To my mind; In my opinion; on the contrary; I'd like to say a few words about; it seems to be wrong; it is quite obvious that; as for; as I know

1. Lignite is a high-rank coal, containing about 90 per cent of
carbon. It is slightly liable to spontaneous combustion.

2. Bituminous coals cannot be stored in open piles. These coals
are primarily used for domestic purposes.

3. Anthracites are soft coals being used mainly for metallurgical
purposes. In future coal will be used only for domestic purposes.

37. ,

coal ranks; carbon and volatile matter content; moisture content; heat effect; liability to spontaneous combustion; coking quality; the use of different types of coal in industry

38. :

Different types of coals and their comparison with each other (for example, lignite and anthracite or anthracite and brown coal, etc.), their carbon content, heat value, liability to spontaneous combustion and the use of each grade of coal.

Unlt6______________________________________________ 157

39. , (. 3 4). :

1. What do Figures 3 and 4 show?

2. What figure shows the seam which consists only of coal

3. Is the coal seam (Fig. 3) horizontal or inclined?

4. Is the shape of the seam typical of igneous rocks or sedimen
tary rocks? What do you know about the structure of sedimentary

5. Can you explain why the coal seam shown in Fig. 4 is called
complex? What does the seam consist of?

6. What mineral substances may separate coal beds? What do we
call them?

7. What is thicker, coal bands or rock partings?

40. -.

l.For along time coal has been the principal fuel, the main source of thermal and electric energy. Now it continues to play an important part in the economy.

2. Coal is the product of vegetable matter that has been formed
from the remains of plants and animals accumulated in swamp areas
millions of years ago. Although some coals were deposited
4,000,000,000 years ago during the Silurian period, most coals were
formed during the Upper and Lower Carboniferous geological
epochs about 250,000,000 years ago.

3. Coal formation processes are similar to those of sedimentary
rocks. Various coal seams can be studied and related geologically to
the sedimentary rocks with which they are associated. Coal contains
varying amounts of carbon and volatile material as well as impurities
such as sulphur, phosphorus, incombustible rock material and

4. The physical characteristics of coal concern the structural
aspects of the coal bed and texture. Structurally coal beds are charac
terized by the same irregularities in thickness, uniformity and
continuity as other strata of sedimentary origin. Thickness varies
greatly. Coal beds may consist of essentially uniform continuous

158_____________________________________________ Unit 6

strata or like other sedimentary deposits may be made up of bands or benches of varying thickness. The benches may be separated by thin layers of clay, shale, pyrite or other mineral matter, commonly called partings. Like other sedimentary rocks coal beds may be structurally disturbed by folding and faulting.

5. Many classifications of coal have been suggested: by geologic
age, coking properties, commercial application and chemical

6. There exist four main types of coal: anthracite, bituminous,
subbituminous, lignite and brown coal. When speaking about the
classification of coal based on its nature as rock mineral, scientists
distinguish () the following rock varieties or lithotypes
such as vitrain, clarain, durain and fiisain. These are the four
constituents ( ) of coal.

7. Although the utilization of coal varies widely with rank, three
general fields of coal utilization may be distinguished. They are
combustion (domestic, industrial, railroads and public utilization),
gasification and carbonification (high-temperature coke for
metallurgical uses and low-temperature coke for producing smokeless

41. ) ,

6) , .

42. , :

1. What has coal been formed from?

2. What rocks can coal be related to?

3. What does coal contain?

4. What is the structural characteristic of coal?

5. What factors can the classification of coal be based on?

6. What is the role of coal in the national economy of Russia?

43. ,

1. The Origin of Coal.

2. The Classification of Coal.

3. Coal as Fossil Fuel.

4. Coal and Its Industrial Application.

44. , .

Unit 6______________________________________________ 159



hearth[ha:6] to cope with ...

bunker smoke

soot share ,

revival reinforce ,


Energy in the UK: Changing Demands

Coal was the dominant form of energy used in the UK for over a century. Coal was plentiful and cheap. It has a variety of uses:

fuel for steam engines,

fuel for homes, factories and offices,

the production of gas,

the production of chemicals.

British homes were designed to cope with coal. Near the back door would be the coal bunker. There were open hearths on which coal and wood fires were burnt.

Open coal fires look very attractive, but they have many problems. Coal is dirty, heavy and difficult to use. Rooms can fill with smoke when a door is opened. When the fire is finished, soot and ash are left.

Alternative forms of energy have become widely available in the UK since the 1960s. Oil, gas and electricity provide most of the country's energy. It is not all bad news for coal, however, because it is still the most important fuel used to generate electricity. New cleaner methods of using coal to heat houses have been developed.

Oil, gas and electricity are much cleaner and easier to use than coal. The price of the different forms of energy is also an important factor:

During the 1960s oil and gas became cheaper while the price
of coal rose. Demand for coal fell dramatically.

In 1973/74 the Oil Crisis made oil much more expensive. Gas
and coal were cheaper. Gas took a larger share of the energy market
as the North Sea gasfields were developed. There was even a revival
in the use of coal. This was reinforced by the great oil price
increases of 1979/80.

Unit 6

' In 1986 oil became much cheaper. Demand for coal fell again.

Price and ease of use have been the major factors affecting the changing energy demand in the UK in the last forty years. In the future the exhaustion of energy sources will become important. The world's oil supplies may not last more than another forty years. Much of the world's oil and gas is located in areas which have suffered conflict, such as the Middle East. Supplies may be cut off from the UK for political reasons, as they were, briefly, during 1956 and 1973. Home energy source, of which coal is the largest, will then become more important for the UK again.

Past experience shows that there are no certainties in demand for energy within the UK. The future may hold many changes.

, , - .


Asking far opinion
one person To a group of people
What are your views on ...? What are your feelings about ...? What do you think about ...? What's your opinion about that? Any reaction to that? Has anybody strong feelings about (views on) that? What's the general view or feeling about that? Has anybody any comments to make?
Giving opinion
Strong Neutral Tentative
I'm sure that ... I'm convinced that ... I feel quite .sure that ... It's perfectly clear to me that ... I think (believe) that ... As I see it ... From a financial point of view ... The way I see it is that ... It seems to me that ... I'm inclined to think that ... My inclination would be to ...

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