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The English Language in Modern Life

Unit One

The English Language in Modern Life

There is a proverb "A new language a new world". Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts. Nowadays it is especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third - studying languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes one's outlook wider. A foreign language helps us in getting information about the achievements of modem science and technology. It is not surprising that many intellectuals and well-educated people know several foreign languages and they are called polyglots.

Nowadays a lot of people study foreign languages in every possible way. Foreign-language study groups are organized at industrial enterprises, at the offices of big firms, at the educational establishments, at research institutes.

As for me I study English. Nowadays English has become the world's most important language in politics, science, trade and cultural relations. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, and the South Africa Republic. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. .Half of the world's scientific literature is written in English. It is the language of business, commerce and computer technology. English is the language of international communication. English is truly a world language. I think English is also worth studying because our businessmen, tourists, experts often go abroad. In my opinion every visitor should be able to find his own way about in an English-speaking community without interpreters.

Taking into account the economic development in our country, hundreds of joint ventures have appeared in every city and town of our country recently. And a lot of good specialists and interpreters are required for this reason. Besides, a lot of foreign delegations keep coming to our country and most likely they don't know our language perfectly, and the thing is they want to settle their problems in our country and visit the places of interest. So, there is no doubt, foreign languages are worth studying.

 

Reading Text

I. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.

LANGUAGE IN THE LIFE OF MAN AND HUMAN SOCIETY

Human language is, perhaps, the most astonishing creation of man. It helps us to think, to express our thoughts and to understand each other. We make use of it in practically everything we do.

Language is a means of communication in human society. People can use other means of communication, such as red lights or flags, but these signs are interpreted into human language. So language is the normal form and the main means of communication in human society.

We cannot say anything definite about the origin of language. But we realize now that language is a product of human society and it can exist only in human society.

Man ("homo sapiens") is the only living being with the power of speech. The appearance of language on our planet is as recent as the appearance of man himself. Labour and language are distinctive and exclusive marks of human beings. Without them the growth and progress of human society is unthinkable. Human speech differs greatly from the signal-like actions of animals, even of those, which use the voice. Dogs, for instance, make only two or three kinds of noise say barking, growling and whining. In human speech different sound combinations have different meanings.

Primitive people had a few hundred words at the most. Today highly cultured nations have more than seven hundred thousand words in their dictionaries. This means that now people can communicate by words much better than they did it in the remote past. The rapid growth of the vocabulary of modern languages is due to the development of science and technology.

But spoken languages were easy to forget; so people invented writing to record them. Writing is a way of recording language by means of visible marks. The first form of writing was picture writing. Symbols representing the sounds of a language appeared much later. The art of writing made it possible to fix thoughts and to store knowledge, and to pass them on from one generation to another.

Mankind speaks many languages. A group of people who use the same system of speech signals is a speech community. Speech communities differ greatly in size. An American Indian tribe of only a few hundred persons speaks language of its own. On the other hand, there are some speech communities that are very large.

English has several hundred million native speakers. For them English is their mother tongue. Millions of people with some other native language learn English for business, professional or political purposes. For them English is not their mother tongue but a foreign language. Ukrainian, Russian, French, German, Chinese and some other languages also have vast numbers of speakers.

There are people who know three, four, five or six languages. They are polyglots. They study languages because knowledge of languages is their speciality or hobby.

For a modern engineer and research worker it is absolutely necessary to have practical command of foreign languages. A scientist who can read the literature of hiss field in several languages has a much better grasp of the subject.

Learning foreign languages enriches the native language, makes it lrer, more flexible and expressive.

Notes

to make use of smth. -

the only

living being

as resent as = as old as ,

human being

at the most

the remote past

spoken language

native speaker

mother tongue

to have a practical command of

to have a much better grasp of the subject

II. Give English equivalents of the following Ukrainian words and word-combinations:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 

III. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. Why is human language the most astonishing creation of man? 2. Are there other living beings with the power of speech? 3. What is the essential difference between human language and other types of languages? 4. Do we know the time and place of language appearance? 5. What can you tell about the growth of language in human society? 6. What is writing? 7. Do we know the exact number of languages mankind speaks? 8. What are the most widespread languages of the world? 9. What do you know about English (Ukrainian, Russian)? 10. How do you call people who speak many languages? 12. Do you know outstanding people who had a good command of many languages?

IV. Read the text for obtaining information.

Unit Two

About Myself and My Family

Before I start talking about my family let me introduce myself. I am Sveta Petrenko. I am 17. I have left school this year. I was born in Kyiv, so I have been living in Kyiv since my childhood.

And now I am going to tell you about my family. We are a family of five. We think we are a large and friendly family. So we are happy to be living together and are getting on all right.

To begin with, I am going to talk about my father. His name is Sergy Petrovych. He is 45. He works as a surgeon at a hospital. He is neither old, nor young. He is a good-looking man, handsome, rather thin with dark brown hair just beginning to go grey. He is a very sociable person. What I don't like about my dad is that he is always busy. Very often he works overtime. He is a bread-maker in our family. He is fond of going to the country on week-ends, because he enjoys working in the garden.

My mother's name is Galyna Mykolayivna. She is three years younger than my father. She works as a teacher at a nursery school. My mother is rather slim and pretty, she is always elegant and smart. In short, she is a pleasant-looking woman of about 40. She always has a lot of work to do both at school and about the house. She is fond of her work and spends a lot of time there. But she has to cook for the whole family at, home. Shopping and cooking is nearly half a day's work for her. But my granny and I are in a habit of helping her about the house.

Borys is my elder brother. He is six years senior to me. So he is 23 already. He has graduated from the University and he is an economist by profession now. Boris is married. His wife is a journalist. They are three in the family. They have got a child, my nephew. It is a lovely little boy of two with golden hair and dark brown eyes and a spirit that is always bright and happy, full of joy and gaiety.

And finally a few words about my granny. To tell you the truth, she is my best friend. She always listens to my endless stories about my friends and my university life. She is retired on pension now but in her youth and her older age she worked as a teacher at school. I must admit, she is a very understanding person.

Put it into a few words, we are a united and friendly family.

Reading Texts

About My Friend

Its nice to have a lot of friends. You can enjoy things together. A good friend is a friend in need, who is always willing to do something useful for you, who can give a good advice, who can keep secrets.

My friends usually obey their parents and teachers. They never complain of anything, they are worried about each other's health. We have a lot of interesting conversations in our group. We discuss different problems. Sometimes discussions are very exciting. In the evening I often talk with my friends over the telephone. When some of my group-mates are ill they have a good reason to ring up their friend and learn what their homework is. We also exchange opinions on different matters. Boys and girls get along well. They don't quarrel. We have a lot in common. A lot of my group-mates enjoy out-of-group activities and traveling. Traveling helps us to become friendlier. Besides we are all full of impressions and excitements.

Now I'd like to describe my close friend. Frankly speaking, I have a lot of friends who are my former schoolmates and boys and girls from my neighborhood. But my bosom friend is Ann. She is a pleasant-looking girl of about 18. Ann is not very tall, but she has a strong attractive body, she is pleasantly plump. She is always very elegant; she wears the clothes of latest fashion. Her features are very delicate and her charm is irresistible. Ann has white curly hair and dark-blue eyes. Her eyelashes are so long and thick, and they seem dark for this reason. Ann's face is oval and she has a turned-up nose. To cut the long story short she is a pretty girl. But in my opinion, inner beauty is more important than physical one. Ann is a well-bread, jolly and kind-hearted person. She is very tactful, shy and sensitive, emotionally stable and witty. She is a girl of active and cheerful disposition. Ann is a pleasant person to deal with, she never loses her temper. But to my mind, her main feature is that she is a girl of character. Her words are entirely in character with her actions. Ann is an intelligent, bright and quick-witted girl, she has a big soul and a strong will. One of her best features is her readiness to help. She always manages to be amusing and cheerful, energetic and enthusiastic. I must admit, Ann is an easy-going girl, and when sometimes it comes to quarreling, she tries to make it up at once.

In a word my friend has a noble look and bright spirit, she seems a good sort of girl and her character corresponds to her appearance.

I think, a person can prove to be a personality by his deeds, not by his words. A proverb says: "Actions speak louder than words." Its not good to promise much by saying nice words. Let other people speak about your job, your deeds.

Reading Text

Notes

to incline - ,

ridiculous - ,

good sense -

expert - ,

lilac tree - saddle

to drag -

II. Answer these comprehension questions:

1. What sort of story did uncle Aram like to tell? 2. Was the King inclined to have absurd and ridiculous ideas? 3. What kind of ideas was the King inclined to have? 4. Was the young man cleverer than the King and all his ancestors put together? 5. Did the young man have less or more good sense and wit than the King and all his ancestors put together? 6. Who had more good sense and wit than the King and all his ancestors put together? 7. What did the King say one evening? 8. Did the King give his adviser an absurd or a sensible task? 9. Whom did the young man invite? 10. What did he tell the book-keeper to do? 11. What sort of horse did he place the book-keeper on? 12. What did the young man tie to the saddle of his horse? 13. What did he tie a branch of lilac tree to his saddle with? 14. How did he ride over the streets of the city? 15. What did an old man in the street say? 16. What did the adviser say to the bookkeeper? 17. What did a lady in the next street do? 18. Whom did the account include by morning? 19. Where did the adviser and the book-keeper turn their horses? 20. What were they still dragging? 21. Who came out onto the balcony? 22. Who did the King look down at? 23. What did the King shout? 24. What did the adviser say to the book-keeper?

Unit Four

My Daily Routine

I want to describe my daily actions which I do, more or less regularly, on weekdays. All days except weekends look very much the same.

On weekdays my working day begins early in the morning. As a matter of fact, I am not an early-riser, that's why I hate getting up early, but I got used to it, I usually get up at about 7 o'clock. Then I do my morning exercises and go to the bathroom to wash my face and hands with soap and brush my teeth with toothpaste. I don't take a shower in the morning I generally do it late in the evening before going to bed. At a quarter past seven I am ready to have my breakfast. As a rule, I have a quick light breakfast which consists of a cup of coffee or tea, a boiled egg or an omelet and a cheese or a sausage sandwich. After breakfast I put on my coat take my bag and leave for university. As my university is not far from my house, it takes me 10 minutes to get there. I never take a bus on my way to the university, I usually walk there.

Three or four pairs a day is the ordinary timetable. I seldom have lunch in the canteen, because I usually have packed one in my bag (an apple and a sandwich).

The classes at the university are over at about two o'clock. Sometimes I stay at the university later to prepare some practical classes at the library.

When I come home my mother always has dinner ready just in time. Then I change my clothes and have a rest. While resting, I listen to music or look through the newspapers or magazines. Then I start doing my homework. It takes me about five hours to cope with my homework properly. I normally finish doing my homework at 10 o'clock in the evening. So I haven't much time for television and friends, because I have to work hard at all the subjects. But sometimes I manage to see an interesting film.

I do well in most subjects without any effort. Besides, I manage to help my mother about the house and do our shopping. And I must admit that I have good friends at the university and sometimes we prepare our homework together.

After supper I usually relax for some time and then go on with my homework.

As a rule, I go to bed at about 11 o'clock or even later.

 

Reading Texts

OUT OF WORK

In the United States a lot of people are out of work. Tracy Kowalski is 19. She dropped out of high school two years ago and got a job as a check-out clerk in a supermarket. She was fired four months ago and hasn't been able to find another job yet.

"My old man just doesn't understand. He started working in the steel mill here in town when he was 16. Things are different now, but he thinks I should start bringing home some money. I'm on unemployment, but it isn't very much and I'm just fed up with standing in line to sign for it every other week. I hate having to ask folks for money. My mom gives me a couple of dollars now and then, but she can't stand having me around the house all day. I've almost given up looking for job. I look at the paper every day, but I'm really tired of going through the want ads. There are at least fifty people for every job. I was interested in becoming a receptionist for a dentist or a doctor because I like meeting people, but now I'd take any job that came along. People ask me why I don't move to California or maybe Houston, but I really don't want to leave my family and my friends. Anyway, I'd be scared of living all alone in a strange place".

Tracy went to the state employment office to fill out one more questionnaire.

IN ANOTHER PERSON'S SHOES

To raise money for charity (to build an extension to the children's hospital), David Evans, a well-known British writer, decided to change places with his daughter Victoria. He went to school and sat through a full day of lessons. At first he was nervous as he is 44 and it's a long time since he was at school. But the teachers and students made him very welcome. That day Victoria's father had 9 different classes. On geography lesson David even got an excellent mark for his knowledge of the map of Australia. He did worse in science and mathematics as he didn't remember much from his school days. His answer in English literature was brilliant, but he failed in physical training class as he is out of practice. Mr. Evans said, "School is very different now, but ten times better. The children have more freedom and they are more independent. It was lucky my daughter wears trousers at school, so when we changed places I didn't have to wear a skirt."

While her father was at school, Victoria, aged 17, stayed at home and did her father's jobs in the house. Victoria's mother is an archeologist and she is in Egypt now, so the father has to do much about the house. In the morning Victoria did the rooms and typed on the computer one chapter of her father's latest book. In the afternoon she worked in the garden. At four o'clock her father came home and told her about his day at school. Victoria had to make the dinner but, fortunately, she didn't have to do the washing up. Mr. Evans did it. After dinner he had to do his homework while Victoria read the paper and watched TV. She said, "I think I prefer my own normal day but just for once it was good to have a change!"

 

Time of the day Victoria Victoria's father
morning 1. did the rooms 1. went to school
afternoon 2. 2.
evening    

 

Unit Five

My Day Off

On weekdays I usually go to the University, but on my days off I prefer to rest. I think it is important for us to rest after hard work. That's why our weekends are more attractive than weekdays. At our leisure time we go in for sports, read the books, and go to the library, cinema, theatre, park, museum, or exhibition. Sometimes we go to the zoo or the circus and enjoy ourselves watching animals. As a rule, we try to spend most of the time outdoors. Some people prefer to go to the country to see their relatives and friends. In winter we like to go to the winter forest to ski and skate. After having such a pleasant rest in the open air, you are always happy to return home and have a rest sitting near the TV-set and watching an interesting TV programmer. In summer and spring picnics are popular with students. They are fond of picnics chiefly because they have an excellent opportunity to admire the beauty of nature, to run on the grass and to play interesting games, to have a bite without observing table manners. But the most exciting event is making a fire. They are fond of collecting wood in the forest and sitting round the fire. And again, they like to return home after a picnic. And now they think that "there is no place like home" as the saying goes.

Many people like to go to the cinema and theatre on weekends and holidays and enjoy seeing an interesting film or performance.

As for me, my days off are normally like this. I hate getting up early and on weekends I can afford to wake up later than usual. As a rule, I get up at 8 o'clock.

Then I do my morning exercises, wash my face and hands and brush my teeth. After having breakfast I relax a little: listen to a lovely music and try to forget about all my problems. Then I can visit my friends and have a chat with them about our life. Sometimes my friends and I go to the museum or an exhibition. As a rule, my activities on weekends depend on my plans, but in any case I manage to do a lot of things and to have a rest. I always try to do my best to have a really good time. But unfortunately time flies quickly on weekends, and the next Monday morning comes, and I am looking forward to my next day off.

Unit Six

My Flat

We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the second floor of a five-storeyed building. It has all modem conveniences: central heating, running hot and cold water, electricity, gas.

We have a three-roomed flat which consists of a living-room, a bedroom, a study (which is also my room), a kitchen, a bath-room and a toilet. Our flat has two balconies.

The living-room is the largest and most comfortable one in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square dinner-table with six chairs round it. To the left of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and a piano stool. To the right there is a low table with color TV-set on it. Opposite the TV-set there are two cozy armchairs. A divan-bed and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. In front of the armchairs there is a small round table for newspapers and magazines. There is a thick carpet on the floor. Two pictures hang on the wall above the divan-bed. In the evening we usually draw the curtains across the windows, and a red lampshade gives a warm color to the room.

The bedroom is smaller than the living-room and not so light as there is only one window in it. In this room there are two beds, two dressing-tables and a wardrobe. In the corner of the bedroom there is a small color TV-set. On the dressing table there is an alarm-clock and a small lamp with green lamp-shade.

Our study is the smallest room in the flat, but in spite of it, it is very comfortable. There isn't much furniture in it, but there are a lot of shelves full of books. It has a writing table, an armchair and a bookcase too. A small round table with a cassette-recorder is standing in the right-hand comer of the study. There is a small sofa near the wall opposite the bookcase. This room was my father's study, but as I grew older, it has become my room. And in my opinion it is the best room in our flat. My friends used to come to my place to have a chat or to play chess in the evening, and they say my room is very comfortable. I share their opinion.

Unit Seven

My University

I am a student of the Glukhiv State Pedagogical University. It is situated in the centre of the town of Glukhiv, Sumy region. My university is one of the oldest Teachers' Training Educational Establishments in Ukraine. It was founded on the "25th of October, 1874.

My university is not very large. It numbers about three thousand full-time and extra-mural students. The university occupies seven buildings with a great number of lecture halls, studies, laboratories, workshops. It has a rich library, four reading-halls, a canteen, an assembly-hall, administration office, dean's offices, a museum, two gyms, sports-grounds.

There are 6 faculties in my university: a pedagogical faculty, a philological faculty, a pre-school faculty, a natural science faculty, a pedagogical-engineering faculty and a physical-technical faculty. Specialists on different subjects are trained at our University. Among them are the teachers of English, Music, Art, Physics, Mathematics, Labor training, the Ukrainian language and literature, Foreign literature, Computer Science etc.

The University trains qualified teachers for primary schools, secondary schools, boarding schools, lyceums, gymnasiums and kindergartens. The curriculum consists of special subjects and general educational subjects. Professional training includes Psychology, History of Education, Pedagogics, Valeology and other subjects. All the students study Foreign languages, History of Ukraine, Philosophy. Future teachers attend lectures, seminars, practical and laboratory classes. Practice in schools, kindergartens, workshops and summer camps is compulsory for all students.

The students pay much attention to scientific work. They take part in conferences for students of different specialties which are held in our country and abroad. Some of them are interested in amateur artistic activities and sport. Many clubs are organized at our University where students have an opportunity to spend their free time and realize themselves.

After four years of hard study students receive the so-called Bachelor
degree and can finish their study. To become a specialist one must study one year longer. Two years ago Magistracy was organized at our university where gifted students can get further education and become a Master of Humanities.

As for me I am proud to be a student of our University.

 

Reading Text

UNIVERSITY DAYS

I liked physics and chemistry when I was at the university, but I wasnt very good at economics. There was another student named Jim Green who was even worse. He was one of the star players on the football team, but he couldn't continue to play if he didn't pass all of his examinations. That was very difficult, for though Jim used his big body very well on the football field, he couldn't make any goals in the classroom.

All his professors were very kind to Jim and helped him. The kindest of all was our economics professor, a quiet little man named Bassum. He used to ask Green the simplest questions, but they didnt seem easy to Jim. One day, when we were discussing transportation, Professor Bassum called on Green. "Name one means of transportation," the professor said, but Green looked helpless. "Something that takes us from one place to another," the professor explained. Green opened his mouth, but nothing came out of it. "Perhaps, Mr. Green," the professor continued, "you can name the means of transportation that we usually use when we go on long journeys across land." It was very, very quiet in the room, but suddenly the professor made a strange sound: "Choo-choo-..." and his face became red. He looked at the class hopefully. All of us agreed with Professor Bassum that Jimmie Green must not fall behind because the Chicago game, one of the most important of the season, was not far away.

"Toot, tooooot too-toooooooooot," came from a student in the back of the room. We ail looks hopefully at Jimmie Green.

"Ding dong, ding dong," came from another part of the room. The professor finished the performance: "Chuffa-chuffa, chuffa-chuffa." But all these sounds did not help to give Jimmie any ideas. So the professor made another effort:

"How did you come to the university this year, Mr. Green?" he asked.

"My father sent me," said the football-player.

"On what? On what?" asked the professor.

"He gave me money," the champion answered slowly.

"No, no," said Bassum. "Name a means of transportation. What did you ride on?"

"Train," said Jimmie.

"Quite right! Very good, Mr Green," said the professor, "Now, another student. Mr Quincy, please tell us..."

(by James Thurber)

III. Retell the story.

IV. Read the text for obtaining information.

UNIVERSITY LIFE

Universities in Britain differ from those in many countries. Until the nineteenth century, England had only two universities - Oxford and Cambridge. Both Universities are residential: students must belong to one of the colleges. The colleges at Oxford and Cambridge have no division by subjects; students of a wide variety of subjects belong to and live some of the time in one college, going out from these to different faculties or laboratories for their academic work. In addition, each student goes weekly to a tutor to show and discuss definite work.

The modem .Universities such as the Universities of London, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, etc. are not residential. The colleges of the University of London, for instance, are teaching institutions, providing instruction chiefly by means of lectures, attended mainly by day students. Other institutions such as colleges of technology and agricultural ones provide education of University standard, too.

Some students can study art subjects such as history, languages, economics or law; the others can study pure or applied sciences such as medicine, dentistry, technology or agriculture.

This is how a student spends his day. His working hours are from 9 to i. At 9 o'clock he will see the tutor or go to the library, or to the lecture. From 2 to 5 he is engaged in sports and all kinds of exercises. From 5 to 7 he usually zither works in the library or in the laboratory. At 7 o'clock the undergraduates and tutors gather in the hall and have dinner. After dinner the students have club activities, debating societies etc. By 10 o'clock the student must be in the college, as most of the students live in the colleges. At about 10 o'clock the student sits down to work again and works about 2 hours. At 12 o'clock p.m. he goes to bed.

A person studying for a degree at a British University is called undergraduate: one who has taken a degree is called a graduate. B.A. or B.Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts, or of Science, the first degree. M.A. or M.Sc. - denotes Master, of Arts or of Science, the first degree. M.A. or M.Sc. denotes Master of Arts, or of Science. One can become a B/A/ after three years of hard study, and M.A. at the end of five years. D.P. stands for Doctor of Philosophy, the highest degree. The abbreviations of English degree must be written after the family name, e.g. Henry Sweet, B.A.

Tuition costs a lot of money. The students have to play for taking examinations, for attending lectures, for borrowing books from the library, for hostel accommodation, etc.

There are three terms from eight to ten weeks in the British University year.

V. Answer the questions.

1. How do we call a person who takes examinations is order to enter a University?

2. How do we call a student who combines work and study?

3. How do we call a student who does not combine work and study?

4. How many terms are there in the British University year?

5. How many Universities were there in England by the nineteenth century?

6. What kind of universities are Oxford, and Cambridge?

7. What is a college at Cambridge and Oxford?

8. What is a college at the University of London?

9. Whom do they call a graduate?

10.Whom do they call an undergraduate?

11.What do B.A. or B.Sc. stand for?

12. What do M.A. or M. Sc. denote?

Unit Eight

Seasons and Weather

Every season is good in its own way. The weather depends on the season and the climate of the country, and the latter depends on the geographical position of the country.

The weather, as you know, changes with the changing of the seasons. Let's take an autumn, for example. In autumn the sky is often cloudy; the sky hides behind the clouds and then appears again. Its rays have already lost their strength, and the sun is not so bright as it was in summer. The air can be moist. Days get shorter and nights longer. In late autumn the frost covers the ground at night. As autumn is a rainy season, the weather is mostly dull. And of course, we don't like rain of any kind even if it just drizzles. But there is a spell of sunny weather in late September, which we call Indian summer, when the sky is cloudless and there is a carpet of multicolored leaves on the ground. But in any case nature fades away and nothing can be done about it. I must confess, don't like autumn, but a lot of people try to look at the reverse side of the medal. As they say, it is the time of harvesting tasty fruit "and vegetables, the time of the beautiful golden leaves, the time when nature is very attractive.

In winter the sun shines rarely. Its rays are pale. It sets early and rises late. The air is frosty; large snowflakes slowly fall to the ground; the streets are slippery with a thick sheet of ice, they are frozen. The icicles glitter in the sun: the temperature falls, and snow may fall thick. Going outdoors in such a weather is not pleasant, but children enjoy throwing snowballs and making a snowman. Their cheeks are burning.

By the end of winter the snow begins to melt. Thaw sets in. The sun grows warmer, and soon there won't be any ice but plenty of water.

Nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The trees begin to bud and soon tiny green leaves will appear. Thin new blades of grass come up, the fruit trees begin to blossom. "April showers bring May flowers", as the saying goes. Trees, bushes and fields look magic covered with green carpet. The farmers till the soil and sow the seed. Nature looks full of promise!

After spring comes summer. As a great Russian poet Pushkin said, "Oh, summer fine!

I'd love you but for the heat the mosquitoes and flies!" In fact sometimes the heat is oppressive. But people usually like summer because they have their holidays and enjoy resting after their hard work.

In my opinion every season is beautiful and attractive. And as one of the famous poets said, "I see no reason to speak in prize of any season".

Reading Text

ON THE WEATHER

(an extract)

I wanted to write about something altogether new, something that nobody else had ever written or talked about before. I went about for days, trying to think of something of this kind, and I couldn't.

When I asked for advice I was suggested to write about weather. And ever since that idiotic suggestion I have been unable to get the weather out of my thoughts

It certainly is most wretched weather. At all events, it is so now, at the time when. I am writing, and if it isn't unpleasant when you read this, it soon will be.

It always is wretched weather, according to us. In summer we say it's too hot, in winter that it's too cold, in spring and autumn we are not satisfied because it's neither one nor the other. If it is fine, we say the country is ruined because it does not rain; if it rains, we wish for fine weather. If December passes without snow, we want to know what has become of our good old winters: and when it snows we are again displeased. We shall never be pleased until each man makes his own weather, and keeps it to himself

(After Jerome . Jerome)

Notes

I was suggested

wretched

according to us

neither one nor the other ,

at all events

 

II. Put 57 questions to the text.

 

. Think and say what kinds of weather are good or bad for doing these things.

Planting flowers in die garden. Being ill with a high temperature.

Having a garden party. Skiing in the mountains.

Doing sightseeing in a big city. Fishing in the river.

Camping out in a tent. Weeding potatoes.

Revising for an exam. Driving long distances.

 

 

IV. Read the following sentences and put their numbers in the corresponding column.

SPRING SUMMER AUTUMN WINTER
       

 

ALL IS GOOD IN ITS SEASON

1. It is a good time for sledding and tobogganing, making snowmen and playing snowballs.

2. People enjoy picking mushrooms and berries in the woods and forests.

3. Gradually it gets colder and colder and rains more often.

4. It is the time for nature to awake from its sleep.

5 .The rivers and lakes are frozen over and you can see a lot of fishermen on the ice.

6. The days become shorter and the nights become longer.

7. The nightingales start to sing their beautiful melodies.

8. It's a wonderful time when the air is transparent and the trees stand red, brown, golden and yellow against the beautiful cloudless sky.

9. After several chilly weeks people look forward to the wonderful warm days of Indian Summer.

10.There are occasional storms with thunder and lightning but people usually welcome them as they bring a relief from the heat.

11.It is so pleasant to see snowdrops in the woods and to enjoy the fresh breath of the new season.

12.The sun sets very early and rises very late, it's still dark in the morning when you get up.

13.In this season people particularly dislike the sleet and slush under the feet and the dull grey sky.

14.Most nations usually celebrate the shortest night in the year with special rituals.

15.The trees start blossoming and everything around looks festive in white and pink garments.

16.Strawberries are the first fresh fruit that you eat in this season.

17.The roads are icy and it is the most dangerous time for drivers.

18.Most birds fly away to warm countries.

19.New green grass covers the ground and all parks and gardens look pretty spotted with the yellow dandelions.

20.The dry winds usually bring droughts which are bad for crops.

 

Unit Nine

Ukraine

Ukraine is situated in Europe and covers the area of 603,700 square kilometers. The geographical position of Ukraine is very favourable to the, development of its relations with countries of Europe, as well as with the countries throughout the world. It borders on Russia, Byelorussia, Moldova, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Rumania. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and has very important ports. The major part of the Ukrainian area is flat and only 5% of it is mountainous. The Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains are the most famous Ukrainian mountains and make up those 5%. The major rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Bug, the Donets and others.

It is well developed industrial and agricultural country. Ukraine is rich in iron ore, coal, natural gas, oil, salt and other mineral resources. The country has a big metallurgic, machine-building, fuel and power base; it is the producer of chemical and agricultural raw materials. One of the most important branches of national economy is the power industry. Besides, Ukraine produces planes and ocean-liners, tractors and combines, excavators and cars, up-to-date instruments and equipment, electronic micro-scopes and TV-sets, computers and synthetic diamonds.

Scientists of Ukraine enriched the world science with important discoveries and inventions. They contributed much to solving the main problems of automation of production processes and electric welding. The "Academy of Science" of Ukraine includes many outstanding scientists and research workers famous for their important research work. Our scientists created new improved machines and mechanisms; they do important research work in the field of biology, medicine, nuclear physics.

Besides different branches of industry Ukraine has highly developed mechanized agriculture. There are many, good arable lands in the country.

The population of Ukraine is about 48 million people. The representatives^ of many nationalities live there: Ukrainians, Russians, Byelorussians, Moldavians, Poles and Bulgarians. It has very rich and varied culture and history. There are a lot of higher educational establishments in Ukraine, a lot of professional theatres and Phylarmonic Societies, public libraries and state museums. Ukrainian books are exported to more than 100 countries of the world. Nowadays people of Ukraine display a keen interest in Ukrainian history and cultural heritage. Many masterpieces of Ukrainian culture have been revived.

Ukraine is a member of the United Nation Organization and takes part in the work of many international organizations. It is visited by delegations, groups of specialists, art companies, sport teams and tourists from different countries of the world and establishes new contacts with these countries.

Ukraine is an independent state now. The Declaration on state sovereignty of Ukraine was adopted on July 16, 1990. The Independence of Ukraine was proclaimed on August 24, 1991.

According to Constitution of Ukraine adopted on June 28, 1996 Ukraine has a democratic political system. The President of Ukraine is the Head of state and speaks on behalf of it. The people of Ukraine elect the President to a five-year term. The state power in Ukraine is divided into legislative, executive and judicial.

Ukraine has about 10 registered political parties. (Green Party, Ukrainian Republican Party, Democratic Party of Ukraine, etc.)

The state symbols of Ukraine are the state Flag, state Emblem and state Anthem of Ukraine.

Reading Text

Notes

the coat of arms -

a seal -

azure -

a trident -

or-

insignia - ,

specimens - ,

national device - ,

banner - , ,

standard -

self-determination -

revive - ,

rampant -

hoist -

perish -

grant -

"Testament" - "

II. Answer the questions:

1. What are the National emblems of Ukraine?

2. What was the trident?

3. What was me most frequent colour of Ukrainian banners?

4. When was the light blue above yellow flag adopted?

5. When was the anthem of the Ukrainian State officially adopted?

III. Use the words from the box to complete the sentences.

flag or anthem trident national

 

1. _________ is gold or yellow tincture.

2. _______ was the symbol of authority.

3. The song with the patriotic text was officially adopted as the _________ of the Ukrainian State.

4. The __________ became a symbol of all-Ukrainian unity.

5. The composition of the ___________ colours was decreed by law.

Unit Ten

Unit Twelve

Lesia Ukrainka

Larissa Kossach (pen-name Lesia Ukrainka) was born in Novgorod-Volynsky on February 25, 1871 which is now in Zhytomir Region. Her father was a lawyer and her mother was a Ukrainian writer (pen-name Olena Pchilka). Her sister was married to Mykhailo Dragomanov, a scholar, public figure and political emigre, who was to play a great role in Lesia's life.

When Lesia was nine, her parents moved to the town of Lutsk and settled at an estate near Kovel. Because of weak health and the absence of school with instruction in the Ukrainian language, Lesia received education at home. She had a remarkable aptitude for the humanities.

Lesia's close ties with distinguished public and cultural figures of her time played a. positive role in her formation as a poet. Apart from Dragomanov and Franko, the Kossaches' friends included the composer M.Lysenko, the poet, playwright and one of the founders of the Ukrainian professional theatre N. Starytsky, the bibliographer M. Komarov, and the poet V. Samiylenko. Such a milieu made Lesia try her hand at writing poetry early. At the age of nine she wrote her first verses, and at 13 her first poem was published in the Lviv magazine "Zona". From then on her poetry appeared regularly in the Ukrainian publications.

Unfortunately, the outset of her literary career coincided with the first symptoms of what was then an incurable disease tuberculosis of the bones. Her poor health made her travel from one warm country to another Vienna, Crimea, Italy, Georgia, Egypt.

In 1893 her book of verse, "On Wings of Songs", was published. It was favorably received both by the readers and critics. Then followed her books of verse "Thoughts and Dreams", "Responses", which earned her, alongside I.Franko, a leading place in Ukrainian literature at the turn of this century. Just then she ' turned to playwiighting. Her first works of drama were based on subjects from the Bible. Among her best plays are "The Forest Song" and "The Stone Host".

Beginning with 1894 Lesia lived in Kiev. Here she started learning foreign languages. Later on she read and spoke English as well as Ukrainian. With a full command of German, French, Italian and English she could write not only prose, but also poetry in all these languages.

L.Ukrainka died on August 1, 1913 in Georgia, and was buried in Kiev. Her. works reveal the dominant feature of her talent exceptional public sensitivity and the ability to grasp and express in vivid images the idea the idea and tendencies of her time.

Reading Text

I. Read the text for obtaining information.

UKRAINIAN SCIENCE

The first centers of science in Old Rus were monasteries. Kyiv Mohyla Academy was one of such centers in the 17th century. In the 19 century the Universities of Kyiv; Kharkiv, Odesa and Lviv became research centers of Ukraine.

Much credit in the development of Ukrainian science is due to mathematician M. Ostrogradskyi /1801-1862/, linguist Osyp Bodiansky /1808-1877/, historian V. Antonovych /1834-1908/. O. Potebnia was an outstanding linguist, folklorist and literary scholar.

The creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Science in 1918 was an event of great importance. Among its founding members were noted naturalist V. Vernadsky and historian M. Hrushevsky. Associated with the Academy are the names of outstanding scientists 0. Potebnia, O. Bohomolets, M.Kholodnyi, B. Paton. At present, the National Academy of Science comprises 170 research centers. The National Academy of Ukraine ranks with Europe's leading scientific centers. Since 1962 its President has been Boris Paton, a noted scientists and organizer. A great deal has been done in the leading sciences over the past several years. World priority have first laser data storage, achievements in machine building, rocket and computer technology. The National Academy of Ukraine maintains international contacts with academies in many countries.

Academician Vernadsky /1863-/is the author of the fundamental studies on Earth, the chemical composition of atmosphere, the role of radioactive elements in the planet's evolution. His scientific findings are universally recognized. He is one of the founders of geochemistry and biogeochemistry.

Oleksandr Opanasovych Potebnia /1835-1891/ was very active in the Ukrainophile Kharkiv Hromada. He wrote a primer for Sunday schools and took part in folklore expeditions in Poltava Province. As a linguist Potebnia specialized in four areas: the philosophy of language, the historical phonetics, etymology, and Slavic historical syntax. O. Potebnia protested against denationalization and the Russification of Ukrainians. He was far ahead of his contemporaries. In 1945 the Institute of Linguistics was named after Oleksandr Potebnia.

Oleksandr Bohomolets /1881-1946/ was a founder of a large school of pathophysiologists. He developed the hypothesis that the course of a disease and

recovery depends on the resistance of organism. He demonstrated that connective tissue has a protective function in organism. He discovered a stimulant of connective tissue, which gained him worldwide fame. O. Bohomolets' wrote many works in biology, physiology, and pathology. He was president of the Academy of Science of Ukraine in 1930-46.

Yevhen Oskarowych Paton /1953/ was a prominent Ukrainian scientist in the field of bridge-building and welding. He wrote many works in the field of welding and founded the Ukrainian school of welding. In 1945-52 he was vice-president of the Academy of Science of Ukraine. One of the longest bridges across the Dnieper was named after academician Y. Paton.

Borys Yevhenovych Paton is a prominent Ukrainian scientist in the field of metallurgy and metal engineering, the author of numerous research discoveries. Based on his findings special electric metallurgy was created. The fundamentals of welding in outer space were developed. In 1962 Academician B. Paton became president of the Academy of Science of Ukraine.

In the field of the physical sciences Ukrainian scientists contributed much into development of world science. Many of them are known to the public at large but greater part remains unknown.

Ivan Poliui wrote in Ukraine the first textbook on Geometry and the book about stars and planets. He was a brilliant polyglot, he knew 15 languages and worked in Vienna in the field of electrical engineering, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy. He was the first to discover invisible rays some decades earlier than Wilhelm Roentgen. He was the first to study the so-called "cold light".

Ihor Sikorsky designed the first multi-engine planes. In 1919 he emigrated to the USA. In 1939 he designed the first helicopter.

Ostap Stasiv graduated from Berlin University where he attended lectures of Max Plank and Albert Einstein. He founded the Institute of Crystal Physics in Berlin.

Olexandr Smakula worked in Germany and USA and made dozens of inventions. His quantity mathematical correlation is known in physics as Smakula's formula.

Heorhii Sharpak. Since 1954 he has been working in Geneva where he discovered a new type of nuclear particles detector. He was awarded with the Nobel Prize in physics.

Heorhii Gamov used quantum mechanics and explained alpha decay. He developed the cosmological theory of "Primary explosion". He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences /USA/.

Borys Hrabovskyi was one of the founders of the modern television. Together with his assistant I.Biliansky he designed the first in the world TV set. in July 1928, the image of his assistant appeared on the screen of the TV-set.

Hryhorii Kysunko was a designer of the first in the world anti-missile system, which was much better than American systems.

Leonid Vereshchahyn. The first synthetic diamonds were obtained under his leadership.

Anatolii Olexandrov created the first in the world atomic-powered vessel.

Anton Komar put into operation the first in the country betatron.

Petro Kapitsa made a great contribution into development of physics working in England and Russia. He was awarded with the Nobel Prize. The whole world knows Petro Kapitsa as a noted scientist in the field of nuclear physics.

Mykhailo Avenarius. The history of physics knows the Avenarius law.

Mykola Pylchykov /1857-1908/ made geological survey of the Kursk magnetic anomaly and studied radioactivity.

Heorhy Latyshev /1907-1973/ built the greatest in Europe electrostatic ' accelerator.

Kyrylo Synelnykov /19011966/ was born in Pavlograd.. His device fin-preserving plasma was later named after Synelnykov.

Olexandr Halkin organized in 1965 the Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technologies.

Olexandr Usykov was born in 1904 in Sumy area. He developed powerful impulse generators for radiolocation devices.

Ukrainian physics has a high prestige in the world. Mykola Kuvshynsky, professor of Kyiv University, has been included into the list of "500 most influential leaders". We must do all we can to support the fundamental science in Ukraine, to prevent it from decay.

Notes

comprise - , priority -

primer - ,

disease -

recovery -

connective tissue -

welding -

invisible rays -

quantity mathematical correlation -

()

nuclear particles detector -

decay

anti-missile -

accelerator - ,

IV. Answer the questions.

1. What Ukrainian scientists do you know?

2. Who was the first president of the Ukrainian Academy of Science?

3. Did O. Potebnia protest against denationalization?

4. What kind of metallurgy was created by B. Paton?

Unit Thirteen

Great Britain

Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. They lie to the west of the European continent. The total area of Great Britain is 244,035 sq. km. It consists of England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and over five hundred small islands. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean on the north-west and is separated from Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel and from Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel.

The Mountains (the Highlands, the Uplands, the Pennines) are not very high in Great Britain but they are an important feature of the geography of the country. Their position largely decides the direction, length and character of the rivers; they affect the climate too. The main rivers in Great Britain are the Themes, the Severn, and the Clyde. There are many rivers on its territory but they are unimportant.

The climate of Great Britain is rather mild with frequent rains and fogs. There is no striking discrepancy between seasons. Winters are not severe here and summers are not warm.

The population of Great Britain is over 58 million. The principal part of the United Kingdom is England and that is why the name "England" is often used to denote the whole country. London is its capital.

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. At the head of it is the King or, as at present, the Queen. But her power is limited by Parliament. The ruling of the country is carried out by the government (the Cabinet) headed by the Prime Minister. The latter is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain, Conservative, Labour and Liberal.

England is a highly developed industrial country. There arc many big industrial cities here, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield and many others. One of the leading industries is the textile industry (Liverpool, Manchester). Coal, iron and steel and various machines are produced in Great Britain too. Shipbuilding, clothing, electronics, motor industries arc also highly developed.

Great Britain imports cotton, wool, oil and non-ferrous metals. Its exports consist of fabrics, yarn, textile, machinery, electrical equipment and chemicals.

Coal is the main source for the development of British industry.

The climate of the whole country is not quite favourable for agriculture. That is why farming is declining in England. As a result it has to import main foodstuffs from other countries.

Great Britain is a country of high culture. There are many universities, colleges and scientific institutes here. Such English scientists of the past as Newton, Faraday, Darwin, Rutherford and others greatly contributed to world science. English writers Shakespeare, Byron, Dickens, B. Shaw and many others enriched world literature.

 

Reading Text

I. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.

ENGLAND UNDER ELIZABETH THE FIRST

Queen Elizabeth was twenty-five years of age when she rode through the streets of London, from the Tower to Westminster Abbey, to be crowned. Her hair was red and her nose too long and sharp for a woman's. She was not beautiful, but she was well enough educated, clever. At the same time she was cunning and inherited much of her father's violent temper. She began her reign with the great advantage of having a very wise and careful minister Sir Cecil.

The coronation was a great success. The one great trouble for Queen Elizabeth was Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. She was married to the son and heir of the King of France.

As Mary was closely connected with France, there was great danger for Queen of England.

Soon the young French King died, leaving Mary a young widow. She was then invited by her Scottish subjects to return home. Elizabeth was not inclined to like her. She was very jealous and disliked people being married. And whoa a second marriage for Mary began to be talked about, Elizabeth disliked her more.

 

Notes

violent

widow

subject

to incline

jealous ,

III. Retell the text.

Unit Fourteen

London

London is the capital of Great Britain. Today London is a political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.

London is situated on both banks of the Thames. There are 14 bridges across the Thames.

London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The heart of London is the City. It is an ancient part and financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Hank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey, Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking, of them is St Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortres

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