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Прочитайте следующие слова и сочетания слов 1-2 раза про себя, затем вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их.


bench[bentfl л слой, пачка (пласта)

blend[blend] v смешивать(ся); вклинивать(ся)

combustion[kam'bASt/эп] п го­рение, сгорание; spontaneous combustionсамовоспламене­ние, самовозгорание

continuity[Jcontrnju(:)itl] n не­прерывность, неразрывность

domestic[da'mestik] а внутрен­ний; отечественный

estimate['estimelt] v оценивать; ['estimit] n оценка; смета

butt[fo:lt] n разлом, сдвиг (по­роды); сброс; faultingn об­разование разрывов или сбросов


fold[fould] я изгиб, складка, флексура; fouldlngя склад­чатость, смешение (пласта) без разрыва

inflame[m'fleim] v воспламе­няться; загорать(ся); Inflam­mable[m'flcmabl] а воспла­меняющийся, горючий, ог­неопасный; flame[fleim] я пламя

intermediate[.inta'miidjst] a промежуточный; вспомога­тельный

liable['lalabl] a (to) подвержен­ный; подлежащий (чему-л.)

lustre[ 'lASta] л блеск (угля, ме­талла); lustrousа блестящий



Unit 6


 


 


matter['met»] л вещество; ма­терия

moisture['moist/a] л влажность, сырость; влага

parting['pa:tirj] л прослоек

plane[plein] л плоскость; bed­ding planeплоскость наплас­тования

rank[raerjk] л класс, тип; coal rankгруппа угля, тип угля

regular['refljula] а правильный; непрерывный; ant Irregularнеправильный; неравномер­ный; regularityл непрерыв­ность; правильность

similar['simlla] а похожий, сходный; подобный; syn alike, the same as


smelt[smelt] v плавить (руду); выплавлять (металл)

store[sto:] v запасать, хранить на складе; вмещать

strata['strata] я pi от stratumпласты породы; свита (плас­тов); формация, напластова­ния породы; syn measures

thickness['вОспй] я мощность (пласта, жилы)

uniform['ju:nnb:m] а однород­ный; равномерный; unifor­mityл однородность; едино­образие

utilize['ju:tllaiz] v использо­вать; syn use, apply, employ

volatile['volatail] а летучий, быстро испаряющийся


23. а) Перейдите следующие существительные, образованные с по­
мощью суффикса -йу от прилагательных:

irregularity, similarity, uniformity

б) Заполните пропуски существительными, образовавший от выде­ленных прилагательных:

1. As a rule coal beds are uniform. They are characterized by the
same ... and continuity as other strata of sedimentary origin.

2. Although coal is not a true mineral, its formation processes are
similar to those of sedimentary rocks. In this case we can speak
about their ....

3. According to their shape mineral deposits can be classified as
regular or irregular. Regular deposits include seams and veins while
irregular deposits include stocks. Coal belongs to regular deposits but
it is characterized by ... in thickness.

Переведите слом с префиксом

subgroup, subdivision, subsection, subcommittee, substation

25. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов и переведите их:


liable to spontaneous combustion the most abundant deposits ash and sulphur content coking and non-coking qualities high-rank or low-rank coal as many as 72 elements different bands or benches

of various thickness domestic fuel


inflammable gas

lustrous metal

brilliant lustre

iron ore smelting

intermediate substance

coal beds

thin layers of clay and shale

folding and faulting

low-volatile bituminous coals


Unit 6



26. Определите значения выделенных слов по сходству их корней с
корнями соответствующих слов k русском языке:

coal formation processes; parallelplanes; structurallydisturbed beds of coal; coal classification; ligniteand brown coals; bituminouscoal; anthraciteor "hard" coal; gasificationand cat-bonification; domestic and industrialpurposes of using coal; in briquettedform; to be used intensively;to produce a mixture;researches into new technologies;petrochemical processes

27. Прочитайте текст Б и скажите, какие угли имеют наиболее важное
экономическое значение.

ТЕКСТ Б

Coal and Its Classification

Coal is the product of vegetable matter that has been formed by the action of decay, weathering, the effects of pressure, temperature and time millions of years ago.

Although coal is not a true mineral, its formation processes are similar to those of sedimentary rocks.

Structurally coal beds are geological strata characterized by the same irregularities in thickness, uniformity and continuity as other strata of sedimentary origin. Coal beds may consist of essentially uniform continuous strata or like other sedimentary deposits may be made up of different bands or benches of varying thickness.

Rack

^----------- t

**i» r*m f*? ~i*f~ ~^~^r nSW&nM


Fig. 3. Seam of coal


Fig. 4. Complex seam


152_____________________________________________ Unit 6

Thus, in Fig. 3 one can see a seam limited by two more or less parallel planes, a shape which is typical of sedimentary rocks.

The benches may be separated by thin layers of clay, shale, pyrite or other mineral matter, commonly called partings (Fig. 4).

Like other sedimentary rocks coal beds may be structurally dis­turbed by folding and faulting.

According to the amount of carbon coals are classified into: brown coals, bituminous coals and anthracite. Brown coals are in their turn subdivided into lignite and common brown coal.

Although carbon is the most important element in coal, as many as 72 elements have been found in some coal deposits, in­cluding lithium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, tungsten and others.

Lignite is intermediate in properties between peat and bitumi nous coal, containing when dry about 60 to 75 per cent of carbon and a variable proportion of ash. Lignite is a low-rank brown-to-black coal containing 30 to 40 per cent of moisture. Developing heat it gives from 2,500 to 4,500 calories. It is easily inflammable but burns with a smoky flame. Lignite is liable to spontaneous combustion. It has been estimated that about 50 per cent of the world's total coal reserves are lignitic.

Brown coal is harder than lignite, containing from 60 to 65 per cent of carbon and developing greater heat than lignite (4,000-7,000 calories). It is very combustible and gives a brown powder. Bituminous coal is the most abundant variety, varying from medium to high rank. It is a soft, black, usually banded coal. It gives a black powder and contains 75 to 90 per cent of carbon. It weathers only slightly and may be kept in open piles with little danger of spontaneous combustion if properly stored. Medium-to-low volatile bituminous coals may be of coking quality. Coal is used intensively in blast furnaces for smelting iron ore. There are non-coking varieties of coal.

As for the thickness, the beds of this kind of coal are not very thick (1-1.5 metres). The great quantities of bituminous coal are found in the Russian Federation.

Anthracite or "hard" coal has a brilliant -lustre containing more than 90 per cent of carbon and low percentage-fit volatile matter. It is used primarily as a domestic fuel, although it can sometimes be blended with bituminous grades of coal to produce a mixture with improved coking qualities. The largest beds of anthracite are found in Russia, the USA and Great Britain.


Unit 6______________________________________________ 153

Coal is still of great importance for the development of mod­ern industry. It may be used for domestic and industrial purposes. Being the main source of coke, coal is widely used in the iron and steel industry. Lignite, for example either in the raw state or in briquetted form, is a source of industrial carbon and industrial gases.

There is a strong tendency now for increased research into new technologies to utilize coal. No doubt, coal will be used as a raw material for the chemical industry and petrochemical processes. All these processes involve coal conversion which include gasification designed to produce synthetic gas from coal as the basis for hydrogen manufacture, liquefaction (разжижение) for making liquid fuel from coal and other processes.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

28. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста.
Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.

1. Anthracite coals may be divided into lignite and common
brown coal.

2. Coals are ranked according to the percentage of carbon they
contain.

3. Peat, with the least amount of carbon is the lowest rank, then
comes lignite or brown coal.

4. Brown coal is hard and it is not liable to spontaneous combus­
tion.

5. Bituminous coal weathers rapidly and one cannot keep it in
open piles.

6. Being intensively used in the Iron and steel industry bitumi­
nous coal varies from medium to high rank.

7. Anthracite or hard coal, the highest in percentage of carbon,
can be blended with bituminous grades of coal.

29. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the classification of coal based on?

2. Is carbon the only element in coal? (Prove it.)

3. Is lignite intermediate in properties between peat and bitumi­
nous coal?

4. What heat value does lignite develop when burnt?

5. What coals are liable to spontaneous combustion?

6. What is the difference between lignite and brown coal?

7. Is bituminous coal high- or low-volatile?


154_____________________________________________ Unit 6

8. Does anthracite contain 90 per cent of carbon?

9. Where are the largest deposits of anthracite found? And what
can you say about bituminous coal?

10. What do you know about the utilization of coal?

30. а) Найдите в правой колоне русские эквиваленты следующих слов и
сочетаний слов:

1. spontaneous combustion, а) легковоспламеняющийся газ

2. moisture and ash content 6) высокосортный уголь

3. the most abundant variety в) плавить железную руду
of coal г) самовозгорание

4. in its turn д) содержание влаги и золы

5. the amount of volatile matter e) дымное пламя

6. easily inflammable gas. ж) наиболее широко распростра-

7. brilliant lustre ненные угли

8. to smelt iron ore з) яркий блеск

9. high-rank coal и) в свою очередь

10. a smoky flame к) количество летучих веществ

6) Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих слов н сочетаний слов:

1. тип угля a) heat value

2. некоксующийся уголь б) amount of caibon

3. доменная печь в) coal rank

4. содержание углерода г) to store coal

5. смешиваться с другими углями д) to weather rapidly

6. улучшенного качества е) non-coking coal

7. складировать уголь ж) blast furnace

8. теплотворная способность з) of improved quality

9. быстро выветриваться и) to blend with other coals

31. Подберите соответствующие словарные определении дли названий
разных видов топлива:

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