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Task 1. What problem can you face choosing engineering materials?

Task 2. Read and translate the text:

Each year several thousand mechanisms, instruments and devices of various kinds are introduced into production. The complexity and precision of modern machines and mechanisms have increased so rapidly that the technological servicing of their designing and production is a very complicated problem. Their quality and reliability depend upon many scientific disciplines, among them the science of materials. This might well be called the age of materials science.

It is very important that specialists should have information on the properties of materials subjected to most severe conditions of temperature, loading, corrosion, etc. The rate of our progress in such different fields as space research, nuclear power engineering, in such technologies as laser and plasma technologies, powder metallurgy, self-spreading high-temperature synthesis, and others would be impossible without a complete knowledge of the properties of various engineering materials, without the development of new materials and old materials with new properties.

A deep and versatile knowledge of the properties of engineering materials would not only be needed by engineers and engineer-designers to prevent machine breakage, failure of structures, but such knowledge would be also necessary in order that these materials should be used most economically. It is a fact that some materials are available in insufficient quantities and the more effective use of new substitute materials should be made.

Modern industry requires materials capable of working in diverse conditions. Many research establishments in our country are in constant search of such materials, for example, studying optical strength with the help of a laser beam, testing building materials for thermal shock, etc. They have developed many alloys, ceramics or plastics reinforced with metal, glass, etc. Such materials find application in all spheres of technology, science and in everyday life.

It was only at the beginning of this century that research began in the physics of strength of materials, and the materials science appeared. The problem of properties of materials is hidden deep in the mysteries of atomic and molecular structure, and it took a long time before they could be mastered. The materials science has led to the development of many new materials having better engineering properties. Scientists work on the preparation and examination of materials consisting of individual elements or combination of elements from most of the periodic table. New elements have been created.

Every substance in the universe is made up of limitless combinations of 92 atoms. Out of them can be made anything known and millions of things that man has not yet discovered. Chemistry now takes natural resources of the universe to produce a great variety of entirely new substances. Nature has neglected to make some things man needs, such as super-heat and super-pressure-resistant materials and translucent and much stronger materials which are now very much needed to make better machines and instruments. Since nature does not have these vital things man should create them. And he is doing it now with the help of modern chemistry and materials science. For instance, man has created marvellous polymers as far as durability and thermal stability are concerned. The chemistry of polymers holds promise of fantastic progress in the near future. The list of things chemistry has learned to make reads like a fairy-tale.

In selecting the most suitable material and in determining their properties, the engineer-designer should widely use the knowledge of materials science.

Task 3. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:

, , , , 㳿, , , , , , , , , , , .

Task 4. Translate into Ukrainian the following words and word combinations:

mechanisms, instruments and devices, complexity and precision, technological servicing of designing and production, the age of materials science, severe conditions of temperature, loading, corrosion, space research, nuclear power engineering, laser and plasma technologies, self-spreading high-temperature synthesis, deep and versatile knowledge, optical strength, thermal shock, limitless combinations of atoms, super-heat and super-pressure-resistant materials and translucent.

Task 5. Match the words in column A with their meaning from column B:

A B
1. information a)
2. condition b)
3. device c)
4. research d)
5. property e)
6. combination f)
7. knowledge g)
8. beam h)

Task 6. Fill in the gaps with the verbs given below. Put them in proper tense form. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

to produce, to demand, to promise, to use, to consist,

to be important, to be present, to disregard

1. It is a fact that some materials _______ in insufficient quantities and the more effective use of new substitute materials should be made.

2. A deep and versatile knowledge of the properties of engineering materials _______ for engineers and engineer-designers

3. Such materials _______ in all spheres of technology, science and in everyday life.

4. Nature _______ to make some things man needs, which are now very much needed to make better machines and instruments.

5. Modern industry _______ materials capable of working in diverse conditions.

6. Every substance in the universe _______ of limitless combinations of 92 atoms.

7. Research establishments in our country _______ many alloys, ceramics or plastics reinforced with metal, glass, etc.

8. The chemistry of polymers _______ of fantastic progress in the near future.

Task 7. Make word combinations from the words in column A and column B, translate them into Ukrainian:

A B
high-temperature a) establishment
materials b) servicing
thermal c) breakage
technological d) power
laser e) synthesis
research f) beam
nuclear g) science
machine h) stability

Task 8. Translate next sentences into English:

1. .

2. 쳿 , .

3. , .

4. , 㳿.

5. , , , 糿.

6. , , .

Task 9. Make up the sentences from the given words. Start with the underlined word. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. requires, industry, diverse, working, Modern, capable of, conditions, materials in.

2. alloys, reinforced, Scientists, ceramics, developed, many, or, glass, with, metal, etc, have, plastics.

Task 10. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

1. to be impossible
2. complexity
3. diverse conditions
4. failure of structures
5. durability
6. insufficient quantities
7. laser and plasma technologies 㳿
8. materials science
9. to neglect
10. nuclear power engineering
11. optical strength
12. powder metallurgy
13. preparation and examination
14. to prevent breakage
15. to reinforce ,
16. to require ,
17. research establishment -
18. limitless
19. scientific discipline
20. self-spreading
21. space research
22. super-pressure-resistant materials -
23. technological servicing
24. translucent material
25. versatile knowledge ,

 

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