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Прочитайте текст В и скажите, о чем ои.

ТЕКСТ В Mining and the Environment

It should be stressed that effects of mining on the environment are twofold: firstly, there are direct effects arising from mining as a physical activity, which include disturbances of the land surface and


Unit 9_____________________________________________ 235

accumulation of waste. Secondly, there are indirect destructive effects resulting from treatment of mineral products, such as coal burning, ore processing, smelting and other metallurgical processes. These frequently result in contamination 0f soil and ground water, pollution of the .atmosphere and an adverse effect on vegetation and wildlife. Mining, especially open-pit mining, deforms the surface of the land and creates a large amount of waste materials which contain hazardous substances that pollute water and soil. Water from mining and concentration operations may contaminate the subsoil and rivers into which it flows. Most serious of all are gases produced by smelting, which may not only contaminate the air in the region of the smelter, but affect lakes and vegetation hundreds of miles away through the creation of acid rain.

There is one more point which affects the environment. It concerns the transport of coal representing one component of the complete coal cycle — from exploration and extraction of the fuel, through refining and processing storage and finally its conversion to an end-use product for consumers. Coal transportation is executed by train, truck (lorry), water (on rivers, canals, lakes, etc.) and slurry pipeline or conveyer belt. Environmental impacts of coal transport occur during loading or unloading. For example, rail transport and trucks cause damage to buildings, highways and other places.

Accidents are associated with all forms of transport. Besides, the transport of coal in all its forms involves dust, even though special measures are increasingly taken. Emission of coal particulate and other air pollutants occur during loading, unloading and during coal movement.

At the same time, research and development have provided greatly improved engineering and biological methods of land reclamation. It is necessary to say that land reclamation has emerged as a method of controlling the negative after-effects of extracting coal and other minerals. Land reclamation covers the problem of landscape redevelopment and the restoration of its productivity, ecological integrity, and economic and aesthetic value. The economic uses of reclaimed land depend on natural and socioeconomic factors of the locality. They may be orchards, meadows, parks, swimming pools, etc.

In recent years many industrial countries have developed and adopted laws, national programmes and specific policies for environmental protection. The basis of most laws applicable to the mining industry and its effect on land is to control land management.


236______________________________________________ Unit 9

protect resources and regulate land reclamation and landscape retraction. The principal impact of pollution regulations on the mining industry arises from regulations on emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants from copper, lead and zinc smelters.

40. •) В каждом абзаце текста В найдите предложение, выражающее его
основную мысль. Озаглавьте каждый абзац.

б) Кратко передайте содержание текста В, используя следующие разговор-вые формулы:

The «object of the text is ...; The text deals with ...; It is pointed out that...; It should be stressed that...

41. Составьте 10 вопросов разного типа к тексту В и предложите вашим
товарищам дать на них ответы.

42. Обобщите информацию, полученную вами из текстов А и В. Напиши­
те краткий реферат для реферативного журнала.

43. а) Прочитайте следующее объявление о предстоящей конференции.
Слова для понимания текста:

Implication — вовлечение, причастность appropriate — подходящий, соответствующий legislation — законодательство workshop — секция, семинар issue — вопрос, проблема agenda — повестка дня

Leaders from the international mining, regulatory and environmental communities will meet in October to discuss the most crucial environmental issues facing the mining industry.

Sponsored by Mining Journal LTD and Mining World News, the First International Conference on Mining Environmental Manage­ment will focus on mining-oriented environmental legislation, the financial implications, the available technological solutions and ma­nagement control systems.

The three-day meeting will be held at R's Conference Hall starting with a reception on Sunday evening. The event will comprise three parts: a central conference, plus parallel workshop sessions and an exhibition.

The main Conference will be broken into six halfday sessions which will contain only four or five papers in each session. These 20-minute papers will focus on subjects which are appropriate for executive debate. Each session will end with a 40-minute discussion on the topic.

The six session topics will be: The differing perspectives of the mining industry/environmentalists and developed/developing countries; Cont-


Unit 9



MINING

H nvironmental

MANAGEMENT

The International Conference on Mining Environmental Management


I


Miners, environmentalists and regulators i
will meet to discuss critical |

Mining environmental Issues i


rasting international regulations and standards; Management practices and legal obligations; The role of government; Financial implications of a greener world.

The two-hour Workshops will occur on the morning of each day, being scheduled for completion by the start of the main conference proceedings. Papers will be 20 minutes each (to include time for questions after each presentation), with the workshops being divided into three sections; Air/Water Issues, Land Issues, and General Issues. The six papers in each workshop will be devoted to case studies and technical presentations. Consideration is also being given to Poster Displays of relevant technical work.

The Exhibition will offer equipment manufacturers and consultants the opportunity to present their products to the international industry.

Details of papers, speakers and exhibitors will be advised as soon as possible.

For further details please contract:

Mining Journal Ltd,

60 Worship Street, London, U.K.

Telephone:......

Fax:

б) Скажите, мне проблемы будут рассматриваться •* будет принимать участие • работе конференции, какоа рем



Unit 9


 


Что вы думаете о значении таких конференций?

Каик доклады, по вашему мнению, следовало бы включить в повестку для таких конференций?

Вы прочли объявление в , научном журнале о проведении конференция. Выберите интересующую вас тему и напишите тезисы доклада.

Clean, coal

The Russian Clean Coal Summit is going to be held in Moscow from 19 to 23 May 199...

The main topics of this meeting are:

El Осо-ро/Шсо/ problems of coal production and utilisation

— place of coal in energy production balance

— coal as source of industry

— complex coal process

И Modern technologies end ecological aspects of coo/ process

— Efficient and Safe Underground Coal Mining Based on the

Latest Achievements in Geomechanics

— Coal preparation and handling

— Solid fuel combustion

— Emission control

— By-products from solid fuel utilisation

— Coking

— Gasification

El Specialists training for Industry of ecologically clean coal processing

— models of specialists

— ecological education of specialists

— systems of additional education and improved qualification

(permanent education)

— education in the field of ecological management

El International business co-operation (business symposium)

— Participation of European industry in the development of

Russian clean coal technology projects

— Co-financing Russian projects by the world's first class fund-

ing sources

Ваш доклад включен в программу конференции. Вы получили пригла­шение участвовать в конференции. Подготовьте выступление. Желаем успеха!


UNIT 1OEconomics and Mining

A. Текст A. Same Concepts of Economies
Б. Текст Б. Mineral Markets

B. Текст В. US Coal Inamstry Today

Кроссворд (Crossword)


ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. а) Прочитайте вслух следующие слова:

[э:] — more, to'ward, in'form, re'source, 'organize [o] — wants, be'cause, cost, 'water, 'model [a:] — 'service, con'cern, earth, al'ternative, re'fer [If] — 'mixture, choice, a'chieve, 'natural, which [fl — 'social, 'crucial, e'fficiency, fi'nancial [fan] — re'cession, ex'traction, pro'tection, professional, Jnsti'tution, 'national, ad'dition, ,satis'faction [w] — what, 'whether, with, which, while

6) Прочитайте вслух следующие слова и запомните их произношение:

scarce [skeas], scarcity ['skeasiti], society [sa'saiati], require [n-'kwaia], resource [n'so:s], crucial ['krujial], environment [m-'vaiaranmant], entrepreneur [,ontrapra'na:], financial [fai'naenfal], justice ['djAStis], opportunity [x>pa'tju:niti]

2. Прочитайте следующие слова и сочетания слов 1-2 раза про себя, за­
тем вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их.

ability[a'billtl] n способность, умение allocate['«lekeit] v размешать, распределять, назначать (to); allocation[^ela'kei/n] я разме­щение, распределение, назна­чение, ассигнование choice[tfois] л выбор, отбор, аль­тернатива; to make- выбирать, отбирать (что-л.), сделать выбор confront[kan'frAnt] v столкнуться с трудностями, предрассудками

consume[кэп'дшт] v потреблять, расходовать; consumer[kan'sju:ma] л потребитель; - goodsпотре­бительские товары; consumptionл потребление, техническийрасход (масла, воздуха, пара и т.д.); затраты энергии

cost[kost] л цена, стоимость; р! расходы, издержки; ~ of pro­ductionиздержки производства; capital~ капитальные затраты; opportunity ~дополнительные издержки



Unit 10


 


 


demand[di'ma:nd] n требование, запрос, потребность; экономи­ческий спрос; to be In great ~быть в большом спросе, требо­ваться; syn to require

deposit[di'pDZlt] я зд. депозит; bank~ банковский вклад

employ[im'pbi] v применять, использовать; syn nse, utilize, apply;предоставлять (работу); employmentn служба, занятие, применение, использование; ant unemployment

enable[in'eibl] v давать возмож­ность или право что-л. сделать; облегчать

enterprise['entapraiz] и пред­приятие, предпринимательство

entrepreneur[,эп1гэргэ'пэ:] п ан­трепренёр, предприниматель, владелец предприятия

evaluate[I'vejjueit] v оценивать, устанавливать стоимость; eva­luationя оценка, определение цены, стоимости

goods[gudz] я pi товар, товары; consumer~ потребительские товары

pay [pel] я плата, выплата, упла­та, заработная плата; v (paid)


уплачивать, оплачивать (работу, счет); ~ backоплачивать; ~ for оплачивать; ~ in вносить на те­кущий счет; ~ out выплачивать; payable['peiabl] а подлежащий оплате, доходный, выгодный; payment['pennant] я уплата, платеж, плата; payout['pei'autj я выплата

scarce[skeas] а недостаточный, скудный; scarcity['sksasiti] я недостаток, нехватка (of); де­фицит, редкость

secure[si'kjua] v охранять, га­рантировать, обеспечивать, стра­ховать, обеспечивать безопас­ность; security[si'kjuarm] я бе­зопасность, надежность, охра­на, гарантия; securitiesценные бумаги

supply[sa'plai] я экономическое предложение; р! запас, припа­сы, продовольствие, ресурсы, поставка

trade[treld] я ремесло, профес­сия, торговля; v торговать (inчём-л., withс кем-л.); ~ off сбы­вать, обменивать; trade-offя компромисс, альтернатива, вы­бор, сделка


3. Определите, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведи­те их:


limit — limitation — limited — unlimited able — ability stable — stability employ — employment — unemployment evaluate — evaluation

allocate — allocation

act — active — activity

mix — mixture

secure — security

value — valuable

scarce — scarcity

consider — consideration — considerable — inconsiderable

produce — producer — product — production — productive — productivity

consume — consumable — consumer — consumption

4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод существитель­ных с суффиксом -ity.

1. All economies face scarcity, and all must decide how to allocate scarce resources and distribute goods and services, all face problems of inflation, unemployment, and unsatisfactory rates of growth.


Unit 10



2. The production ability shows the maximum possible amount
of specified goods or services that can be produced by a particular
economy.

3. One of society's primary economic goals is price stability
when the overall level of prices for goods and services remains
relatively constant.

4. Financial security is one of socio-economic goals.

5. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов. Переведите их:


scarcity of resources economic activity four primary economic goals full employment output of goods bank deposit standard of living to examine and evaluate economic problems to include land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial ability

scarce means of production

alternative use of resources

opportunity cost

price stability

financial security

entrepreneurial ability

individual consumer

to make choice

to produce an output of

goods and services to use resources efficiently to be concerned with scarcity to operate on two levels — macroeconomics and microeconomics

6. Определите значения выделенных слов по сходству их корней с
ии соответствующих слов в русском языке:

limited resources; the problemof scarcity; three fundamental economicquestions; materialwell-being; alternative use of resources;price stability; social and politicalenvironment; financialsecurity; extraction of minerals; passive resources; nationaloutput; bank deposit; inflationand recession; individualconsumer; business firm; economicchoices; standardof living; to organize and coordinate economic activity;to produce goods and services;to examineand evaluate economic problems; to operateon two levels; to use resources efficiently

7. Прочитайте текст А и назовите основные экономические системы,
численные в нем. Скажите, что понимается под термином «экономика».

ТЕКСТА


 


Some Concepts of Economics

Economics is the allocation of the scarce means of product*» toward the satisfaction of human wants. The basic principle of economics is scarcity, which means that we cannot ever haw аВ


242_____________________________________________ Unit 10

we want of every goods and service. It means that our demands for goods and services are unlimited, while resources on earth are limited. Without the problem of scarcity, there would be no need for the subject of economics.

Societies need a system to organize and coordinate economic activities. Every economic system — whether free-market, government-controlled or mixed — must answer the three fundamental economic questions:

1. What goods and services will be produced?

2. How will they be produced?

3. For whom will they be produced?

These are three principal types of economic systems, but modern economies are a mixture. Because scarcity does1 confront us, the answers are crucial to our material well-being and to our social and political environment.

In theory, scarce resources can be allocated among alternative users without the employment of markets and prices. This is the so-called command economy or centrally-directed economy in which the government would decide what would be produced, how it would be produced, and for whom it would be produced.

In free-market economies all decisions about resource allocation are made by households and businesses interacting in markets free of any sort of government intervention. Individuals in market economies pursue their own interests. But there are no completely free-market economies, all real governments affect decisions about resources allocation in many ways and for many reasons.

All modem economies are mixed — intermediate between the com­mand and fre^-market extremities. In mked economies, both govern­ment decisions and market forces affect the allocation of resources.

It should be noted that there are four primary economic goals
that a society aims to achieve: efficiency, price stability, full
employment and growth. In addition, there are socio-economic goals
which include environment protection, financial security, equity,1
justice and economic freedom. '

Economic resources are often referred to as "the means of production" to produce an output of goods and services. These include land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial ability.

Land.All natural resources including fields, forests, mineral deposits, the sea, water as well as the ground in which these resources are found. Land is used not only for the extraction of minerals but for farming as well.


Unit 10____________________________________________ 243

Labour.All human resources including manual, clerical,3 technical, professional and managerial4 labour.

Capital.The physical means of production including factories, office buildings, tools and equipment. Alternatively: financial capital.

Entrepreneurial ability.The entrepreneur sets up a business, risks his or her own money, gets or loses the profits.

We may consider land, labour and capital passive resources which are combined by the entrepreneur to produce goods and services. A successful undertaking is rewarded by profit, an unsuccessful one is penalized by loss.

Economics operates on two levels, the macroleveland the microlevel.

Macroeconomics deals with national output, employment, the money supply, bank deposits, and government spending, and how we can deal with inflation and recession.

Microeconomics operates on the level of the individual business firm, as well as that of the individual consumer.

And so what exactly is economics? Basically, economics is a set of tools that enables us to use our resources efficiently. The end result is the highest possible standard of living.

ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

!Глагол to doможет употребляться для усиления значения действия, выраженного смысловым глаголом в утвердительной форме. При переводе сказуемого перед ним добавляется слово действительно, фактически или на самом деле.

Economics does facemany Экономика действительно

important problems. сталкивается со многими

важными проблемами.

2equity— справедливость, беспристрастность

3clerlcal— канцелярский (прилагательное от clerk — клерк, служащий)

4managerial— управленческий, административный

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

8. Укажете, капе вредложеввв соответствуют содержанию текста. Под­твердите стен ответы фактами вэ текста.

I.It should be noted that the demands for goods and services are limited.


244_____________________________________________ Unit 10

2. Every economic system must answer three fundamental
economic questions.

3. Socio-economic goals include full employment and growth.

4. As a rule, land, labour and capital are considered active
resources and are not mentioned in the text.

5. The text gives some information on macroeconomics as well
as on microeconomics.

6. It is common to speak of only the three principal types of
economic systems — market, centrally-directed and mixed eco­
nomies.

7. All modern economies are free-market.

8. Scarce resources can be allocated among users without
markets.

9. Вы прослушали лекцию о некоторых основных принципах экономиче­
ской системы. В конце лекции профессор решил побеседовать с группой. От­
ветьте на его вопросы. Используйте выражения: /я ту opinion. I think. I
suppose. In fact. As Is known.

l.Why is scarcity considered to be the basic principle of economics?

2. Can you name the main types of economic systems and
explain how they differ?

3. Why are modern economies a mixture?

4. What are the fundamental economic questions and what does
each of the questions mean?

5. Can you remember the definition of economics? What is it?

6. Is efficiency the only economic goal?

7. What is meant by economic resources?

S.You know that economics operates on two levels. What are these levels called and what do they deal with?

9. What definitions can you give to?

10. Найдите в правой колонке определения к следующим словам:

1. consumption a) Limited resources for production

relative to the wants for goods and services.

2. inflation b) A place where potential sellers of a

good or services make contact with potential buyers.

3. market c) The use of resources to meet

current needs and desires.

4. saving d) A general increase in the level of

prices.

5. Scarcity e) Income that is not spent.


Unit 10



11. Найдите в тексте А и переведите предложения, в которых употребля­
ются: 1) сложноподчиненные предложения (дополнительные, определительные,
обстоятельственные с союзами и без союзов); 2) причастные обороты; 3) гла­
голы-сказуемые в страдательном залоге.

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