To consist (of), to be used as fuel, to be dissolved, substance, fuel, as is known, by the action of, to be formed, the Earth's crust, sedimentation

1. ,

2. ,
, .

3. ,
. .

4. .

23. ) ,
. .

) , . .

24. , .
, :

Sedimentary Rocks

mechanical chemical organic

sediments sediments sediments

the destructive the destructive the action

mechanical chemical action of the decay

action of water, of water of the remains

wind, etc.

of organisms


unconsolidated consolidated rock salt, coal, peat,

(uncemcnted) (firmly cemented) gypsum mineral oil

particles particles


sand, clay, sandstones

98_________________________________________ Unit 4

25. "Sedimentary Rocks", :

1. The characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks.

2. Sediments (mechanical, chemical, organic) and their formation.

3. The practical value of sedimentary rocks.

, , , ( ) .

Active Voice Passive Voice

The miners showedus We were shown a new

a new combine. combine.

A new combine was shown
. to us.


, : to give , to offer, to show, to tell, to teach .

We were offered

a new job. .

- .

, : to account for -., to deal with , (), to depend on (upon) , to look at , to provide for, to refer to (), to speak of (about) , to send for , to make mention of, to make provision for-

Unit 4


, to make use of, to pay attention to , to take advantage of, to take care of .

The doctor was sent for.A new method was much spoken about.

. . '

- , .

: to affect ( -., -.), to answer ( -.), to attend ( -.), to follow ( -., -.) . :

The experiment was followedby a test (of the device).

The lecture was attendedby a great number of students.



can, may, must , , , , :

The shop must be


It must be saidthat... , ...

2. many, much, few, little

many few



many workers   many mines
few miners   few buildings


much little






much coal - little coal much time little time

100______________________________________________ Unit 4

: a little a few ( ) . much : a lot (of), a great deal(oO, a great , lots of,a lot of, , , .


We didn't spent much

money. .

Have you got many ?


We spent a lot ofmoney. .

There's too muchsugar .

in my tea.

Hurry up! We've got !

littletime. .

He has very fewfriends. .

I've got a littlemoney. .

There were only a few

houses in the village. .

26. ) :

[] ex'pand, con'tract, crack, 'gravel, 'fracture

[] des'tructive, des'traction, 'substance, 'colour, re'suit

[i:] 'equal, 'reason, heat, peak, ma'rine

[e] 'desert, ac'celerate, sue'cession, 'weathering,


[] 'soluble, 'moderate, phe'nomenon [ju:] 'uniform, 'uniformly, pure, 'purely

) :

disintegration [dis,mti'greif(3)n], climate ['klaimit], fissure I'fifa], equal ['i:kwal], unequal [An'i:kwal], marine [ma'ri:n], mountain ['mauntm], mountainous ['mauntmas), phenomenon [ffnomman]

27. 1-2 ,

contain [kan'tem] v ( crack [krek] ; ; v
), ; , -

contract [kan'traekt] v ;

dust [dAst]

Unit 4



expand[iks'psend] v ); () ; expansion ; ant contract

fissure['ft/a] ( , ); ;

fracture['fnektja] ; ; ; v (); ()

freeze[frirz] v ; ;

gradual['graedjual] ; graduallyadv

bard[had] , ; ant soft; ( ); adv , ; hardlyadv ,

hole[houl] ; ; ;

influence['influans] ; v (on, upon) ( -.)


occur[':] v ; ; ; syn take place, happen; occurrence['] ; mode of occurrence

penetrate['penitreit] v (), (-.)

phenomenon[fi'nomman] ; pi phenomena

to be subjected to

pressure['prejaj ; lateral pressure () ; rock pressure ,

rate[reit] , ; , ; ; ; syn speed, velocity

refer[rffa:] v (to) ( -.); ( , )

resist[n'zist] v ; ; ; resistance[n'zistans] ; resistant[n'zistant] ; ;

size[saiz] ; ; ()

solution[sa'lu:J(a)n] ; soluble['soljubl] ; solvent['solvent] ;

succession[sak'se/(a)n] , ; in succession

undergo[.Anda'gou] (underwent, undergone) v (-.), (-.)

uniform['jurnifaim] ;

weathering['wefianrj] ; (, ..)

28. ) -nesr.

hardness, thickness, softness, effectiveness, darkness

) , - :

1. Soft rocks (mudstone, clay) are easily penetrated with a tool
and do not greatly resist the separation of a part from the mass. The
main property of such rocks is ... .

2. Hard rocks may be strong (sandstone, granite, magnetite) and
very strong (quartzite, diabase, etc.). These rocks have the highest
resistance to penetration with a tool. Their main property is ....

3. The coal seam is thick and its ... is more than three metres.

4.The modern equipment is effective.Its ...is greater than that of the old one.

Unit 4


29. . :

the contraction and expansion of rocks

the destructive action of water

the solvent action of water

under the influence of heat

fine-grained sand

at an equal rate

external and internal forces

hard conditions

the Earth's surface

mode of occurrence

the layers of oil

the destruction of rocks

lateral pressure

physical and chemical weathering

the consolidation of sediments

to be of unequal hardness

natural waters

considerable transformations

hard rocks

hardly noticeable cracks

bedded deposits


active processes; physical or mechanicalweathering; the change in temperature;different minerals;varied forms; chemical agents; complexchanges; the disintegrationof rocks; cold climate;high mountain peaks;living organisms; to acceleratethe destruction of rocks

31. ) ,

6) , . .

Weathering of Rocks

All rocks which are exposed on the Earth's surface (high mountain peaks, deserts) are decomposed to a certain degree. The process of rock disintegration by the direct influence of local atmospheric conditions on the Earth's surface is called weathering. This phenomenon is often referred to in geology because weathering is an active process. It takes place in the upper layers of the Earth's crust.

The main cause of physical weathering is the change in temperature that takes place with the succession of day and night. This phenomenon can best be observed in the deserts and high mountains where the changes in temperature are common.

During the day under the influence of heat, rocks expand whereas at night they begin to contract. As rocks are generally composed of different minerals, their expansion and contraction do not occur uniformly. As a result of this rocks crack. At the beginning

Unit 4_____________________________________________ 103

these cracks or fissures are hardly noticeable but gradually they become wider and deeper until the whole surface of rock is finally transformed into gravel, sand or dust.

In the regions of a moderate or cold climate, where the temperature in winter goes down to below 0 (zero), the decomposition of rocks is greatly facilitated by the action of water. When water freezes it increases in volume and develops enormous lateral pressure. Under the action of water, rocks decompose to pieces of varied forms and sizes.

The decomposition of rocks under the direct influence of heat and cold is called physical weathering.

Rocks are subjected not only to physical decomposition but also to chemical weathering, i.e. to the action of chemical agents, such as water, carbon dioxide and oxygen. In a general way, chemical weathering is an acid attack on the rocks of the Earth's crust, in particular an attack on the most abundant minerals quartz (sand) and aluminosilicates (clays). Only few minerals and rocks are resistant to the action of natural waters. The solvent action of water is stronger when it contains carbon dioxide. Water causes more complex and varied changes. With the participation of oxygen and carbon dioxide up to 90 per cent of rocks is transformed into soluble minerals, which are carried away by the waters.

Organisms and plants also take part in the disintegration of rocks. Certain marine organisms accelerate the destruction of rocks by making holes in them to live in. The action of plants can often be even more destructive. Their roots penetrate into the fissures of rocks and develop the lateral pressure which fractures and destroys rocks.

32. , . .

1. The process of sedimentation is called weathering.

2. The change in temperature causes physical weathering.

3. As a rule during the night rocks expand.

4. When freezing water decreases in volume and develops enor
mous lateral pressure.

5. The decomposition of rocks is due to the influence of heat and

6. As a rule water contains_dissolved mineral substances.

7. The solvent action of water is stronger when it does not con
tain carbon dioxide.

Unit 4


8. It should be noticed that the action of organisms and plants is

9. Certain marine organisms accelerate the destruction of rocks.

33. :

1. What process ia called weathering?

2. What process is called physical weathering?

3. Where can the phenomenon of physical weathering be best

4. What process is called chemical weathering?

5. What substances can act as solvents?

6. Are all minerals and rocks resistant to the action of natural
waters or only few minerals and rocks can resist the action of water?

7. How do organisms act on the destruction of rocks?

34. )

1. the Earth's surface

2. to be composed of

different minerals

3. the expansion of rocks

4. changes in temperature

5. under the influence

of heat

6. weathering

7. destructive forces

8. a great number of


9. to penetrate into fissures









) :



3. -



6. (-.)




) to facilitate the decomposition

of rocks

) to increase in volume

) to resist (smth)

r) rock pieces of varied (different) sizes

) to accelerate the process of


) to be subjected to decay

) to dissolve substances

) to develop lateral pressure
) certain organic substances

Unit 4

35. ) :

a, an, the.

this these, that those. my, his, her, its,our ..


some, any, each, every. many, much, (a) little,

(a)few, a lot of .. two

countries, the thirdplace. after, at, before, in, on, with ..

our country, the country, any country, each country, many countries, these countries, a small country, whose country, two big countries;

the discovery, after the discovery, each discovery, such discoveries, what discovery, few discoveries, a new discovery

) , , :

their study they study; the use we use; the increase they increase; coal output decrease coal output decreases; the last lectures the lectures last; this place it places; the raw material bases the country bases its economy on ...

36. , :

1. There are ... causes of weathering, but ... depends on the
change in temperature, (many, much)

2. As is known, only ... minerals and rocks are resistant to the
action of natural waters, (little, few)

3. The roots of plants developed ... pressure which did not frac
ture overlaying rocks, (little, few)

4. A new geological map of the region will appear in a ... years.
(little, few)

5. ... minerals undergo changes. They have already undergone ...
transformation, (, much)

6. Now there are ... sources of energy as important as atomic
energy, (little, few)

Unit 4


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