II. Choose the words from the box to complete the sentences.


physics academy linguistics monasteries welding
academician designed cold light inventions nuclear

1.The first centers of science in Kyivan Rus were ________.

2.The Ukrainian________of Science was created in 1918.

3.Volodymyr Vernadsky became first Ukrainia ___________.

4. The Institute of _________ was named after O. Potebnia.

5.The fundamentals of ______in outer space were developed by B. Paton.

6. Ivan Puliuy was the first to study so called________.

7. O. Smakula made dozens of ________ .

8. The scientist was awarded with the Nobel Prize in _____.

9. Borys Hrabovsky ___________the first in the world TV set.

10.P. Kapitsa is known for his works in the field of_________physics.

III. Are the statements true or false?

1. The first centers of science in Kyivan Rus were universities.

2. Volodymyr Vernadsky was the first Ukrainian Academician.

3. Yevhen Paton got interested in welding.

4. Electric metallurgy was created in Ukraine.

5. Ivan Puliuy was first to discover the invisible rays.

6. The first synthetic diamond was obtained under the leadership of A.Alexandrov.

7. Petro Kapitsa as a noted scientist in the field of nuclear physics.

8. Academician Komar took par in creation of electronic accelerators.

IV. Answer the questions.

1. What Ukrainian scientists do you know?

2. Who was the first president of the Ukrainian Academy of Science?

3. Did O. Potebnia protest against denationalization?

4. What kind of metallurgy was created by B. Paton?

Unit Thirteen

Great Britain

Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. They lie to the west of the European continent. The total area of Great Britain is 244,035 sq. km. It consists of England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and over five hundred small islands. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean on the north-west and is separated from Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel and from Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel.

The Mountains (the Highlands, the Uplands, the Pennines) are not very high in Great Britain but they are an important feature of the geography of the country. Their position largely decides the direction, length and character of the rivers; they affect the climate too. The main rivers in Great Britain are the Themes, the Severn, and the Clyde. There are many rivers on its territory but they are unimportant.

The climate of Great Britain is rather mild with frequent rains and fogs. There is no striking discrepancy between seasons. Winters are not severe here and summers are not warm.

The population of Great Britain is over 58 million. The principal part of the United Kingdom is England and that is why the name "England" is often used to denote the whole country. London is its capital.

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. At the head of it is the King or, as at present, the Queen. But her power is limited by Parliament. The ruling of the country is carried out by the government (the Cabinet) headed by the Prime Minister. The latter is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain, Conservative, Labour and Liberal.

England is a highly developed industrial country. There arc many big industrial cities here, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield and many others. One of the leading industries is the textile industry (Liverpool, Manchester). Coal, iron and steel and various machines are produced in Great Britain too. Shipbuilding, clothing, electronics, motor industries arc also highly developed.

Great Britain imports cotton, wool, oil and non-ferrous metals. Its exports consist of fabrics, yarn, textile, machinery, electrical equipment and chemicals.

Coal is the main source for the development of British industry.

The climate of the whole country is not quite favourable for agriculture. That is why farming is declining in England. As a result it has to import main foodstuffs from other countries.

Great Britain is a country of high culture. There are many universities, colleges and scientific institutes here. Such English scientists of the past as Newton, Faraday, Darwin, Rutherford and others greatly contributed to world science. English writers Shakespeare, Byron, Dickens, B. Shaw and many others enriched world literature.


Reading Text

I. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.


Queen Elizabeth was twenty-five years of age when she rode through the streets of London, from the Tower to Westminster Abbey, to be crowned. Her hair was red and her nose too long and sharp for a woman's. She was not beautiful, but she was well enough educated, clever. At the same time she was cunning and inherited much of her father's violent temper. She began her reign with the great advantage of having a very wise and careful minister Sir Cecil.

The coronation was a great success. The one great trouble for Queen Elizabeth was Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. She was married to the son and heir of the King of France.

As Mary was closely connected with France, there was great danger for Queen of England.

Soon the young French King died, leaving Mary a young widow. She was then invited by her Scottish subjects to return home. Elizabeth was not inclined to like her. She was very jealous and disliked people being married. And whoa a second marriage for Mary began to be talked about, Elizabeth disliked her more.






to incline

jealous ,

II. Put 5-7 questions to the text.

III. Retell the text.

Unit Fourteen


London is the capital of Great Britain. Today London is a political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.

London is situated on both banks of the Thames. There are 14 bridges across the Thames.

London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The heart of London is the City. It is an ancient part and financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Hank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey, Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking, of them is St Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.

Westminster is the historic and governmental part of London. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin Chaucer, Dickens, Kipling, etc. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.

On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum the biggest museum in London. It contains priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.

The East End is the poorest district of London. It is the district of docks, factories, poor little houses and narrow streets. Housing conditions in this part of London are not very good. Lots of houses have no modern conveniences. The East End is densely populated by working class families.

Reading Text

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