantities of machinery to the other countries

The ship-building industry is of great importance for Britain. For centuries Britain has been the leading shipbuilder in the world. The ship-building industry is centred in London, Glasgow, Newcastle, near Liverpool and in Belfast.

Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the oldest branches of industry. The new industries are the chemical, electro-technical, automobile, aviation and electronics. The new industries have developed hand in hand with science and technology and are equipped to meet present technical demands. Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry, old and new.

Britain's chemical industry is the third largest in Western Europe, and it exports nearly 50% of production, making it Britain's single largest export earner. The most rapid growth in recent years has been in pharmaceutical, pesticides and cosmetics. Britain also has highly developed mechanical engineering and metal goods industries, electrical, electronic and instrument engineering industries, shipbuilding and marine engineering industries, textile, clothing and footwear industries, construction, service and tourism industries.

In some sectors of the economy, a small number of large companies are responsible for a sizable percentage of total production, especially in vehicle, aerospace and transport equipment industries.

There are approximately 250 British industrial companies, each has an annual turnover of more than 500 MLB pounds. British Petroleum (BP) is the 11th largest industrial grouping in the world, and the second largest in Europe. Five British firms are among the leading 25 European Community companies. The largest manufacturing concerns are BAT Industries (tobacco, food products, etc.), Imperial Chemical Industries, Grand Metropolitan (food, drink, etc.), British Aerospace, Unilever (chemicals), Ford, General Electric Company, British Steel, and some others.

Britain is the world's ninth largest oil producer and the fifth largest gas producer. Developing North Sea oil and gas it has created huge support industry offering equipment and services to oil and gas companies at home and abroad. The two leading UK oil companies are BP and Shell.

London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest English ports. The products of Britain economy, for example, automobiles, textile, machinery, electronic equipment and many others, are exported to many countries of the world. Liverpool is the principal port of Western England. It stands on the river Mersey. It is the first in Great Britain in exports and it comes second after London in imports. Imports passing through Liverpool consist of cotton, wool, non-ferrous metals and oil export consists of fabricstextile machinery, electrical equipment and chemicals. International trade plays a vital role in Britain's economy. Exports of goods and services make up around 25% of national output.

English agriculture is also a highly developed industry. The greater part of the land here is used for sheep- and dairy farming. Vegetables are grown in all parts of the country. The chief grain crops are wheat and barley. British agriculture is famous for its efficiency and productivity. It employs about 2.1% of the workforce, and Britain is self-sufficient in 58% of all types of food and animal feed. Britain is a major exporter of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals. But because of lack of cultivated lands, it cannot supply the country with sufficient food products. Great Britain has to import grain, meat, fruits and other foodstuffs. Today Britain imports about 42% of its food. Two-thirds of agricultural land is owner-occupied. The fishing industry provides 59% of British fish supplies and employs nearly 17,000 full-time fishermen.

Task 4. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

-, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 5. Translate the following words and word combinations into Ukrainian:

total production, national output, annual turnover, workforce, main source, development, manufactured goods, highly developed industry, iron smelting, deposit, high-quality steel, heavy armaments, wheels, railway cars, looms, fine instruments, crude steel, rifles, various machinery, motor cars, electrical equipment, quantity, district, wool, cotton, textile machines, metal goods, fishermen, at home and abroad, non-ferrous metals, fabrics, sizable, vehicle, electronics, the most rapid growth, food products, per head of population.

Task 6. Translate the words in italics into English using the given words below:

to satisfy the needs, to meet demands, to supply with, to provide,

to play a vital role, to make up, to be situated, to be produced

1. The biggest centres of iron and steel industries in the neighbourhood of coal basins.

2. Textile machines in Manchester, Glasgow and Belfast and other towns.

3. Plants producing textile machinery not only in British industry but also export great quantities of machinery to the other countries.

4. The new industries have developed hand in hand with science and technology and present technical .

5. Exports of goods and services around 25% of national output.

6. International trade in Britain's economy.

7. The fishing industry 59% of British fish supplies.

Task 7. Give the English equivalents to the names of such industries as:

1. The ____ is the country which sells their products to other countries.

2. The ____ is the country which doesnt produce enough goods and have to buy them abroad.

3. Any industrial unit which makes some products is called a ____.

4. The person who works in the fish industry is a ____.

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