²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


THE GOVERNMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially, the head of the state is the Queen. She is an integral part of the legislature and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The power of the Queen in Britain is not absolute but constitutional. She acts only on the advice of the ministers, her powers are limited by Parliament.

The legislative power is vested in the Queen and Parliament made up of two Houses -the House of Lords and the House of Commons, the supreme legislative body. The British Parliament exists since 1265. It is the oldest Parliament in the world. The House of Lords is a non-elected chamber. The titles and seats are inherited there. The House of Commons is a nation-wide representative body. It is elected by a universal suffrage, which was introduced in 1918. The Commons has 650 elected Members of Parliament (MPs). They are granted a salary for their parliamentary work. They are elected by the general election, which is to be held every 5 years.

There is no written constitution in the country. The term "English Constitution" means the leading principles, conventions, laws and statutes. The British constitution does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.

As a rule, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election and has the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government. The ministers who have gained the confidence of the Prime Minister are presented to the monarch for the formal approval. Thus the Cabinet is formed. It is presided over by the Prime Minister and controls and runs the national affairs. About 20 ministers are in the Cabinet - the senior group takes major policy decisions. The second largest party forms the official Opposition, with its own leader and "shadow cabinet". The Opposition has a duty to criticize government policies and to present an alternative program.


III. Post-reading stage:

2. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following:

to belong to act on the advice of the ministers

parliamentary work to gain the confidence

the head of the government formal approval

written guarantee tribunal

to form the cabinet

3. Give English equivalents for the following:

4. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the phrases:

Exactly so Sure (ly), I agree with you, It is really so, Of course/On the contrary, It is not quite so; I can't agree with you, You are wrong

1. The Prime Minister presides over the Cabinet

2. The Parliament limits the powers of the Queen.

3. The Cabinet is headed by the Queen.

4. The Queen and the Parliament exercise the legislative power.

5. The seats in the House of Lords are not inherited.

6. The universal suffrage was introduced in 1928.

7. The power of the Queen in Britain is Absolute.

5. Answer the following questions:

1. What kind of state is Great Britain?

2. Who is officially the head of state?

3. What is the structure of the political system of Great Britain?

4. In whose hands is the legislative power in Great Britain?

5. What is the body of the legislative power?

6. What does the term "English Constitution" mean?

7. What kind of Parliament has Great Britain?

8. When was the British Parliament formed?

9. Who usually becomes the Prime Minister?

 

10. How often are general elections held?

11. Who is the head of the Government?

12. How many chambers are there in the British Parliament?

13. What are the functions of the Parliament?


IV. Practice Drills:

1. Study the chart "Great Britain" (Parliamentary Monarchy and Political Parties) and discuss information in the form of questions and answers.

 

 

 

 

  Great Britain (Parliamentary Monarchy)  
             
  Parliament - the supreme legislative body     Government
theH ouse of The House of   The Sovereign   The Prime Minister
Commons Lords   (King or Queen)   (the leader of the Party of the
(elected, 635 (not elected, about   reigns, but does   majority)
M.P. 450 seats) 1000 peers   not rule    
       
                     
The Speaker The Lord Chancel-   The centre of   The Cabinet   The official
(presiding offi- lor (Speaker of the   pomp and cere-   (appointed   residence
cer of the House of Lord)   mony (the speech   by the   (Downing
House of     from the Throne;   Prime Min-   StreeUO)
Commons)     the changing of   ister)    
  Residence: Bi jckingham Palace  
       
  The Power  
  (hereditar , not elective)  
    Great Britain (Main Political Parties)    
                   
The Conservative   the Labour Party   the Liberal Party   The Communist Party
Party (Tory) (re-   (professes socialists   (represents mer-   (organized in 1920,
presents the mo-   aims; practical pro-   chants, finance   defends the interests of
nopolists and land-   gramme - capitalist   capitalists, landed   working people and
owners)   reorganization)   aristocracy)   socialism,)
                                     

2. Role play the following situations:

Situation 1.You are invited to take part in the discussion about Great Britain. Make a report on political life of the country. Describe your own impressions of visiting Great Britain. Be ready to answer students' questions.

Situation 2.You are in the plane flying from Ukraine to Great Britain. Ask the guide questions on rivers, mountains, lakes, natural resources, industrial centres of Great Britain.

Usefull expressions:

You should see - .

May I give you some suggestions? - ?


I'd like to give you apiece of advice - . Most willingly - ; I'd be grateful for your advice - .

UNIT 1.3. UKRAINE

( , ,

̳ )

: , , , , , . ³ . .

:

- , ; ;

.

. Pre-reading stage:

1. What countries does Ukraine border on?

2. What are the main rivers in Ukraine?

3. What is a number of people living in Ukraine?

4. What is the territory of Ukraine?

5. What branches of economy are developed in Ukraine?

6. Why our economy is interested in oil and gas pipelines going through the territory of Ukraine?

7. What is the biggest treasure in our country?

8. What are the main agricultural cultures grown in our country?

9. What is the industrial potential of Ukraine?

1. Study the following words and combinations:

1. to be located -

2. to be criss-crossed -

 

2. to ensure - ,

3. highway -

4. watershed -

5. pipeline -

6. high-voltage transmission lines -

7. above sea level -

8. depth -

9. deposit -

10. up-to-date -

11. synthetic diamonds -

12. fuel-


 

II. While-reading stage:

2. Read and translate the text.

UKRAINE'S ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL

ECONOMIC RELATIONS

On the map of the world you can find a new independent state with a thousand-year-old history - Ukraine. It borders on Belarus and Russia in the north and in the east. In the west Ukraine is bounded by Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. Great areas are occupied by steppes and forest-steppe regions. The main part of Ukraine is located in the watershed of the Dnipro River, which divides Ukraine into two parts: Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine.

The territory of our country has an astonishing variety of landscapes. We have high mountains, endless forests, beautiful rivers and lakes. The largest lake of Ukraine is Swit-yaz, its total area is 24.2 sq.km and the depth is 58.5 metres.

Within the borders of Ukraine we find the Carpathian Mountains with the highest peak Hoverla (2061) which is located in the Chornohora massif.

The Crimean Mountains stretch in three parallel ranges. The Main Range is the highest, rising to 1500 m above sea level. Its highest peak is Roman Kosh (1545 m.).

To have an idea of Ukraine's economic potential and define the scale of reforms which must be carried out let us get acquainted with some objective data. Ukraine is situated in the geographical center of Europe. The country occupies a territory of 604 thousand square kilometers. Ukrainian's population is 48 million, more than 74 percent of whom are Ukrainians. For comparison the population of Germany is 79.7 million people, Great Britain - 57, Poland - 39, Finland - 5. Ten million ethnic Ukrainians live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union, and close to 5 million live in other foreign countries. The diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. There are 6 cities in Ukraine with a population of over 1 million.

Ukraine takes a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain; it also succeeded in coal mining, producing concrete, electric energy and various equipments.

In the south of the country Ukraine has access to the Black Sea and the Sea of Above which are connected with the ocean. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of railroads intertwine throughout the territory of Ukraine.

Oil and gas pipelines of international significance go through the territory of Ukraine. Fees from transit oil and gas pipelines pay for most of the imported products. Ukraine's main importers of oil and gas are Russia and Turkmenistan. In spite of great reserves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy balance is decreasing, and this tendency will continue in the future because the layers are located very deep and their extraction becomes more and more costly. That is why Ukraine should pay more attention to regeneration sources of energy: solar, wind, hydrothermal, and even more attention to resources and energy saving technologies.

Steppes and plains compose the most part of the territory of Ukraine. The top soils are mainly black. They are the biggest treasure of the Ukrainian land. 25 percent of world's black rich soils are in Ukraine. Together with the fact, that Ukraine's climate is mainly moderately continental, it allows for considerable progress in agricultural produc-


tion under the conditions of market economy. Sugar beets, wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, sun flower, flax, buckwheat, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbages, also a large variety of grain cultures, fruits and vegetables are grown in Ukraine.

Because of her potential Ukraine is an industrial-agricultural country. Her machine-building potential includes tractors and agricultural machine-building, production of diesel locomotives and railroad cars, automobiles, rockets, sea and river vessels, refrigerators, TV-sets, electric motors, equipment for metallurgic, chemical, mine and textile industries.

Natural and human recourses are sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.


3. Find equivalents in two columns:

To border

To divide

Neighbour

Fertile black soil

Coal

Iron ore

Oil

Oil pipeline

Independence

Non ferrous metallurgy

Sugar beet

Flax

Sunflower

To deteriorate

Cast iron

Concrete

To decrease

Energy saving technologiese


㳿


4. Translate the following words and word combinations:

Rock-coal, great reserves, extraction, mineral fertilizers, sea level, moderately continental, considerable progress, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, cabbages, vessel, to create, internal market.

5. Use proper tense-forms of the verbs. Translate the sentences.

1. Ukraine (to have) many rivers.

2. The Dnipro (to divide) Ukraine into two parts: Left-bank and Right-bank territories.

3. Ukraine (to take) a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain.

4. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of railroads (to intertwine) throughout the territory of Ukraine.

5. In spite of great reserves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy balance (to decrease), and this tendency (to continue) in the future because the layers are located very deep and their extraction (to become) more and more costly.



6. Steppes and plains (to compose) the most part of the territory of Ukraine.

7. The top soils (to be) mainly black.

8. Natural and human recourses (to be) sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.


W. Practice Drills:

1. Speak on the topic "Geographical Position of Ukraine



Use the chart.


© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |