Військова наука
Охорона Праці

ИНТЕРВЬЮ с профессором Дж. Мортоном

Прочитайте интервью по ролям. Суммируйте его содержание своими словами (6-8 предложений).

TEACHER: Dear friends! Let me introduce Professor John Morton from Newcastle University. Professor Morton has kindly agreed to answer your questions about training geologists in Great Britain and about geology as a science.

QUESTION: Will you kindly say a few words about the impor­tance of geology as a science? Thank you.

ANSWER: Yes, of course. First of all, geology is a practical science. It studies the Earth, its structure, composi­tion and its evolution. It is a science in which the study of presentday processes plays a key role in understand­ing the evolutionary history of the Earth. At the same time the geological past helps understand modern processes and predict future trends. This is of increas­ing importance as we become more aware 6f environ­mental problems.

QUESTION: You have mentioned environment. Does it concern geology too?

ANSWER: Certainly. Environmental geology focuses on geology as it relates to human activity, environmental hazards and changes resulting from natural geological processes.

QUESTION: What do you think about the role of mining geol­ogy in the modern world?

ANSWER: I'll try to be short. Mining geology plays an essential role in two major fields. First, there is the engineering task of extracting the valuable content of a mineral de­posit (the ore) economically, efficiently and safely and with minimum disturbance to the environment. Second, since every ore deposit has a limited life, the future of the industry depends on prospecting and ex­ploration to discover and evaluate new deposits, to replace dying mines and to meet increasing demands.

QUESTION: How long do students study geology in Great Britain?

ANSWER: I think, it depends on the university but mostly the course lasts 3 years, full-time, or 4 years if combined with a language subject (part time study is also possible).

Unit 7

As a rule, each academic year is divided into two semesters (terms). Assessment takes place at the end of each semester in the form of examinations and coursework. Traditionally, field studies have been one of the main problems of geology courses. The first-year programme provides basic geology, basic surveying, mathematics, statistics, observational and computing skills.

QUESTION: I'd like to know how the study process is organized in British universities. Thank you.

ANSWER: Well, formal teaching is by way of lectures, labora­tory practicals, field excursions, personal studies. All the students have a personal tutor who advises on progress through the course, choice of modules and other matters.

QUESTION: I've heard about the modular system. Can you tell us what it is like?

ANSWER: I'll try. At British universities, students' course is designed on a modular basis. Modules are self-con­tained units of study, which are taught and assessed independently of each other. When a student passes a module, he (she) gains a credit. At the end of the term, the numbers of credits he (she) gains, determines the award you receive. Each module is continuously assessed by coursework and/or end-of-term examination.

QUESTION: I wonder if you pay much attention to computing.

ANSWER: Well, British Universities have Computing Centres which offer a service based on a number of work­stations and microcomputers. Access to computers is taken for granted by today's students.

QUESTION: My question concerns the languages, I mean for­eign languages. Are geology students offered courses in foreign languages?

ANSWER: They are. Geology is usually taken in combination with one of the following: Classical Studies, German, French, Latin or Russian, etc. Besides, there are special language laboratories which are available for open access use by students. All international students who wish to attain greater fluency in English are offered the courses which provide for the systematic

Unit 7

development of the linguistic skills of students. Television programmes, either by direct transmission or by video recorder, can be used for formal classes or for private study in French, German, Russian, Latin, English as a foreign language, Spanish, Japanese as well as other languages.

QUESTION: Can you tell us a few words about students' life at British Universities?

ANSWER: Well, you have probably heard of Students' Unions looking after students' health and welfare. The university health service provides medical care for all the members of the university. The Students' Union is fully responsible for its members' needs which are controlled and run exclusively by students. I want to tell you one thing which can interest you. If you are a home student you may be entitled to apply for a Student Loan from the Student Loan Company. The loan may be taken out annually over the pe­riod of study and you will be expected to begin re­payment on completion of the course provided you have obtained employment.

QUESTION: You've mentioned employment. In what areas can the graduates find a job?

ANSWER: Mainly in areas such as exploration, oil field ser­vices, geological mapping and mining, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering, environmen­tal geology and hydrology and others.

QUESTION: What about sports and leisure?

ANSWER: I must say that most British Universities are fa­mous for their football teams and rugby and cricket unions. There are Water Sports Centres with inter­national rowing and canoeing facilities. Good fa­cilities are provided for indoor and outdoor sports (hockey, cricket, table tennis, dance, aerobics, keep-fit, volleyball, basketball, etc.).

TEACHER: Thank you so much, Professor Morton. It looks like our time is up.

PROFESSOR It was a pleasure to meet you all. I wish you success MORTON: in your study of geology.

Выразите свое мнение по поводу обсуждаемой проблемы.

UNIT8 Mining Methods

А. Грамматика

Текст А.

Б. Грамматика

Текст Б.

Условные предложения. General Information on Mining.

1. Многофункциональность глаголов to be и to have.

2. Отрицательные предложения.

Methods of Working Bedded Deposits Underground.

В. Текст Б. Mining Thick Seams.

Дискуссия о проблемах горнодобывающей промышленности.


Условные предложения

Придаточные предложения условия присоединяются к глав­ному предложению при помощи союзов: ifесли, provided thatпри условии, что..., in case (that)в случае если, unlessесли не, on condition thatпри условии, что... и др. Придаточное предложе­ние может предшествовать главному или следовать за ним.

Типы условных предложений


  Примеры и перевод
Три типа условных  
предложений Придаточное Главное
  предложение предложение
I. Предложения реально- 1. If you feel could (now), ГЦ close the window.
го условия. Действие от- Если вам холодно я закрою окно.
носится к настоящему (сейчас),  
или будущему. В прида- 2. If the weather Is cold we'll stay at home.
точном предложении tomorrow,  
глагол стоит в настоя- Если завтра будет хо- мы останемся дома.
щем времени, хотя обо- лодная погода,  
значает будущее дейст­вие, в главном — в бу­дущем. 3. If conditions permit, Если условия позво- the geologists will apply aerial prospecting, геологи проведут раз-
  лят, ведку с воздуха.

Unit 8

Продолжение таблицы

II. Предложения нере­ального условия, отно­сящиеся к настоящему или будущему. В прида­точном предложении употребляется прошед­шее время (выражающее нереальность действия или сомнение), в глав­ном — would +инфи­нитив (также might, could)

4. If I bed a summer

Если бы у меня была дача (у меня ее нет\),

5. If I was/were rich,
Если бы я разбогател,

6. If conditions permitted,

Если бы условия по­зволили,^^

I would/'d spend my

holidays in the country, я бы проводил отпуск в деревне.

I'd buy a new car. я купил бы новую ма­шину.

the geologists could (might, would) apply

aerial prospecting, геологи провели бы разведку с воздуха.


III. Предложения нере­ального условия, относя­щиеся к прошедшему вре­мени. Описывают дейст­вия или ситуации, не имевшие места. Упо­требление временных форм: Past Perfect в придаточном предложе­нии, would+ перфект­ный инфинитив — в главном.

7. Ifyou had spoken

Если бы ты говорил(а) вежливо,

(Но ты говорил(а) не­вежливо, и он рассер­дился!)

8. If conditions had per­

Если бы условия по­зволили (вчера и т.п.), (Но этого не случилось, так как условия не по­зволили.)

He wouldn't have been


он бы не рассердился.

the geologists would have appliedaerial prospecting, геологи применили бы разведку с воздуха.


1. Прочитайте вслух следующие слова:

[э:] — broad, 'broadly, sought, floor, to'ward, call

[э] — 'quarry, 'problem, ^co'nomical, Across-'section, 'crosscut

[i:] — be'neath, 'speaking, peat, in'crease, im'medkte

[i] — pit, 'mineral, 'building, 'distance, 'driven

[л] — pro'duction, pro'ductive, oc'currence, re'covery, 'govern,

a'bove, 'function

[ae] — mass, 'tabular, 'barren, gas, 'shallow

[ai] — blind, type, 'widespread, des'cribe

[ou]— 'process, coal, mode, slope, 'sloping

[еэ] — com'pare, pre'pare, 'vary, 'various

2. Прочитайте следующие слова и сочетания слов 1-2 раза про себя,
затем вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их.

ассем[ 'ekses] n доступ

affect[a'fekt] v воздействовать (на barren['beran] а непродуктив-
что-л.); влиять; syn Influenceный; пустой (о породе)




cbute[Ju:tJ я скат, спуск; угле-спускная выработка; жёлоб

compare[кэт'рБэ] v (with) срав­нивать, проводить параллель

contribute[kan'tnbju:t) v способст­вовать, содействовать; делать вклад (в науку); make a (one's) ~ to smth.сделать вклад во что-л.

cross-section[,kros'sek/(a)n] я по­перечное сечение, поперечный разрез, профиль

develop[di'velap] v разрабатывать (месторождение); развивать (до­бычу); производить подготови­тельные работы; developmentл подготовительные работы; раз­витие добычи; развитие

drift[drift] я штрек, горизонталь­ная выработка

ensure[in'JUa] v обеспечивать, гарантировать; syn guarantee

face[feis] я забой; лава

floor[Пэ:] л почва горной выра­ботки, почва пласта (жилы); quarry~ подошва карьера; пол, настил

govern('длу(э)п] v править, управ­лять; руководить; определять, обусловливать

Inclination[,inkll'neij(3)n] л уклон, скат, наклон (пластов); накло­нение; seam~ падение (плас­та); наклон (пласта)

Incline[in'klam] л уклон, бремс­берг, скат; наклонный ствол; gravity~ бремсберг

Inclined[in'klamd] а наклонный; flatly~ слабо наклонный; gently ~

наклонного падения; median~ умеренно наклонный (о плас­тах); steeply~ крутопадающий

levelI'levl] л этаж, горизонт, гори­зонтальная горная выработка; штольня; уровень (инстру­мент); нивелир; ватерпас; го­ризонтальная поверхность

recover[п'КлУэ] v извлекать (це­лики); выбирать, очищать; до­бывать (уголь и т.п.); восста­навливать

remove[n'mu:v] v удалять; уби­рать; устранять; перемещать; removalл вскрыша; выемка; уборка (породы); извлечение (крепи); перемещение; over­burden- удаление вскрыши

rib[nb] я ребро; выступ; узкий целик, предохранительный це­лик; грудь забоя

roof[ra:f] л крыша; кровля выра­ботки; кровля пласта (или жи­лы); перекрытие; ~ supportкреп­ление кровли

shaft[fa:ft] л шахтный ствол; aux­iliary[э:д'ziljari] ~ вспомогатель­ный ствол; hoisting~ подъем­ный ствол; главный шахтный ствол

tabularfUebjula] а пластовый (о месторождении); пластообраз-ный; плоский; линзообразный; syn bedded,layered

waste[weist] л пустая порода; от­ходы; syn barren rock

well[wel] л буровая скважина; ко­лодец, источник; водоем; зумф

capital investmentкапитальные вложения

gate roadпромежуточный штрек

in bulkнавалом, в виде крупных кусков

metal-bearingсодержащий металл

production face/workingочистной забой

productive miningэксплуатационные работы

In view ofввиду чего-л., принимая во внимание что-л.

with a view toс целью

3. Определите по словообразовательным элементам (суффиксам в пре­фиксам), какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их:

research — researcher — researching


consider — consideration — considerable

observe — observation

require — requirement

fame — famous

ferrous — non-ferrous

incline — inclined — inclination

4. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов и переведите их:

weak roof bad roof roof control roof fall

the floor of a working hard floor barren sand test wells gas wells slope conveyer gently sloping deposit dust removal metallic substance direct access to the deposit oil shale

ensuring access to the deposit from the surface

loose roof

roof conditions

roof exposure

the floor of a seam

floor sampling


barren ore

exploratory wells

oil wells

slope working

removing a mineral-bearing substance

overburden removal

the immediate extraction of useful

mineral recovery steeply inclined seams

5. Определите значения выделенных слов по сходству их корней с кор­
нями соответствующих слов в русском языке:

the term"mining"; non-metallic minerals;the tendencyin mining; the exploitationof lower-grade metal-bearing substances; the typeof mining; the problemof depth; the mining method;the metal-bearing mass; yerticaland horizontalmine workings; to vary in shape, dimensions, location and function; to classifymine workings

6. Определите значение слова drive в контексте:

1. Sloping exploratory shafts are usually driven in the mineral.
They produce mineral during driving and it can be sampled and

2. One of the main parts of a mining machine is the drive which
can work either on compressed air or electricity.

3. Many miners can drive combines which are widely used un­
derground now. They are called combine drivers.

7. Прочитайте текст А. Найдите в тексте абзац, в котором говорится о
горных выработках и их назначении:

192_______________________________________________ Unit 8

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