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Распределите роли и примите участие в телевизионной дискуссии «Энергия и жизнь».

ANNOUNCER: Good evening! Dear guests, welcome to our TV studio. Listen and see our program "For Those Who Think". Life and energy is our problem.

The world's energy resources are limited. Nobody knows exactly how much fuel is left. Of course, we have to do something and do it as soon as possible.


Unit 6______________________________________________ 161

I'd like to welcome our first guest, Professor Oleg Petrov.

PROFESSOR OLEG PETROV: Well, we are in energy crisis and we'll have to do something quickly. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) are rapidly running out. The tragedy is that fossil fuels are too valuable to waste on the production of electricity. I think that nuclear power is the only real alternative. We are getting some electricity from nuclear power already. There has been a lot of pro­test against nuclear power. But nuclear power-stations will not be as dangerous as some people say if safety regulations in power-stations are very strict.

ANNOUNCER: Thank you, Professor. Our next guest is a member of the campaign against nuclear energy, Mr. Dymov.

MR. DYMOV: Right. I must disagree totally with Professor Petrov. Let's look at the facts. In the case of an accident huge areas are evacuated, and they remain contaminated with radioactivity for years. Radioactivity causes cancer and may affect future gen­erations.

Next, nuclear waste. There is no technology for absolutely safe disposal. Some of this waste will remain active for thousands of years. Is that what you want to leave to your children? And their children's children?

I consider that nuclear energy is expensive, dangerous, and evil, and most of all, absolutely unnecessary.

But Dr. Krimova will be saying more about the problem.

ANNOUNCER: Thank you, Mr. Dymov. Now I'm very pleased to welcome Dr. Krimova, our final speaker. She is the author of several books on alternative technology.

DR. KRIMOVA: Hello! I'd like to begin by agreeing with Mr. Dymov. We can develop alternative sources of power. Instead of burning fossil fuels we should be concentrating on more economic uses of electricity. Electricity can be produced from any source of energy. You can save more by conservation than you can produce for the same money. Unless we do research on solar energy, wind power, wave power, tidal power, etc., our fossil fuels will run out, and we'll all freeze or starve to death. We have to spend much more on research, and don't forget that energy from the sun, the waves and the wind lasts forever. We really won't survive unless we start working on cleaner, safer sources of energy.

ANNOUNCER: Thank you very much, Dr. Krimova. Now we are opening the discussion.

 


162_____________________________________________ Unit 6

На обсуждение выносятся следующие вопросы:

1. What are the problems with coal as a domestic fuel?

2. What are the advantages of oil and gas over coal?

3. Which energy source increased most between 1973 and 1986
in the UK?

4. Which eneigy source decreased most between 1973-1986 in the UK?

 

5. Is nuclear power the only alternative to fossil fuels for the
production of electricity?

6. Is nuclear energy dangerous and unnecessary?

7. How can people develop alternative sources of energy and
which ones?

Фразы для ведущего:

Right, let's get started.

Perhaps, you'd like to start, Ann.

Just a minute, Peter, let Ami finish what she was saying.

We'll come to your point later.

Perhaps, you'd like to explain/tell us ...

Let's move on ...

Слом • выряжены для участников:

Let's look at the facts I mean

I consider that listen to the other speakers

By the way after all

With treat Interest some of the estimates

To rely ob (the fossil fuels, oil, coal) world energy reserves

Look to the future new research

To spend money on conservation of present resources

New forms of power to be fairly optimistic

Л теперь выбирайте ведущего и начинайте дискуссию, руководствуясь вопросами, вынесенными на обсуждение, статьей, фразами, приведенными после статьи и на с. 158, а главное, вашей эрудицией в конкретными зна­ниями по обсуждаемой проблеме. Желаем успеха!


UNIT 7Prospecting and Exploration

А. Грамматика.

1. Сравнение функций причастия и герундия
(повторение).

2. Инфинитив (The Infinitive) и его функции в
предложении.

Текст A. Prospecting.


Б. Грамматика. Текст Б.


Инфинитивные обороты. Exploration of Mineral Deposits.


В. Текст 3

Кроссворд (Crossword). Интервью с проф. Нортоном.

ГРАММАТИКА

Сравнение функций причастия и герундия

(повторение)

Сравнительная таблица функций причастия и герундия

 

Функция Герундий Причастие I
Подлежащее Driving a car is his hobby.
Именная часть сказуемого His hobby is driving a car.
Часть глагольного сказуемого (Con­tinuous)   He is driving too fast.
Дополнение He enjoys driving.
Определение I don't like his plan of driving to the country. The man driving a car is our manager.
Обстоятельство After driving almost the whole day he felt very tired. (When/While) driving a car one must be very attentive.

Инфинитив (The Infinitive) и его функции в предложении

Инфинитив— это неличная форма глагола, которая называет действие: towork работать, to drillсверлить, бурить и др.



Unit 7


Формальным признаком инфинитива в английском языке яв­ляется частица to.После модальных и вспомогательных глаголов частица toперед инфинитивом отсутствует.

Инфинитив имеет следующие формы:


 

  Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to apply to be applying to have applied to пате been applying to be applied to hare been applied

Особое внимание следует обратить на инфинитив в страдатель­ном залоге (Infinitive Passive), который очень часто встречается в технических текстах. Сравните:

Инженер хочет помочь рабочим. Инженер хочет, чтобы ему помогли.

The engineer wants to helpthe workers. (Active)

The engineer wants to be helped.(Passive)

Функции ННфИНИТИВА


Функция


Пример


Перевод


 


1. Подлежащее (обычно перед таким инфини­тивом ставят it)

2. Дополнение

3. Определение

4. Обстоятельство цели или следствия

5. Часть сложного до­полнения

6. Часть сложного под­лежащего


То lean out of the win­dow is dangerous, (обычно: It is danger­ous to lean out of the

window.)

We decided to wait for her.

Her wish to win was quite natural.

Is there much work to do/ to be done today?

I went to London to learn English.

He left home, never to be icen again.

I heard someone open

the door. I'd like you to find him a

job.

She is known to have a fine collection of paint-


Высовывать голову в окно (поезда) опасно.

Мы решили подождать ее.

Ее желание выиграть было вполне естест­венным.

Сегодня много работы, которую нужно вы­полнить?

Я поехал в Лондон, чтобы изучить анг­лийский язык.

Он оставил дом, и ни­кто не видел его снова.

Я слышал(а), как кто-то

открыл дверь. Я хотел(а) бы, чтобы вы

нашли ему работу.

Известно, что она вла­деет прекрасной кол-лекцией живописи.


Unit 7



ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Прочитайте вслух следующие слова:

[i] — 'mineral, 'different, 'difference, 'fissure, dis'tinctive

[i:] — 'region, need, seam, piece, re'lief, ga'lena

[o] — 'quality, 'quantity, 'copper, rock, crop

[o:] — call, ore, small, ex'plore, 'forecast

[ae] — ex'tract, sand, 'gravel, 'valuable, map, lo'cality

[л] — 'country, such, e'nough, 'lustre, 'lustrous, oc'currence

[ei] — stage, 'data, 'nature, grey, 'mainly, ex'plain, a'vailable

[ou] — float, stone, gold, ex'pose, 'opening

2. Прочитайте следующие слова и сочетания слов 1-2 раза про себя,
затем вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их.


aerial['serial] а воздушный; над­земный

certain[*sa:tn] а определенный; некоторый; certainlyadv конеч­но

cost[kost] (cost) v стоить; п цена; стоимость

crop[кгэр] v (out) обнажать(ся), выходить на поверхность (о пласте, породе); syn expose;за­севать, собирать урожай

dredging['dredsHj] л выемка грун­та; драгирование

drill[drtl] v бурить, сверлить; л бурение, сверление; бурильный молоток; drillingя бурение, сверление; core-drillingколон­ковое (керновое) бурение

drive[diaiv] (drore[drouv], driven['dnvn]) v проходить (горизон­тальную выработку); приводить в движение; управлять (маши­ной); п горизонтальная выра­ботка; привод; передача

evidence['evid(a)ns] л основание; признак(и); свидетельства

expect[Iks'pekt] v ожидать; рас­считывать; думать; предлагать

explore[tics'plo:] v разведывать месторождение полезного ис­копаемого с попутной добы­чей; exploratoryа разведочный; explorationл детальная развед­ка; разведочные горные работы


по месторождению

galena[дэ'11:пэ] л галенит, свин­цовый блеск

indicate['mdikeit] v указывать, показывать; служить призна­ком; означать

lead[led] л свинец

look for['luk Тэ:] v искать

open up['oupn 'лр] v вскрывать (месторождение); нарезать (но­вую лаву, забой); openingп горная выработка; подготови­тельная выработка; вскрытие месторождения

panning['penirj] л промывка (зо­лотоносного песка в лотке)

processing['prousesuj] я обработ­ка; - industryобрабатывающая промышленность

prove[pru:v] v разведывать (ха­рактер месторождения или за­легания); доказывать; испыты­вать, пробовать; provedа раз­веданный, достоверный; prov­ingл опробование, предвари­тельная разведка

search[sa:tj] v исследовать; (for) искать (месторождение); п по­иск; syn prospecting

sign[sain] л знак, символ; при­знак, примета

store[sto:] v хранить, накапливать (о запасах)



Unit 7


для разработки, рабочий (о пласте); рентабельный; workingп разработка, горная выработка

work[wa:k] v работать; вынимать, извлекать (уголь, руду); выра­батывать; workableа подходя­щий для работы, пригодный

country rockкоренная (основная) порода distinctive propertiesотличительные свойства malleable['mseliabl] metalковкий металл


какой частью речи являются следующие слова.

3. Определите, Переведете их:

explore

indicate

prospect

survey

differ

occur

lustre

scientist

consider

investigate


explorer

indicator

prospector

surveyor

different

occurrence

lustrous

scientific

considerable

investigator


exploration

indication

prospecting

surveying

difference

occurring

science

consideration

investigation


4. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов. Переведите их:


aerial survey

ground methods of prospecting

visible evidence of mineral deposits

search for valuable minerals

exploratory workings

mode of occurrence

a preliminary estimation of the deposit

lustrous coal

to touch upon a problem

to solve a problem


geological exploration

accurate data

exploration equipment

certain ore deposits

a particular type of ground

gold dredging

space research

to crop out at the surface

to cope with a problem

to deal with a problem


5. Определите значения выделенных слов по сходству их корней с
корнями соответствующих слов в русском языке. Переведите их:

the problemsof searching for economicallyuseful mineralde­posits; visible evidence of mineralization;various distinctive physicalproperties of valuable minerals; topographical relief; geochemical methodsof prospecting; areas of increased concentrationof particular elements; the biological (hydrochemical, geobotanical) methodsof prospecting; aerial magnetic and gammasurveys; geological interpretationof the data; the typeof country rock; the processof mountain formation;aerial photography

6. Прочитайте текст А. Скажите, что должно быть в центре внимания
геолога при разведке новых месторождений.


Unit 7______________________________________________ 167

ТЕКСТА Prospecting

Mining activities include prospecting and exploration for a mineral deposit through finding, proving, developing, extracting and processing the ore. That is why it is possible to divide the min­ing activity into three major phases: 1) before mining which in­volves prospecting and exploration required to locate, characterize and prove a potential ore body; 2) mining which refers to actual coal or ore extraction. Extraction processes include underground or surface mining and dredging; 3) after mining which involves processing and preparing the raw ore for the end product.

As has already been said, before a mineral deposit can be worked, that is, before it can be extracted from the Earth for use by man, it must first be found. The search for economically useful mineral deposits is called prospecting. To establish the quality and quantity of a mineral deposit, the type of country rock, etc. means to prove it and this process is called proving. Prospecting and proving are only two different stages of mining geological exploration, the latter includes drilling and driving of openings.

Last century prospectors looked for visible evidence of mineral­ization on the surface of the Earth. To recognize valuable minerals it was necessary to know their various distinctive physical properties. For example, gold occurs in nature as a heavy malleable yellow metal. -Galena, the most important mineral containing lead, is dark grey, heavy and lustrous. The first ores of iron to be mined were deposits of magnetite, a black heavy mineral capable of attracting a piece of iron.

As the deposits of mineral that cropped out at the surface were mined, the search for additional supplies of minerals took place. The science of geology was used to explain the occurrence of ore deposits.

The aim of geological prospecting is to provide information on a preliminary estimation of the deposit and the costs of the geologi­cal investigations to be made. It also indicates whether it is available to continue the exploration or not.

Prospecting work includes three stages: 1) finding signs of the mineral; 2) finding the deposit; 3) exploring the deposit.

General indications of the possibility of exposing this or that mineral in a locality can be obtained by studying its general topo­graphical relief, the type of ground and its general natural condi­tions. Thus, in mountainous regions where fissures were formed


168______________________________________________ Unit 7

during the process of mountain formation, ore minerals could be expected in the fissure fillings. In hilly regions, sedimentary depos­its would be expected.

Certain deposits are found only in a particular type of ground. Coal seams, for example, are found in sedimentary formations mainly consisting of sandstones and shales. Veins, on the other hand, are found in crystalline (igneous) rocks, and the type of country rock usually determines the type of minerals.

At present, prospecting methods to be used are as follows:

1. Surface geological and mineralogical prospecting such as panning.

2. Geophysical, geochemical, geobotanical prospecting.

3. Aerial photography with geological interpretation of the data to
be obtained is highly effective from aircraft or helicopter. Besides,
successful development of space research has made it possible to
explore the Earth's resources from space by satellites.

In modern prospecting the methods mentioned above are used together with the study of geological maps.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

7. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста. Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.

1. The search for economically useful mineral deposits is
called proving.

2. Last century prospectors looked for visible evidence of min­
eral deposits.

3. The first ores of iron to be mined were deposits of galena.

4. The science of geology can explain the mode of occurrence of
ore deposits.

5. As a rule prospecting includes four stages.

6. The study of general topographical relief and the type. of
ground makes it possible to expose this or that deposit.

7. Geologists know that certain deposits are only found in a
particular type of ground.

8. As is known, veins are found in metamorphic rocks.

8. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is prospecting?

2. What is proving?

3. How did prospectors find mineral deposits in the 19th century?

4. Does gold occur in nature as a heavy malleable yellow metal
or as a heavy dark-grey one?


Unit 7_____________________________________________ 169

5. What metal is capable of attracting a piece of iron?

6. What does prospecting work provide?

7. What are the three main stages of prospecting?

8. Is it enough to know only the topographical relief of a locality
for exposing this or that mineral?

9. What methods of prospecting do you know?

10. What are the most effective aerial methods of prospecting
now?

9. а) Найдите • правой колонке русские эквиваленты следующих слов и сочетаний слов:

1. country rock а) залегание рудных месторождений

2. panning б) блестящий металл

3. the search for commercially в) коренная (основная) порода
useful deposits г) дополнительные запасы минералов

4. geological exploration д) промывка (золотоносного песка

5. to look for evidence of miner- в лотке)

alization e) геологическая разведка

6. distinctive properties (с попутной добычей)

7. lustrous metal ж) искать доказательства наличия

8. capable of attracting a piece месторождения

of iron з) отличительные свойства

9. additional supplies of и) поиски экономически полезных
minerals месторождений

10. the occurrence of ore deposits к) способный притягивать кусок

металла

б) Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих слов и сочетаний слов:

1. стоимость геологических иссле- a) the data obtained

дований б) galena, sandstones and

2. выходить на поверхность (обна- shales

жаться) в) the cost of geological

3. произвести предварительную investigations

оценку (месторождения) г) to crop out

4. визуальные наблюдения с воздуха д) certain ore deposits

5. полученные данные e) to make a preliminary

6. галенит, песчаники и сланцы estimation (of a deposit)

7. общие показания ж) visual aerial observations

8. находить признаки месторождения з) to find the signs of a deposit

9. определенные рудные месторождения и) general indications

10. Подберите из списка А и Б близкие по значению слова:

А. Б.

1. improve a) alike

2. supply б) seam

3. purpose в) get, receive

4. various г) of course

5. similar д) look for

6. manufacture e) aim


170_____________________________________________ Unit 7

7. obtain ж) make better

8. search з) produce

9. bed и) different

 

10. size к) provide

11. certainly л) dimension

11. Определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слом.
Переведите предложения:

1. The search for primary gold deposits can be made by
metallometric methods of prospecting.

2. The main aim of geological prospecting is to search for eco­
nomically useful deposits.

3. Geologists study geological prospecting maps drawn up on the
basis of the preliminary search and forecast of the possible
occurrence of new deposits.

4. The study of the character of a locality in the area of search
will help determine prospecting methods to be used.

5. Prospecting work provides information on the cost of the
geological investigations. It indicates how much these investigations
cost and whether it is advisable to continue the exploration.

6. Geologists use geophysical methods.

7. As is known, the use of certain bacteria helps search for oil
and gas.

12. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя приведенные слова:
explore exploratory exploration exploring

a)l. ... deals with a complex range of geological, mining and economic problems. Its main task is to determine the quality, shape and mode of occurrence of mineral deposits and their main properties.

2. Exploration includes drilling and driving of ... openings.
These ... openings can supply the most accurate information on the
mineral exposed by them.

3. While ... a deposit the geologists establish its general size,
determine shape, dimensions and quality.

4. The geological party was sent to ... a new deposit.

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