Військова наука
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Kyiv — the Capital of Ukraine

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe. Its history goes back to the 5-th century. There is a legend about foundation of Kyiv. Once there were three, brothers: Kyi, Shchek and Khoriv, and they had a young sister Lybed. They founded a city on the hills and called it Kyiv after the eldest brother.

The city was founded by Slavic people, possibly as early as the A.D. 400's. Ancient Kyiv was a large commercial centre of the East Slavs. Its position on the important waterway helped its trade. The East Slav tribes united in a single powerful state, Ancient Rus. A great role in the history of Kyiv was played by Prince Volodymyr, who united Slav peoples. So Kyiv was made the capital of Ancient Rus and it lasted for nearly three centuries. Under the rule of Yaroslav the Wise Kyivan Rus with Kyiv as its capital reached the height of its power.

Kyiv is the largest ancient centre of national. Ukrainian culture. It numbers more than 20 museums, 1300 libraries, 41 theatres, 121 parks. Kyiv is growing, and it is being built, it also becomes younger and more beautiful

But it is not only its old age and long history that make Kyiv stand out among other cities. It is a unique and extremely harmonious combination of historic values and ways of life that attracts crowds of people from all over the world to Kyiv.

Among the places of historic interest is St. Sophia's Cathedral, Kyiv-Pechersky Monastery, St. Volodymyr Cathedral, Church of St. Andrew, Golden Gates, Vydubetsky Monastery, Askold's Grave and many other ancient monuments which attract attention of visitors.

The cultural life of our capital is rich and varied. There are a lot of fine museums in it: the Historical Museum, the Museum of Ukrainian Art, the Museum of Russian Art, the Taras Shevchenko Museum, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, the Lesya Ukrainka Memorial Museum and others. Many research institutes and higher educational establishments are there. Kyiv is also famous for its theatres such as the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Opera House, the Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theatre, the Puppet Theatre and others. The famous Kyiv Shevchenko Opera and Ballet Theatre has one of the best opera and ballet companies in the country.

Nowadays Kyiv is large political, industrial and scientific centre. Its population equals 3million people. It is situated on the banks of the Dnieper river, the longest river of Ukraine. The picturesque banks and hills, plentiful flower-beds with different flowers, wonderful beaches of the Dnieper river, Kreshchatic, one of the widest and most beautiful streets in our country — all this adds up to the beauty of the Ukrainian capital. One half of Kyiv's territory is occupied by gardens and parks, and in spring and summer time the trees and bushes are full of greenery, and the city looks like one huge park.

If only once you have been to Kyiv, you are sure to feel like coming back there again and again. .



Reading Text

I. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.


Saint Sophia's is a national treasure of Ukraine. St. Sophia's Cathedral is the Kyiv's oldest surviving church. Today it is a museum. The exhibits of the museum include models of ancient Kyivan Rus' towns. Saint Sophia's is the highlight of many visitors' stay in Kyiv. The majestic 13-domed church was named after the Constantinople's Saint Sophia's Cathedral built in 537 and consecrated to the Divine Wisdom - Sophia. / It is in Istanbul now. It was rebuilt in 1453 and minarets were added/. St. Sophia's Cathedral was built in 1037 during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise to commemorate the victory over the Pechenegs and to glorify Christianity. Legend has it that this was the site where the troops of Rus led by Yaroslav the Wise defeated the hordes of Pechenegs.

The Cathedral is 37 meters long, 35 meters wide and 29 meters high. In 1707 the Cathedral was rebuilt in the style of Ukrainian baroque /sky-blue and white colours/. Its appearance has changed many times as a result of reconstruction.

The church became a holy place of worship for ancient Kyivites. It was a major cultural and political center of Kyivan Rus. Saint Sophia's and adjoining Yaroslav's palace were often used to receive foreign ambassadors. The princes were enthroned and triumphal meetings held in honour of victorious military leaders.

The first library and school were situated in the Cathedral. It was the center tor the writing of manuscripts. Sophia's has rich frescoes and mosaics, many of them are still intact /260 sq.m. /. The mosaic of me Goddess Oranta is 5,45 meters high. The fresco paining represents the group portrait of Yaroslav's family. The family portrait was made of 12 figures. On the southern wall there were four younger daughters of the Prince, with Anna, the future Queen of France. The four sons were depicted on the northern wall. Prince Yaroslav, himself, the Grand Princess Irene, their elder daughter Elisabeth -the future queen of Norway, and elder son Volodymyr, were painted on the Western Wall. In the Cathedral there was a burial vault of Grand Princes Yaroslav the Wise, Volodymyr Monomakh and others. The marble sarcophagus of Yaroslav the Wise, which is covered with fine ornamentation, is of unique value.

Behind the Cathedral stands the four storeyed, azure and white, stone Bell Tower. It is 16 metres high. The tower was built in 1752. The Ukrainian Baroque fourth storey and gilded cupola of the Tower were added in 1852.

On the left there is 18th century Refectory. It was built in typical baroque style in 1730. It is an example of Ukrainian civil architecture of the 18th century. It is now a museum and houses archeological and architectural displays. In 1969 a memorial stele to the library of Sophia's was erected.

St. Sophia's museum includes the branches of the Cyril Church, the Andrew Church, the Golden Gate and the Sudak fortress in Crimea.

The Cyrillic church was built in 1146 /one cupola cathedral/. In 18th century 4 cupolas were added. In 19th century the interior was reconstructed by M.Vrubel /1856-1910/, who created also four icons in 1855.

The Andrew Church is a monument of Ukrainian architecture of the 18th century. It was built in 1754 in the style of baroque. It was designed by V.V. Rastrelli. The church is 60 m high, 32 m long and 23 m wide. It has an elegant outline and proportions. Since 1968 it is a branch of the Sophia's Museum.

The Golden Gate was the main gate of the Kyivan Rus. They were built in 1037 during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise. The remains of the Golden Gates can be seen on the corner of Volodymyrska and Pidvalna streets. The gate was a complicated construction of a stone wall with an entrance arch. On top of the wall was the small Annunciation Church. The cupola of the church is believed to be gold-plated. It also served as a watchtower. The Golden Gate was heavily fortified. When Mongol-Tatars hordes stormed into Kyiv they could not break through the main entrance. In the course of time the Golden Gate lost its defensive role and was used as the main entrance into Kyiv on important occasions. In 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytskyi, the founder of the Ukrainian Cossack State, made his triumphant entry through the Golden Gate into the capital after routing the Polish troops.

In 18th century the remains of the Golden Gate were buried under the layers of earth and gradually forgotten. They were discovered in 1832 by the Kyiv archeologist K. Lokhvytskyi. Today the Golden Gate is one of the oldest historical monuments of Kyiv and Kyivan State.


exhibit - експонат, показ

to be in the highlight - бути в центрі уваги

dome - купол

consecrated - присвячений

divine - служитель богові

wisdom – мудрість

horde - орда

worship - культ, поклоніння

enthrone - зводити до престолу

gilded – позолочені

refectory - трапезна

stele - колона з надписами, надгробний обеліск

II. Use the words from the text to complete the sentences.

Wise Pechenegs Cathedral Golden Gate baroque
Kyivan Rus mosaic architecture sarcophagus burial vault

1. The Saint Sophia's ________ was built in Constantinople in 537.

2. The Saint Sophia's Cathedral was built in Kyiv in 1037 during the reign of Yaroslav the ____________________________.

3. The Cathedral was built on the site where the_________ were defeated.

4. The cathedral was rebuilt in the style of Ukrainian_____________ .

5. B. Khmelnytsky made his entry into the capital through the ______________ in 1648.

6. The Andrew Church is a monument of Ukrainian __________of the 18th century.

7. The Golden Gate was the main gate of the ___________.

8. The_______ of the Goddess Oranta is 5.45 meters high.

9. In the Cathedral there was a ________of Yaroslav the Wise and Volodymyr Monomakh.

10.The marble ___________of Yaroslav the Wise is of unique value.


III. Are the statements true or false?

1. St. Sophia's in Kyiv was built in 500 years after the Saint Sophia in Constantinople.

2. The Cathedral is thirty-seven meters high.

3. Yaroslav the Wise entered Kyiv through the Golden Gate.

4. The frescoes represent the family portrait of Volodymyr Monomakh.

5. The first Ukrainian school was situated in the St. Sophia's cathedral.

IV. Answer the questions.

1. When was first St. Sophia's Cathedral built?

2. What does "Sophia" mean in Greek?

3. What do you know about the frescoes of the interior of St. Sophia's?

4. Who made his triumphant entry into Kyiv through the Golden Gate in 1648?

5. What are the branches of the Sophia's Museum?


Unit Eleven


I live in Glukhiv. It is an ancient town founded in 992. It is a district town known since 1152 as a town of the Chernigiv Principality. The name comes from "glukhyi" lonely, remote. It is the hometown of Ukrainian painters Anton Losenko, Konstantyn Lomykin and Mykola Murashko; composers M.Berezovskyi and D. Bortnianskyi. In 1738 the first in Ukraine school of singers was opened in Glukhiv.

Glukhiv has its long and glory history. During its history the town knew many famous and tragical times. As a fortress on the southern boundary of the Kyiv Rus Glukhiv defended the state from Polovtsy and was ruined by different enemies. It burnt in fires. It was conquered by Mongolo-Tatars and Poland. But each time Glukhiv revived.

The XVIII-th century when the town became the capital of the left bank Ukraine may be called "The golden age" for Glukhiv, Magnificent palaces beautiful churches, the unique singers school, a well-known theatre were built in Glukhiv. Many famous people visited the town: Tsar Peter I, T.G.Shevchenko, M.V.Gogol and others.

Now Glukhiv is not a large industrial city. It is a typical Ukrainian small town. The population of Glukhiv is about 40 thousand people, It is situated on the banks of the river Esman. Glukhiv is very picturesque with its cozy, calm and clean streets, in summer Glukhiv is buried in verdure.

In Glukhiv there are some plants and factories. There are also some secondary schools, a medical school, a technical college, a pedagogical college, a vocational school, a sports school and an art school. There is a palace of culture, a hospital, museums, a stadium, a bus and a railway stations in Hlukhiv.

Hlukhiv is known for its Institute of Bast Crops which is very active in the field of hemp cultivation in Ukraine and for the Hlukhiv State Pedagogical University. We'll celebrate 130-th anniversary of our University in 2004. Many famous people studied here. Among them are S. Sergeyev-Tsensky, O.Dovzhenko, S. Vasylchenko, M. Palashchenko and others.

Hlukhiv is rich in historical monuments such as Saint Nikolai Church founded in the 16-th century (now it is being reconstructed); Saint Anastasia Church; Spaskaya Church and others.

Hlukhivites are cordial, friendly and hard-working people who are proud of their town.


Reading text

I. Readand translate the text into Ukrainian.


The bus I catch doesn't go up the hill and when I get off at the corner I catch the smell of fish and chips and I cross the road and call at the shop and buy a fish and four penny-worth chips. I eat them out of the paper as I'm going up the hill. I really like fish and chips and there's no better way of eating them than in the open air. They last me till I get to the gate.

It's half past ten and the Old Lady and the Old Man are sitting with the table lamp on watching television when I go in.

"Do you want some supper?" the Old Lady asks me.

"I had some fish and chips on my way."

"You'll want a drink of something, I suppose?"

"It's all right, I'll make some cocoa."

I go into the kitchen and make the cocoa and bring it back into the living room and sit down on the sofa and light a cigarette. I'm thinking about Ingrid as I watch the picture that's on TV. I'm wondering what happened that she didn't come to meet me.

"Where've you been?" the Old Lady says in a minute.


"By yourself?"

"With Willy Lomas."

"Willy Lomas? I don't think I know him, do I?"

"I used to go to school with him."

"1 don't know why you pay good money to go to the pictures when you can see them at home for nothing" says the Old Man.

"You can't show colour and cinemascope on TV."


"Wide screen...... bigger."

"But they're pictures, just the same, aren't they?"

I say nothing to this. The picture's finished and there's a toothpaste ad on and I get up and throw my cig-end in the fire.

"Going up?" the Old Lady says.

"Yes, I'm ready for it. Had a busy day today."

I say good night and go upstairs. There's a light in Jim's room. I go into our bathroom and wash my face and clean my teeth as quickly as I can. As I'm coming out Jim calls me.

"What is it?"

"A letter for you."

I take it and look at it. I look at my name on the envelope and begin to get excited.

"Where did you get this?"

"I found it behind the front door. Somebody pushed it in while we were watching television. There's no stamp on it."

There's no address on it, either; just my name.

I shut the door behind me before I open the letter. "Dear Vic," it says. "My cousin decided to catch a later train and I went with her to the station to see her off. The train was late and it was after half past seven when I got back. I went to where we'd arranged to meet but of course you'd gone. I'm going to be at the same place tomorrow (Sunday). I hope you can come.

Love, Ingrid."

(After Stan Barstow)

II. Retell the text in indirect speech.

III. Make up10 questions to the text.

Unit Twelve

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