Подберите из списков А и Б близкие по значению слова.
A. to understand Б. due to
because of to head
especially to found
to be at the head of to realize
to lay the foundation prominent
31. Переведите следующие сочетания слов, обрати внимание на разные
verygood; verymuch; verydifficult; at the verybeginning; at that verymoment; at the veryend; the verybook; this verycolliery; that veryscientist; the veryfirst; the verylast; the verybest
32. Прочитайте следующий текст. Озаглавьте его. Найдите предложения, в
V.I. Vernadsky (1863-1945) is known as the outstanding mineralogist and crystallographer, the founder of geochemistry, biochemistry and radiogeology. Many research centres were established by him. He was elected president of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1919. He conducted research in the geochemistry of rare elements. Vernadsky advanced a revolutionary theory of the origin of minerals which was described in his works An Experiment in Descriptive Mineralogy and History of Minerals in the Earth's Crust. He prospected for the radioactive minerals. The role of such minerals as radium and uranium was forecast by him.
33. а) Прочитайте по-аиглнйскн числительные:
1) 20, 50, 68, 115, 1,379, 1,840, 6,040, 2,500, 9,000, 200,000,
2) даты: 1922, 1954, 1968, 1867, 1900, 1904, 1600, 2000, 1066
3) дроби: 1/3,1/4,3/8,8/7,2/6,7/9, 0.1, 0.2, 0.35, 10.02, 30.2,
4) проценты: 8%, 20%, 115%, 49%, 63%, 70%, 101%, 0.05%,
б) Напишите цифрами числительные:
the seventeenth, two hundred and sixty-one, the forties, the eighth, the eleventh, the seven hundred and seventy-fifth, five thousand eight hundred and one, one thousand three hundred, four hundred and ten
в) Напишите цифрами дробные и смешанные величины:
one third, a hundredth, a half, a quarter, two thirds, nine tenths, nine point eight, point nought nought six, four point nought five
34. Прочитайте вслух текст, правильно произнося числительные. Переведите
On July 20, 1969 men from the Earth stood for the first time on the surface of the Moon. The successful landing of Apollo 11 on the
surface of the Moon signalled the beginning of the study of the Moon's rocks and minerals, the new science of lunar geology.
About 150 scientists from laboratories throughout the world con- ducted a wide range of geological, chemical, physical and biological tests on the rocks returned to Earth. These scientific studies have led to new discoveries about the Moon. Most dramatic of all was that the Moon was born at the same time as the Earth, about 4600 million years ago.
It should be noted that the early astronomers, starting with Galileo who in 1610 first used a telescope, observed lunar surface.
The first astronauts to land on the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin collected 22 kg (481 Ib) of rocks. Since then, another 5 Apollo lunar missions have taken place. Apollo 17 landed on the Moon on December 11, 1972. The total rock collected amounts to 382 kg (845 Ib) plus 0.13 kg (4.6 oz) from the two unmanned Russian Luna missions. At the Lunar Receiving Laboratories in Houston, the USA, are catalogued 35,600 small pieces of the Moon.
Our satellite is about '/4 of the Earth's size and'/, of its mass. Hence its gravity is only '/6 of Earth's.
The temperature changes between lunar day and night. Temperature ranges from 110° С (230° F) at the height of the lunar day to -170° С (-275° F) in the lunar night.
35. Прочитайте следующие предложены. Найдете • каждом из них группу
1. Scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences have been active in
2. Much attention is paid to economic geology and mineral econom
3. Research is carried out in all the main branches of geology and
4. New methods of prospecting and extracting useful minerals have
36. Найдите в тексте А предложения, в которых сказуемые выражены
37. Выполните задание по следующему образцу.
Образец: Say what you are interested in. (geology) I am interested in geology.
a) Say what you (your friend) are (is) interested in. (conducting scientific research, prospecting for mineral deposits, the creation of new
mining methods, foreign languages, carrying out experiments, the system of education)
b) Saywhat the students were doing when you came into the laboratory. (to record the observations, to work out the plan of the experiments, to design a new quarry)
38. Выдаете несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою
Гш afraid that's wrong; that's not quite so; I can't agree with yon; on the contrary; I'd like to say a few words; to my mind; in my opinion; as far as I know; as is known; I don't flunk so; according to the text
1. The Geological Society of Paris elected Karpinsky a foreign member
2. Karpinsky was particularly interested in theoretical geology.
3. We do not know who was the first to introduce the microscope in
4. Karpinsky worked on different problems concerning geology but
39. Суммируйте содержание текста Б, используя следующие сочетания слов.
laid the foundation; a prominent Russian scientist; was a member of; is connected with; was at the head of; took an interest in; advanced the view; was later confirmed; his greatest contribution to; he was the first to (do something); the first elected President; were attracted to
40. Подготовьте сообщения на темы:
Роль А.П. Карпинского в развитии современной геологии.
Вклад в науку известных вам русских ученых-геологов.
Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:
I'd like to say a few words about; it should be stressed that; I can add; as a nutter of met; broadly speaking; in my opinion; in other words; it is important to say that, etc.
41. Прочитайте текст В без словаря. Кратко суммируйте его содержание.
One of the first contributors to mining and geology was the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov who connected the study of minerals and rocks with chemi&uy and physics, discovered and formulated the laws' of mining ventilation and mining geometry.
Among the most prominent geologists are A. P. Karpinsky, V.A. Ob-ruchev, A.Y. Fersman, I.M. Gubkin and many others. Academician A.Y. Fersman ranks among those leading mineralogists who converted mineralogy from a purely descriptive science into a science based on the most fundamental chemical investigations. As the organizer of the Geochemical Institute in Moscow, Academician A.Y. Fersman worked out the basic lines of the study of chemical elements and laid the foundation for the scientific surveying and prospecting for useful minerals. A number of scientific expeditions to different parts of the country were organized by him. He was the leader of the important investigations in the Kara-Kum Desert resulting in the discovery of2 big sulphur deposits, the construction of a large preparation plant for the processing of sulphur and sulphur products. Academician A.Y. Fersman led the expedition to Central Asia, the Urals, the Altai, the Caucasus and the Crimea. He is especially known for his detailed investigations of the Kola Peninsula which led to the discovery of enormous apatite deposits and the development of a mining-industrial region in the Khibiny Mountains where new towns came into being.
Among those who contributed to the development of mining are B.I. Boky, M.M. Protodyakonov, A.A. Skochinsky, N.V. Melnikovand others. Professor B.I. Boky's name is associated with the solution of a number of significant technical problems in the mining industry of the country and with the whole trend in the development of the science of mining — the analytical method of designing new collieries.
Credit for working out the theoretical principles of the exploration of deposits is due to Prof. M.M. Prptodyakonov. His most remarkable works are those concerning the problems of underground pressure and mine timbering.3 Prof. M.M. Protodyakonov founded a school for the study of rock pressure and its influence on mine timbering.
The leading organization in working out theoretical problems connected with mining in Russia is the Mining Institute of the Academy of Sciences named after Alexander Skochinsky (the director of which he was for many years). A.A. Skochinsky's deep interest in theoretical problems was always combined with wide engineering experience. He took a special interest in mining aerology. He discovered the laws of the movement and control of the movement of air and gases underground. His works are devoted to localization, liquidation and prevention of underground fires.
Academician N.V. Melnikov is well known for his research in the field of open-cast mining not only of coal but also of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other minerals. He was engaged in the study of fuel energy resources and their utilization.
Prof. I.M. Gubkin's work embraced different fields of geology. He studied geological formations in Russia but he particularly took an interest in the oil deposits of the country and determined the stratigraphy and tectonics of oil layers.4 Gubkin was the first professor of the geology of oil deposits at the Moscow Mining Institute, of which he afterwards became the rector. He founded the Institute of Research in Petroleum of which he was the head for a long time. He gave lectures on the geology of oil deposits, creating a school of numerous pupils now engaged in studying and prospecting for oil on the territory of Russia. Gubkin directed mining operations* in the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly which led to the discovery of big deposits of iron ore at a depth of 200-300 metres from the surface.
He was elected Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In the Academy he founded the Institute of Combustible Minerals' and became its director. Prof. I.M. Gubkin took an active part in compiling geological maps of the country. He was the author of a hundred and fifty scientific works. One of his last works written before his death was Estimated Oil Reserves of the Soviet Union. I.M. Gubkin made a great contribution to the development of the science of geology.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
1 discovered and formulated the laws— открыл и сформулировал законы
2 resulting in the discovery of— врезультате которых были открыты
3 underground pressure and mine timbering— горное давление и рудничное
4 stratigraphy and tectonics of oil layers— стратиграфия и тектоника нефтяных
5 to direct mining operations— руководить горными работами
6 combustible minerals— горючие минералы
42. Найдите в каждом абзаце текста В предложение, выражающее его
43. а) Найдите в тексте факты, которые были вам уже известны.
б) Прочтите абзацы, в которых сообщается новая для вас информация.
44. Найдите в тексте предложения, точно отвечающие на следующие вопросы:
1. What did the investigations of the Kara-Kum Desert led by Fersman
2. What was discovered in the Kola Peninsula as a result of Academi
3. What method did Boky introduce into mining?
4. What is the leading organization in Russia working out theoretical
5. What problems did Melnikov pay special attention to?
6. What deposits did Gubkin take particular interest in?
7. What institute did he found?
8. How many scientific works did Gubkin write?
45. Найдите в тексте В английские эквиваленты следующих русских сочетаний
среди самых выдающихся советских геологов; чисто описательная наука; ряд научных экспедиций; обогатительная фабрика; обработка серы; следует отдать должное; предотвращение подземных пожаров; запасы энергетического топлива; охватывать (включать) различные области геологии; заниматься изучением и разведкой нефти; оценивать запасы нефти
46. Определите, какой из трех заголовков наиболее соответствует содержанию
1. Prominent Mining Scientists.
2. Prominent Geologists.
3. Russian School of Mining and Geology.