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Survey (surveying) surveyor(s) surveyed

6)1.In recent years combined geophysical ... by air has been used on a wide scale.

2. In modern ... automation is being used in recording the field measurements.


Unit 7_____________________________________________ 171

3. Now the ... need only to set up the instrument in the field
and it will do all recordings automatically.

4. Laser is being used by mine ... now.

5. Underground working can be ... by modern methods.

Store stored storing

)Earth is not entirely without energy resources of its own. There is a large amount of heat energy ... in its molten interior. There is also both kinetic and potential energy ... in the Earth-Moon-Sun system. In addition, a relatively small amount of solar energy has been ... in the carbon atoms of the fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). A potentially much larger energy reserve is ... in the nuclei of the very light and the very heavy elements. Wind, ocean currents and the evaporation of water only temporarily ... energy. It is known that there are different methods of... energy. ... tidal energy has not provided much to the total energy supply yet.

,

) :

1. The geological investigations to be carried out include field
prospecting and exploration.

2. The geological and physical conditions of the seam to be
worked
include its thickness, depth, hardness, etc.

3. The possibility of making direct observations in workings de
pends on the mining system to be applied.

4. The work of geologists at mines has its own specific character
and its own range of problems to be solved during the exploitation of
the deposit.

5. The main points to be observed during the driving of openings
are the mode of occurrence of the mineral body, country rocks
exposed by the openings, the type of fissuring and folding, etc.

6) * :

1. estimate a nickel ore the geologists must know how the
nickel is distributed.

2. Geochemical methods are applied at different stages of geo
logical investigations, and are used to establish the general mineral
ization of rocks.

3. To explore certain types of deposits geophysical methods have
long been used. In coal basins these methods are used chiefly to
study
folded and faulted structures.


172_________________________________________ Unit 7

14. ,
1) , 2) 3)
. .

15. , :
prospecting from aircraft and helicopters; the choice of the method; both ...

And; the search for new mineral deposits; ground and aerial methods of prospect-Ing; to be recognized easily; to depend on the type of the deposit; to be widely used; natural conditions; to crop out

1.
.

2.
() , .

3. ,
.
.

4. ,
.

5.
.

16.
. :

It seems to be wrong; on the contrary; to my mind; In my opinion; as far as I know; as Is known; I'd like to say that

1. Prospecting and proving (exploration) do not differ at all.

2. The knowledge of the type of ground of the prospecting area is
quite enough to find this or that mineral deposit.

3. Coal seams are always found in crystalline (igneous) rocks
while veins occur in sedimentary formations.

4. At present great consideration is given to surface (ground) and
mineralogical methods of prospecting.

 

17. ,
.

18. . ,
.

A.: What method of prospecting do you think to be the most

effective?

.: I suppose ... because ... but I think not only this method ...

A.: I agree with you, but it is necessary to say that...

.: I see. And what's your opinion on ...

A.: ......

.: ......


Unit 7 173

:


is said

was reported is known is reported is believed is expected

( )

+

+

( )

is considered

______ was thought

. (is said, is known .) - . . , .., , .

to seem/to appear, to prove, to happen likely, unlikely, sure :

is considered to beone ( )
of the best specialists -

in this field. .

is thought to have been,
killedin an air crash. .

The method appears to be-,
effective. .

:

( )

+

( ) ( to

)


174_________________________________________ Unit 7

Specialists consider open-cast ,
mining to be promising. -

.

, , , .

to want/would like, know, think/believe/consider, , expect:

She didn't want me ,

to leaveher. .

I thought him tobe

my best friend. (

).

, , to (feel , hear, see, watch, notice, make .):

I didn't see him comein. (), .

They felt the earth move. , -

( ).

They made us payfor -

the dinner. (: We were .

made to payfor the dinner.)

19. :

i] dip, pit, sink, give, build, thick

i:] each, seam, need, steep, 'feature

e] length, trench, 'gentle, 'level, 'section

] 'current, 'country, e'nough, 'other, re'suit

o] cost, plot, a'long, 'crosscut

[a:] task, 'sample, 'sampling, part

[:] search, 'survey, 'surface, 'purpose


Unit 7



[aij strike, find, type, line, 'neither

fei] aid, vein, 'neighbour, de'tail, shape, case

[ou] slope, close, low, both

20. 1-2 , .


adit['edit] ,

angle['eggl]

approximate[a'proksunit]

[bit] ; , ; , ; carbide bit , ; diamond bit

borehole[':] ,

crosscut['kroskAt]

dp [dip] (); , ; v

enable[I'neibl] v (-. )

exploit[iks'pblt] v (); ; exploitation ;

measure['] ; ; ; ; ! , ; v

overburden[,ouva'ba:dan] , ; , ;

[pit] ; , ;

reliable[n'laiabl] ;

rig [] ,


; ;

sample['sa:mpl] ; ; v ; ,

section['sek/n] , , , , , , ; geological~ ()

sequence['siikwans] ; ;

sink[sink] (sank [senk], rank[sAnk]) v ( , ); ; ; ; sinking['sinkig] ( ); shaft sinking

slope[sloup] ; ; ; ; v , ; sloping ; gently sloping

steep[sti:p] , ,

strike[straflc] . ; v ; across the strike ; along (on) the strike

trench[trentj] , ; ; v , ,


to make use (of),

to take Into consideration ; syn take Into account

21. ) -fy :

accurate, chief, ulfferont, easy, exact, geological, main, particular, practical, proper, slight



Unit 7


 


) ( ), . :

known unknown; differ different difference; found founder foundation; mean meaning means; difficult difficulty; extract extractive extraction; improve improvement

22. . :


preliminary exploration shape, dimensions and

quality of a deposit properties of the surrounding

rock and overburden analyses and tests of samples core drilling drilling rigs

to measure bed thickness to facilitate the planning

of current production to make use of exploratory

openings


general size of a deposit exact estimation of ore

reserves exploratory pits, crosscut and

boreholes reliable information on the

angle of dip to determine the industrial

importance of a deposit to take into consideration

detailed estimates of the

ore reserves of individual

sections


23.
:

the whole complexof investigations; industrialimportance of a deposit; natural and economicconditions of the deposit; three stages of exploration; geologicalmap of the deposit; detailedsurvey; informationon the preliminary exploration; methodsof exploration to be chosen in any particular case; surface relief; shape of the mineraldeposit; verticalpits and crosscuts; specialfeatures in the search for veins; on the basis of analyses and testsof samples; reliable information on mineral reserves;different sectorsof the deposit; exploitationexploration; mining operations; planningof current production and calculating the balance of reservesand ore mined

24. . ,
( )
.

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