ВІКІСТОРІНКА
Навигация:
Інформатика
Історія
Автоматизація
Адміністрування
Антропологія
Архітектура
Біологія
Будівництво
Бухгалтерія
Військова наука
Виробництво
Географія
Геологія
Господарство
Демографія
Екологія
Економіка
Електроніка
Енергетика
Журналістика
Кінематографія
Комп'ютеризація
Креслення
Кулінарія
Культура
Культура
Лінгвістика
Література
Лексикологія
Логіка
Маркетинг
Математика
Медицина
Менеджмент
Металургія
Метрологія
Мистецтво
Музика
Наукознавство
Освіта
Охорона Праці
Підприємництво
Педагогіка
Поліграфія
Право
Приладобудування
Програмування
Психологія
Радіозв'язок
Релігія
Риторика
Соціологія
Спорт
Стандартизація
Статистика
Технології
Торгівля
Транспорт
Фізіологія
Фізика
Філософія
Фінанси
Фармакологія


Каждая из приведенных ниже ситуаций направлена на достижение одной из указанных в схеме целей. Скажите, какая цель подразумевается в каждом случае.

l.The Government announced plans to control price inflation.

2. Labour unions are concerned about the increased use of robots in manufacturing.

3.The use of computers made the preparation of this study guide easier.

4. The U.S. has a higher standard of living today than 20 years ago.

15. Составьте список основных экономических терминов, встречающихся в тексте А, с их русскими соответствиями. Сверьте ваш список со списками ваших товарищей. Расскажите об основных принципах, на которых базируется экономика, о типах экономических систем, основных экономических и со­циально-экономических целях всякого общества. Используйте активную лек­сику текста А.


Unit 10 247

ПРВДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

16. а) Прочитайте вслух следующие слом:

[а:] — 'market, 'faster, large, de'mand, re'garded

[л] —some, thus, a'mong, 'others, 'sulphur ('sulfur),

'number, in'dustrial, one, ,fluctu'ation

[э] — par'ticular, 'instance, 'structural, ma'terial, pur'sue,

sup'ply, con'sumer

[au] — a'bout, now, a'mount, 'household, how'ever

[ou] — own, most, low, 'process, 'over, know, 'follow, 'only

[еэ] — where, 'various, their, 'therefore, scarce

[d3J — stage, geo'graphic, geo'logic, 'knowledge, 'generally,

'project, 'energy, e'merge

[ks] — mixed, ex'tremity, 'fixing, 'export, ex'pensive,

ex' tent, ' exercise, ,explo' ration, ex' perience [gz] — e'xactly, e'xist, e'xample, e'xistence

б) Прочитайте следующие слова и запомните их произношение:

analysis [a'nselasis], competitive [kam'petrtrv], differentiate [xdifa'renjieit], constitute ['konstitju:t], household ['haushould], imply [im'plai], process ['prousas], sulfur ['sAlfa], sulfureous ['s/Jfras], substantial [sab'staenfdl], monopoly [ma'nopali], pursue [pd'sju:]

в) Прочитайте названия следующих минералов, запомните их произно­
шение:

copper ['kopa], lead [led], zinc [zmk], nickel ['nikl], manganese [,maerjga'ni:z], cobalt ['koubo:lt]

17. Прочитайте следующие слова и сочетания слов 1-2 раза про себя,
затем вслух и постарайтесь запомнить их:

assume[a'sju:m] v предполагать, ние, конкуренция, конкурс;

допускать; assumption[a'SAinpJan] сошреШте[ksm'petrtiv] а кон-

п предположение, допущение курирующий, конкурентоспо-

commlt[ka'mtt] v поручать, вве- собныи

рять confute[kan'ialn] v (to) о грани-
commodity[ka'mDdiU] n предмет чивать, придерживаться (чего-л.)

потребления; товар; syn goods conform[kan'form] v сообразовы-

compete[kam'pi:t] v конкуриро- вать(ся), согласовываться (to с),

вать (withс кем-л., forиз-за соответствовать (to чему-л.),

чего-л., ради чего-л.); competl-приспосабливаться, подчинять-

tion[,kompi'Hfn] я соревнова- ся (правилам)



Unit 10


 


deplete[di'pli:t] v истощать, ис­черпывать; depletion[di'pliijan] я истощение, исчерпывание (запасов)

differentiate[xlnVrenJleit] v разли-чать(ся), отличаться, дифферен-цировать(ся), видоизменяться

emerge[Гтэ:с1з] v появляться, возникать (о вопросе); emerg­ence[Гтэ:Лзэп5] п выход, по­явление

household['haushould] и домаш­нее хозяйство


Imply[im'plai] v заключать в себе, значить, подразумевать, предпо­лагать

Income['inkam] n доход, поступле­ние

participate[pa:'tisipeit] v участво­вать (in); syn to take part(In); par­ticipation [pa:,tBi'pei/эп] n учас­тие, соучастие

pursue[pa'sju:] v преследовать (цель, интерес); проводить политику


18. Переведете существительные с суффиксом -tr, образованные от гла­голов:


to buy —

to consume —

to sell —

to supply —
to manufacture —

to trade —

to explore —


buyer

consumer

seller

supplier

manufacturer

trader

explorer


19. Переведите словосочетания с приставкой «я-:

unknown resources unprotected environment unloaded coal

unacceptable increase in cost unchanged policy undeveloped mineral deposit unlimited raw material unreal project

20. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов и переведите их:


scarce resources

resource allocation

market participation of producers and consumers

the possibility of price fixing

the emergence of international mining companies

to determine prices

to be replaced by petroleum products

to influence the production • of minerals

to exercise considerable influ­ence of international trade companies


free-market economy

mixed economies

free competition

mineral commodities

nonfuel mineral resources

to interact in markets

the development of seabed minerals

to be regarded as world markets

to determine the structure of any

particular market to be confined to determining the

number, size and market position

of the buyers and sellers to imply competition


Unit 10____________________________________________ 249

21. Определите значения выделенных слов по сходству нх корней с кор­
нями соответствующих слов в русском языке:

command economy; centrally-directed economy; resourceallocation; mixedeconomies; mineralmarket; several stages of production;various typesof petroleum products; internationaltrade; oil-exporting countries; the structureof any particular market; structural analysis; communicationand competition between producers and consumers; geographicconditions; the sumof all factors;market position; economically efficientprice; price fixing; industrial minerals; business cycle; technologicaladvances; to play the centralrole; to pursue one's own interests;to effect resourcesallocation

22. Прочитайте текст Б и расскажите, каковы особенности рыночной тор­
говли минералами. Чем определяется структура таких рынков и 'какие минера­
лы доминируют в мировой торговле?

ТЕКСТ Б Mineral Markets

Market is a place where buyers and sellers of a given commodity meet to determine price. Mineral markets are material goods markets, and many are regarded as world markets.

Strictly speaking, markets for any particular mineral exist at several stages of production and for several levels of quality. The petroleum market, for example, is divided into:

— a market for light petroleum

— a market for heavy petroleum

— a market for low-sulfur petroleum, etc.

The importance of various types of products in international trade, however, varies continuously. Now that the oil-exporting countries are increasingly building up their own processing facilities, for instance, crude oil is less important in international trade and is being replaced by petroleum products.

Supply and demand determine the structure of any particular market. A structural analysis must thus consider the number, geographic distribution, and market participation of producers and consumers as well as the communications and competition between them. The production of minerals is influenced by geologic conditions and therefore market analysis needs to be conducted by mineral economists with good geologic inside knowledge.

The form of market is defined by the extent of free competition. It constitutes the sum of all factors influencing


250_____________________________________________ Unit 10

competition and hence pricing. Empirical investigations on market structure are usually confined to determining the number, size and market position of the buyers and sellers. It is assumed that a large number of producers and consumers implies competition resulting in an economically efficient price: a small number, imperfect competition, where the price can be influenced; and one single producer or consumer, the absence of competition and the possibility of price fixing.

World trade in mineral commodities is dominated by petroleum, natural gas, coal, metals and some industrial minerals. There is, also, a substantial amount of trade in copper, lead and zinc concentrates.

World markets for minerals are generally quite competitive and most metal prices are subject to a high degree of fluctuation over the business cycle.

As for nonfuel mineral resources it should be stressed that over the past half-century continuous exploration aided by technological advances has increased reserves of most nonfuel minerals faster than they have been depleted. Besides, the development of seabed minerals could provide large supplies of copper, nickel, manganese, cobalt and other minerals for many generations to come. International trade in nonfuel minerals is important to hold down raw material costs in industrial countries.

23. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is a market? What is a mineral market?

2. What is more profitable to sell: crude oil or oil products?
Why?

3. What determines the structure of any market?

4. What is the role of structural analysis?

5. Who is responsible for conducting mineral analysis?

6. What is the role of competition in free-market economies?

7. What is world trade in mineral commodities dominated by?
8.What do you know about nonfuel resources and seabed

minerals and their role in international trade? 9. Do you know what industrial minerals are?

10. Do we have large reserves of nonfuel minerals?

11. Why is international trade in nonfuel minerals important?

24. а) Назовите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

market (free) competition

commodities geologic conditions

buyer mineral economists


Unit 10



 


seller

mineral markets

stages of production

levels of quality

light/heavy/low-sulfur

petroleum

oil-exporting countries processing facilities crude oil

petroleum products supply and demand geographic distribution of

producers and consumers to hold down raw material costs


empirical investigations

economically efficient

price

pricing

price fixing

natural gas

trade in copper, lead, etc.

competitive markets

prices are subject to fluctuation

nonfuel mineral resources

technological advances

reserves are depleted

seabed minerals

for many generations to come


б) Дополните ваш список экономических терминов к тексту Л терминами
из текста Б.

в) Сделайте письменный перевод текста.

25. Найдите в левой колонке определения следующих терминов:



1.Spending money on projects that will generate goods and services for future consump­tion.(Import)

2.The existence of people who want to work, but are unable to find a job. (Centrally-directed economy)

3.Goods and services sold to another country (Mixrd economy).

4The use of labour, equipment,materials

and energy to pro­duce goods and services. *(Investmen)

5An arrangement between two or more

countries. (Common market)

6Goods and services bought from another country. (Free-market economy)

7A market economy with pri­vate and public sectors of eco­nomic enterprises. (Unemployment)

8An economic system in which the basic questions of what how and for whom to produce are resolved primarily by governmental authority.(Export)

9An economic system in which resources are allocated by supply and demand mainly without government regula­tion of markets.

(Production)



Unit 10


26. ») Просмотрите текст Б. Расположите пункты приведенного ниже
плана в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. A characteristic feature of a market and especially of a mineral
market.

2. The function of structural analysis of markets.

3. The problem of siting mineral resources in free-market economy.

4. World trade in minerals (fuels, nonfuels, seabed minerals).

5. Competition in free-market economy.

б) Суммируйте содержание текста Б о рынке минералов, используя план и активную лексику.

27. а) Познакомьтесь с приведенной ниже схемой и назовите три основ­
ных типа экономических систем по-английски и по-русски и кратко расскажи­
те, в чем суть каждой из них.

WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS?

 

MARKET CENTRALLY- MIXED TRADITIONAL
ECONOMIES DIRECTED ECONOMIES ECONOMIES
  ECONOMIES    
are economic are economic are economic are economic
systems in which systems in which systems In which systems in which
the basic questions the basic questions the basic questions the basic
of what, how and of what, how and of what, how and questions of what,
for whom to for whom to for whom to how and for whom
produce are produce are produce are to produce are
resolved by buyers resolved primarily resolved by a resolved primarily
and sellers by governmental mixture of market by custom and
interacting in authority. forces with tradition.
markets.   government  
    direction and/or  
    custom and  
    tradition.  

б) Определите, к каким экономическим системам относятся следующее утверждения:

1. Prices function to allocate resources when buyers and sellers
interact.

2. Basic economic decisions depend on authority direction and
tradition.

3. Production is controlled by the government.

4. A system in which resources are allocated by supply and
demand. Buyers and sellers interact.


Unit 10____________________________________________ 253

5. A system where production through the economy is
coordinated by the authority.

6. A system in which the basic questions of what, how and for
whom to produce are decided by market forces and government.

 

28. Подготовьте краткое сообщение на тему «Что такое рыночная эконо­
мика».

29. а) Прочитайте текст без словаря. Кратко суммируйте его содержание
по-русски.

б) Сделайте письменный перевод части текста, описывающей экономиче­скую теорию Адама Смита.

Слова для понимания текста

coincidence— совпадение

gospel— проповедь

genesis— возникновение

solely— только, исключительно

guess— догадка, предположение

rival— конкурирующий

opulence— изобилие, богатство

bedrock— основной принцип

Today, most people have a hard time understanding what
economists are talking about, but everyone knows what an
economist is — a specialist in a recognized branch of academic
knowledge. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the term
was nothing like as specific. In England it was applied to anyone
who a^prcteched problems by putting0every argument and doctrine
on wMtever subject tojhe test of facts.

It was nor coincidence that England gave birth to the first
industrial revolution and what has since-become known as the
classical school of economics at the same time. The three most
important gospels of this school are Adam Smith's Wealth of
Nations
(published in 1776), David Ricardo's Principles of Political
Economy and Taxation
(1817), and James Mill's Political Economy
(1821),.

Of these books, the most important is that by Adam Smith. It is the first great classic of economic theory and one of the first known

attempts, to describe economic life as at whole.

The^rgenesis of The Wealth of Nations exactly mirrors the industrial revolution. Adam Smith was born in 1723, and was a


254 Unit 10


student at Glasgow University ia Scotland from 1737 to 1740. Between 1764 and 1766 Smith 'toured Europe. While in France Smith met Voltaire and was greatly influenced by a group of philosophers. On his return from France, Adam Smith sat down to write his great book.

The first key question the book Addresses is what is, wealth? Real wealth mVasured' by the availabiliti consumable goods, and the labour, which produces them. Дп inciease in wealth» equals an increase in goods., and plenty means heap goods. Anything that restricts the availability of goods iteoucei a nation's wealth. National wealth can only increase as trade dees between and within^ nations. For trade to grow you need a market and how the market works is the cdre of Smith's book.

What.makes markerscsuch important creators of wealth is that

they enccmrage the 'drvision'of labour and specialisation.

? An effective market reconomy andn the civjsed society that it

supports — depends on^a ^erwdrk^o^cb-oper^pn tiiat is neither

""planned ^^.directe^by^a political power. The operation of market

force^lilce^trje dlytsjon of labour, brings great Benefits to society

and 'raises lhet sianaa'rd^.pf living, but this benefit ^cannpt be

planned. Buyers and lifersЪ,a market are motivatedjilmost solely

f inten'ded 'it' If the seller is the sole producer of a popular product, . J^P/t.o 7 r ^jJ-Zc* ^ЭТ-оы lic^ push its price up as high as the market will bear. But, a his
he wnl push yits price up Д8 high as Ле market will bea^. But:,a high price ^wm^attract^Hv^ prb^uper^'dnce^tfieir goods are available in the market, the price will naturally fall. Thus the market is a self-regulating mechanism ^uiqecl not by a government, but by what Smith called "the invisible hand". One of the bedrocks of ^Smith's philosophy is that no government or group of men is'Wile enqugh tp do a better job at managing trade than a market which reflects the guesses and knowledge of millions. Sn^i^i,didn't believe that governments would ever allow trade !p^ercpmpietely free and he wrote that the interests of national idefence are always "more important than 7Tf-> in "ГгТ ^ - 9 Q f Qfn «7,F,. * opulence . Under the^ final heading Smith was thinking, of infrastructure projects like rpadj,bndges; canals and^ajrbours which are expensive and often unprofitable to build but lead to an increase in trade and hence of national wealth. Smith's achievement was Immense: the science Smith discovered was called the modern economy.

by sel.f-interest, but serve "uje public interest without Having


 


30. Дополните вопросы и попросите вашего сокурсника ответить на них.

1. What ___ you_____ about Adam Smith and David

Ricardo? (say, know)

2. When___ Adam Smith___ ? (be born)

3. What university__ Adam Smith____ to? (go)

4. What ___ Adam Smith____ between 1764 and 1766? (do)

5. Who(m) ____ Adam Smith______ while in France? (meet)

6. Who____ he___ by? (influence)

7. What ___ he___ down to write on his return from

France? (sit)

8. What full title___ Adam Smith_____ to his book? (give)

9. When___ it_____ ? (publish)

10. What ___ the key question of this book? (be)

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - Дякуємо за посилання на wikipage.com.ua | Контакти