Of; unlike; to be of importance; pre-existing rocks; schistose structure; to determine

1. -

2. , ,

3. , , ,

4. ,

38. .

: Metamorphic rocks are mostly found in the regions of mountain belts, (where?) -> Where are meta-morphic rocks mostly found?

1. Metamorphic rocks have been developed from earlier igne
ous and sedimentary rocks, (what rocks?)

2. The constituents of gneisses are distributed in bands or layers.

3. Mica and chlorite cause the rock to split into thin sheets, (what

4. The structure of metamorphic rocks is of importance, (why?)

39. :

1. As for the origin of metamorphic rocks they ....

2. When we say that a mineral has a schistose structure it means ... .

3. It should be noted that the role of water in the formation of
metamorphic rocks is great. It is known that high-grade metamorphic
rocks are characterized by the absence of water while medium-grade
rocks... .

4. Geologists should know every trace of the original structure of
metamorphic rocks because ....

40. , :

1. The process of metamorphism. (to mean, to show, to undergo
changes, to be transformed, to call)

2. The role of water in the formation of metamorphic rocks, (to
be interdependent, to be related to, in such a way, generally speaking, to
be characterized by)

134 UnitS

3. The difference between foliated and non-foliated metamor
phic rocks, (flaky, to cause, to split into, to cleave)

4. The structure of metamorphic rocks, (to be of importance, trace,
pre-existing rocks, to give an opportunity of)

41. (8-10 ), , , , . :

as for as I know; as is known; as for; I'd like to say a few words about...; it should be noted that...; as a rule; generally speaking .

Rocks of the Earth's Crust


sedimentary rocks igneous rocks metamorphic rocks


mechanical, chemical intrusive rocks, rocks structure

and organic extrusive (volcano) |

sediments rocks water in metamorphism


Practical value of each type of rocks (metals they are rich in)

42. , . :

profit ;



cast iron

Minerals that make up rocks, are defined as inorganic substances which occur naturally and have a definite chemical composition and physical properties which vary within known limits.

The major properties are colour, crystal form, hardness, cleavage and others. Cleavage is one of the most diagnostically useful mineralogi-cal properties which can be found throughout the mineral.

Minerals of use to man can be grouped into two broad categories: 1) metals, such as aluminium, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, platinum, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc, and 2) non-metallic minerals, such as diamonds, salt, limestone, cement, sulphur, and asbestos. When minerals occur so that they can be worked at a profit they are called ore deposits. Mineral deposits are seldom equally rich throughout.

Unit 5_____________________________________________ 135

Economic minerals are those which are of economic importance and include both metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Most minerals consist of several elements. Such elements are oxygen, silicon, titanium, aluminium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and hydrogen. They make up more than 99 per cent by weight of all the rock-forming minerals. Of these, aluminium, iron and magnesium are industrial metals. The other metals are present in small quantities, mostly in igneous rocks.

For example, iron is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust. There are three important classes of iron deposits: deposits associated with igneous rocks; residual deposits and sedimentary deposits. Iron deposits associated with igneous rocks are usually small but very rich bodies either of haematite or magnetite. Large concentrations have been successfully mined in Pennsylvania (the USA) and in the Russian Federation.

Residual deposits of iron minerals are formed wherever weathering occurs. Iron deposits formed this way are very widespread. It should be stressed that the residual deposits were among the first to be exploited by man.

Sedimentary iron deposits make up most of the world's current production.

As the essential component of every variety of steel, iron is obviously the most important of all industrial metals. It has played a large part in the development of our modern civilization. Iron ores are mainly used for producing cast iron, steels and ferro-alloys. From a scientific point of view, iron's most important property is that it becomes magnetized.

The magnetic iron ore is the main wealth of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). It is necessary to say that only in the last century was the secret of the unusual magnetism of enormous iron ore masses discovered underground.

Iron fields are worked by surface mining which is more economical. But the KMA is rich not only in iron ores. Its deposits contain bauxite, phosphorite, cement, sand and clays.

43. .
, .

44. :

1. Why is cleavage the most important property of minerals?

2. How can ore deposits be defined?

136_______________________ ,______________________ Unit 5

3. What are iron ores used for?

4. What is the KMA rich in?

45. :

1. The main groups of minerals.

2. The composition of minerals.

3. The important classes of iron ore deposits.

4. Industrial importance of iron ores.

5. The characteristic feature of the KMA.

46. ,

1. Mineral Deposits.

2. The Composition of Minerals.

3. Iron Ores of Importance to Man.

47. , .
, .

48. :

New Discoveries about the "Blue Planet"

Specialists from many ground services have assessed the practical use of observations from outer space. The most effective use of the data obtained was made in the field of geology.

A look from outer space identified fundamentally new geological objects which had not been previously studied or mapped. The satellites helped establish the location of abyssal fractures stretching over hundreds and thousands of kilometres and cutting across the whole systems of folds, platforms and the ocean bed. They penetrate deep into the Earth and often act as supply canals of fusions and mineral-enriched solutions. About 20 such abyssal fractures have been identified on the territory of Russia. Successful development of space research makes it possible to survey the Earth's resources from space by satellites. Besides, the surveys by satellites give us information on other parts of the solar system. This has given rise to a new science of "geology of planets" called astrogeology. All this has greatly expanded the viewpoint of the geologist. At the present time geology, astronomy, meteorology, oceanography and geophysics are coming closer together and scientists believe that such combination of sciences must be used together to study the whole Earth.

UHIT 6Sources of Energy

A. .

(The Gerund).
A. Fossil Fuels.

. .

(The Present Participle).
. Coal and Its Classification.

B. .

. .

(The Gerund)

, . ; -ing : to read reading ; to choose choosing ; to heat heating .



They began designing

a new colliery. .

2. ,

3. of.

4. .


1 . .

138_____________________________________________ Unit 6

We know of his taking

part in the project. .

( ):

Cutting coal is perfomed -
by cutting chains. .

7. ,
: on (upon) no, ; after , before ,
at , by , , , without , instead
of .

Before entering the Mining -
Institute the students ( no-

may take a preliminary -

year's course. ) -


Many different factors are
taken into account in

choosing a prospecting -

method. .

: , . , :

By introducing powerful rotary excavators it is possible to increase the daily output of the quarry.

1. ,





3. .



Indefinite (Simple) reading being read , -, , .
Perfect baring read having been read , -.

The mine cars are emptied without being stopped.

( ).

, ( ), , . ; , ; , ; , . , ( ) :

We know of computers' , -

being used in under-

ground mining. .

1. ) :

[] 'fossil, 'solid, 'water, a'tomic, rock

[:] source, raw, form, 'former, 'faulting

[a:] 'carbon, 'charcoal, past, part

[:] re'fer, world, word, term, burn, 'purpose

[ae] 'natural, 'sandstone, 'category, 'absence, 'latter

[ei] a'vailable, 'gaseous, shale, main, de'cay, clay

Unit 6

[] coke, a 'go, 'folding, most [] air, 'area, 'vary, 'various

6) :

ancient ['em/ant], conglomerate [kan'gbmant], dolomite ['dolamait], gaseous ['geizjas], gases ['gaesrz], group [gru:p], hydrogen ['haidradsan], methane ['], nitrogen oxygen [ Dksidsan], sulphur

2. 1-2 , .

accumulate[a'kju:mjuleit] v ;

ancient['em/ant]' , ; ant modern

associate[a'soujleit] v , , ; syn connect, link

barn[be:n] (burnt[bs:nt]) v ; ;

charcoal[4Jd:koul] n

convenient[kan'vi:nJ9iit] ,

crude[kro:d] ,

dig [dig] (dng[dAg]) v ; ; digger ;

divide[di'vaid] v ; (from) ;

evidence['evidans] ; ; -()

fossO['ibsfl] , ; ( );

heat[hi:t] v ;

liquid['likwid] ; ; ant solid

manufacture[,mnju: 'fekt/] v , ; syn produce


purpose[ppa:pas] ; ; syn aim, goal


the former ... the latter ( ) ( )

3. :

to be composed of ancient rocks shale and limestone

the equipment available for scientific observations

fossil fuel

solid fuel

crude oil

abundant in mudstone and limestone

small amounts of charcoal and rocke

dressing (concentration) plants

mine safety

liquid fuel

manufactured fuel

any direct evidence of the deposit

carbon-containing substances

plant products

peat accumulation

sources of fuel

Unit 6_____________________________________________ 141


natural gas; atomic energy; geologicpast; the two main groupsof rocks; the different categoriesof solid fuels; the basisof practically all naturalfuels; the small amount of other elements;to be associatedwith water and gas; poroussedimentary rocks; geological formations;the most efficientfuel and raw materials; gaseousfuel; high thermalefficiency; to be derived from petroleum

5. ,

Fossil Fuels

The chief sources of energy available to man today are oil, natural gas, coal, water power and atomic energy. Coal, gas and oil represent energy that has been concentrated by the decay of organic materials (plants and animals) accumulated in the geologic past. These fuels-are often referred to as fossil fuels.

The word fossil (derived from the Latin fodere "to dig up") originally referred to anything that was dug from the ground, particularly a mineral. Today the term fossil generally means any direct evidence of past life, for example, the footprints of ancient animals. Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks, although sometimes they may be found in igneous and metamorphic rocks as well. They are most abundant in mudstone, shale and limestone, but fossils are also found in sandstone, dolomite and conglomerate.

Most fuels are carbon-containing substances that are burned in air. In burning fuels give off heat which is used for different purposes.

Fuels may be solid, liquid and gaseous. Solid fuels may be divided into two main groups, natural and manufactured. The former category includes coal, wood, peat and other plant products. The latter category includes coke and charcoal obtained by heating coal in the absence of air.

Liquid fuels are derived almost from petroleum. In general, natural petroleum, or crude oil, as it is widely known, is the basis of practically all industrial fuels. Petroleum is a mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon together with the small amount of other elements such as sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. Petroleum is usually associated with

142_____________________________________________ Unit 6

water and natural gas. It is found in porous sedimentary rocks where the geological formation allowed the oil to collect from a wide area. Petroleum is one of the most efficient fuels and raw materials.

Of gaseous fuels the most important are those derived from natural gas, chiefly methane or petroleum. Using gaseous fuels makes it possible to obtain high thermal efficiency, ease of distribution and control. Gas is the most economical and convenient type of fuels. Today gas is widely utilized in the home and as a raw material for producing synthetics.

Scientists consider that a most promising source of natural resources may be the floor of the sea, a subject which now has become an important field of research.

Generally speaking, all types of fossil fuels described in the text are of great economic importance as they represent the sources of energy the man uses today.

6. , . .

1. Coal, water power and atomic energy are the only sources of
energy available to man today.

2. Coal, wood and peat represent natural group of solid fuels.

3. As a rule fossil fuels are found in sedimentary rocks.

4. Crude oil is widely used for producing solid fuels.

5. Petroleum can be found in porous sedimentary rocks.

6. Gas is used to produce synthetic materials.

7. Not all types of fossil fuels burn.

7. :

1. What fuels are often referred to as fossil fuels?

2. What does the word fossil mean?

3. What rocks are most abundant hi fossil fuels?

4. What types of fossil fuels do you know?

5. Is coke a natural or manufactured solid fuel? And what can
you say about coal and peat?

6. How are coke and charcoal produced?

7. What rocks is petroleum usually associated with?

8. What are the advantages of gaseous fuels?

Unit6 _ 143

8. ) !

1. fossil fUel )

2. raw material )

3. crude oil )

4. the chief sources of energy )

5. to refer to )

6. any direct or indirect e) ,
evidence of the deposit )

7. shale and limestone )

8. carbon-containing materials

9. wood and peat ) ()

10. the small amount of mudstonet ) (-.);


) .

1. a) to collect data

2. ) charcoal and coke

3. ) to be composed of limestones

4. ) liquid fuel

5. ) to accumulate

6. ') to derive from

7. ) to obtain good result

8. ) abundant in oil shales

9. , .

1. Mineral fuels such as oil, oil shale, gas and coal are com
monly called fossilfuels.

2. These fossilsare organic materials accumulated in the geologic

3. As a rule oil depositsare usually associated with water and
natural gas.

4. Salt depositsform folds in which petroleum can be found.

5. Liquidis one of the states of matter.

6. Liquidfuels are derived from petroleum.

7. Coke manufacturedepends on certain () grades
of coal.

8. Chemical plants manufacturesynthetic materials from natural

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