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I.Translate the text into Ukrainian.

Dombey and son

(an extract)

One evening little Paul was sitting by the fire with his father. After a long silence the boy suddenly asked: "Papa! What's money?"

The abrupt question had such immediate reference to the subject of Mr. Dombey's thoughts, that Mr. Dombey was quite disconcerted. "What is money, Paul?" he answered. "Money?"

"Yes," said the child, laying his hands upon the elbows of his little chair, and turning the old face up towards Mr. Dombey's. "What is money?"

Mr. Dombey was in a difficulty. He would have like to give him some explanation... but looking down at the little chair, he answered: "Gold and silver, and copper. Guineas, shillings. You know what they are?"

"Oh yes, I know what they are," said Paul. "I don't mean that, Papa. I mean what's money after all?... I mean what can it do?" returned Paul, folding his arms and looking at the fire, and up at him, and the fire, and up at him again.

Notes

abrupt

reference

to disconcert

guinea ( )

II. Put 57 questions to the text.

III. Retell the text.

Unit Sixteen

Teaching Profession

To choose a profession is not an easy thing. It means that one should finally decide what trade or profession one should choose as the main line of one's lifetime, a trade or profession that is really close to one's heart and interests. There are many interesting and useful professions in our country. One can become a doctor or a teacher, an engineer or an economist, a pilot or an artist. As for me I made up my mind to become a teacher. Now more than ever before I am sure my decision is correct. I love children and think it's so good to help them to learn what they didn't know before. And besides, bringing up good children is a very important task.

Teaching is a very difficult job of great responsibility and most specific character. A good teacher is not only a communicator of knowledge but a model of competence. He forms attitudes to his subject and attitudes to learning. A teacher takes an active part in shaping of a child's character, fostering honesty, kindness, loyalty, cooperation and respect for ideals.

A good teacher must control his temper without shutting his eyes to faults requiring correction. His instruction must be free from affection, his industry great, his demands on class continuous, but not extravagant. He must be ready to answer questions and to put them unasked to those who sit silent. Teaching is difficult because it is an art, and no art is ever easy.

To my mind five years of study at the university will give me a great deal of information necessary for a teacher. My love to children will be combined with the knowledge I shall receive. It would not be quite enough for me to succeed in my work. I think that a good teacher must keep on learning all his life. But I am not afraid of all these difficulties.

 

I. Read and translate the dialogue.

Dialogue

(after "Oscar Wants to Know")

By M. Quin

Mr. J. Fungus Finklebottom sank into his favourite armchair and opened his evening paper.

Oscar (his little son): Papa, what does opportunity mean?

Mr. Finklebottom: Go play with your electric train. Don't bother me.

Mrs. Finklebottom: Answer the child. You treat him as if he were an affliction instead of your son and heir.

Oscar: Papa, what is opportunity?

Mr. F: Opportunity is a chance to make money.

Oscar: Papa, how do you make money?

Mr. F.: I make money by going into business?.

Oscar: Can everybody go into business?

Mr. F: Certainly everybody can go into business.

Oscar: If everybody went into business, would they all be businessmen?

Mr. F: Yes, son, if they all went into business they would all be businessmen.

Oscar: Then who would do the work, Papa?

Mr. F: Everybody couldn't go into business. It would be impossible.

Oscar: But you said they could.

Mr. F: I said nothing of the kind.

Mrs. F.: Yes, you did. Answer the child. He wants to know.

Mr. F.: All right, then, they couldn't.

Oscar: Why couldn't they, Papa?

Mr. F.: Because they don't have money.

Oscar: If they had the money, could they?

Mr. F: Certainly.

Oscar: Then if they all had the money and all went into business, would

Mr. F.: Yes, they would all be businessmen.

Oscar: And who would do the work, Papa?

Mr. F.: Amelia, if you don't tell this child to ride his bicycle, I'll drown

Mrs. F.: Answer him, Fungus. He wants to learn.

Oscar: Who would do the work, Papa?

Mr.F.: They couldn't all be businessmen.

Oscar: Not even if they had the money?

Mr. F.: Not even if they had the money, son.

Oscar: How many people could be businessmen, Papa?

Mr. F.: Well, one in a thousand, maybe. One in five hundred. Something Ike that. You see, son, you can't be a businessman if you don't have workers.

Oscar: Then most of the people don't have any opportunity, do they, Papa?

Mr. F.: What are you talking about? In America every man has an equal opportunity.

Oscar: Papa, you said that not all people could be businessmen. Most of them have to be workers.

Mr. F.: That's right. Now run along, son.

Oscar: Then most of the people are workers and will always be workers and couldn't be businessmen even if they wanted to. They won't ever be able to make any money, will they?

Mr. F.: Well, if they got enough wages if Amelia, isn't it time this child went to bed?

Oscar: If most of the people are workers and will always be workers the only way they can make any money is by getting higher wages. Isn't that true, Papa?

Mr. F: Amelia, this isn't a child. He's a nightmare. If he is my son, well.

Mrs. F.: Answer his questions. The child wants to learn. He hungers for knowledge.

Notes on the Dialogue

opportunity -

to make money - ,

to go into business - ()

nothing of the kind -

something like that - ( )

he hungers for knowledge - .

 

II. Retell the dialogue in indirect speech.

Unit Seventeen

GREAT EDUCATORS

K.D.Ushinsky

K.D.Ushinsky was in the fullest sense of the word, the founder of the Russian primary school and pedagogical training for teachers. His contribution to Russian education was great. His long practical teaching experience, his works on teaching method and books for school-children, books on which many generations of pupils were brought up give him a worthy place in this brilliant pleiad.

Ushinsky was born in 1824 in Chernigov gubernia in the family of a well-to-do landowner. He learned very early to study independently and, after making a fine record in the gymnasium, Ushinsky enrolled in Moscow University at the age of 16. He graduated from the University with high honors when he was 20 years old. Two years later, despite his youth, Ushinsky was appointed professor of Jurisprudence at the Demidov Lycee in Yaroslavl. His lectures were an immediate success for they were based upon his already considerable erudition. It was then that Ushinsky started criticizing the present educational system in Russia and was forbidden by the Ministry of Education to teach even in elementary school.

In 1855 many teachers who had lost work before could find jobs again. In

1859Ushinsky was appointed inspector at Smolny Institute in St. Petersburg. In Ushinsky became editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Education and in two years completely changed its character.

Ushinsky was not only concerned with Russian affairs but was a devout patriot. One of the basic principles of his pedagogical system is the inculcation of a feeling of patriotism in the young. In his early articles he expressed this view and never changed his basic concept that "education must be based on patriotism". Ushinsky thought that this could be done best with the help of native language taught at school. One of his most famous works "Rodnoe Slovo" (Native Word) was a series of readers for Russian children designed to give them greater love and respect for their national literature.

In one of his works Ushinsky told children about their own country: "We call Russia our fatherland because from time immemorial our fathers and forefathers have lived here. We call Russia our native land because we were born here, our native language is spoken here and everything here is dear to us, and Russia is our motherland since she had fed us with her bread, has given us her water to drink, has taught us her language, protects us like a mother and defends us from all enemies and, when we fall into eternal sleep, it is she who will cover our bones. ...There is much else in the world besides Russia and many good states and lands, but a man has only one mother - and only one motherland."

Ushinsky believed that education should devote itself primarily to the formation of character. Here a special attention should be paid to the development in the pupil of the habit of work. According to Ushinsky, "life without serious work can neither be worthy nor happy".

Ushinsky underlined the personal influence of the teacher as an educational fires. He put forward the idea of setting up teachers seminars to train teachers, for there important and responsible work.

Ushinsky was interested in foreign educational systems. He made trips to Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy and Belgium to observe school organization there. Ushinsky analyzed merits and defects of foreign educational systems always comparing them with actual conditions in Russia.

After coming back to Russia from abroad in 1867 Ushinsky devoted his Margies to St. Petersburg Pedagogical Society. He traveled, lectured, held conferences and interviews and continued his research and writing. Such a program was too much for his already weakened health. Ushinsky's death in 1870 was mourned not only by teachers, but by all progressive people in Russia, not only in the capital but in the most distant corners of the country.

 

Reading Text

I. Read and translate the text.

anton semenovych makaren

In our country today the name of Anton Makarenko is widely known. As a writer of novels, articles and stories he is known to millions, especially for his serious works devoted to the problems of the upbringing of the child and of home and family relationships. At the same time, his name is well-known in educational circles and his lifelong devotion to the causes of Ukrainian education has gained him the respect of many contemporary educators.

Anton Semenovych Makarenko the Ukrainian educational theorist was born on March 13, 1888 in a small Ukrainian railway town Belopolje. His father was a painter in the railway workshops. He worked from morning till night, but the family could not make ends meet.

The parents helped Anton in his wish to study. They had sent him to the local village school by the time he was twelve. Throughout his school years he was a good pupil and always stood at the head of the class. By the end of 1904 he had finished the programme of the six-year school in Kremenchug.

Then he took a one-year course in pedagogics and in 1905 was a teacher of the lowest grade in the railway school in Krukov, the place where he had received his own initial education. He stayed in this post for the next six years. In 1911 he entered the Poltava Teachers' Institute, where he was to continue his teacher education. He had graduated from it with the Institute's gold medal by the middle of 1917.

Later Makarenko started to search new forms and methods of education. He studied works written by prominent educators, which helped him to find out new forms education and upbringing of children

By the autumn of 1920 Makarenko had organized a colony for homeless children near Poltava. It was later named the Maxim Gorky Labour Colony.

In 1927 Makarenko was the head of the Dzerzhinsky Labour Commune for homeless children on the outskirts of Kharkiv.

A. S. Makarenko reared 3,000 fine citizens and devoted patriots of our country during sixteen years of his educational work in the Gorky Colony and Dzerzhinsky Commune. A profound theoretician made a major contribution to Ukrainian pedagogics. He worked out a new understanding of discipline and a system of methods in character building and devoted great attention to the problem of upbringing in the family.

By the 1936 he had been able to devote himself to full-time writing. He is the author of books dealing with education and upbringing of children.

In one of his works he wrote: "Our children must grow into fine citizens, good fathers and mothers. But all our children are our old age. A correct upbringing will mean a happy old age for us, a poor upbringing will mean our grief, our tears, our fault towards other people, towards the whole country".

His greatest work and educational books are widely read as literature. This is the remarkable trilogy "The Road to Life", which has got great popularity, certainly far beyond that of any book in the West. Indeed, the story is really a great study of education.

Dealing with Makarenko's own problems with the education of utterly abandoned children, it recorded very simply and movingly the joys and sorrows, the failures and the successes, the loves and the hates of the members of the school. And through the pages the central figure of Makarenko himself is as a tenderhearted sympathetic man whose life is devoted to the task of making better the life of some children.

A. S. Makarenko had developed the method that has become alive in the minds of Soviet educators. Many of his ideas are systematically used and further developed. His contribution to educational thought and practice is great. His books have got worldwide recognition.

Notes

to devote - ;

respect - ;

contemporary - ;

initial - ;

to search - ;

utterly - ;

to abandon - ;

to rare -

sorrow - , rope;

failure - ;

tenderhearted - ;

has gained him the respect -

to make ends meet -

a teacher of the lowest grade -

to devote himself to full-time writing. - .

II. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-handcolumn for the words in the bold type:

1. Education in Ukraine is compulsory. 1.

2. All the citizens of our country have the right to study. 2.

3. The education and upbringing of the Ukrainian youth

is the main task of our state. 3.

4. The teachers have made a great contribution to

the scientific and engineering progress of the country. 4. '

5. Many profound scientists devoted their lives

to the development of education and upbringing of the

young people in our country. 5.

6. A.Makarenko worked in the field of this science

through all his life.6.

7. His books are widely known and have received

world-wide recognition. 7.

.

8. He tried to bring up citizens; the land of Ukraine 8.

would be proud of. 9.

 

III. Insert a suitable word or an expression fromthe right-hand column.

 

1.Our teachers work much and give all their time 1. devoted

to ... of the children.

2. They always ... new forms and methods of education. 2. contribution

3. The famous Ukrainian educator and scientist

Sukhomlinsky ... many years of his life ... to the

task of making educational ideas concrete and living. 3. upbringing

4. Their books and articles have got... not only in

our country but throughout the world as well. 4. recognition

5. Great Russian educator K.D.Ushinsky made

a great... to pedagogics. 5. search

IV. Find in the text words having the similar meaning:

famous, to assist, to end, to go on, deep, right, progress, to get, to begin, broad, artist, to want, to look for.

V. Find in the text words having the opposite meaning:

narrow, unknown, highest grade, to shut, to finish, to love, worse, joy, failure.

VI. Find in the text English equivalents for:

, , , , , , (), , , , , , , .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is A. S. Makarenko? 2. When and where was he bm? 3. What was his father? 4.Was his pay high or low? 5. Could the family make ends meet? 6. When did Makarenko start his pedagogical work? 7. When did he enter the Poltava Teacher Training mstitute? 8. Where did he work when he had graduated from the institute? 9. Have you read "Flags on the Towers"? 10. What field of science did Makarenko work in? 11. What did Makarenko devote all his life to?

Unit Eighteen

Education in Ukraine

Citizens of Ukraine have the right to education, which is guaranteed by the Constitution and ensured by the broad development of compulsory secondary, vocational, specialized secondary and higher education. In Ukraine there is a nine years compulsory education, but to enter a university one has to study two years more.

First children go to kindergartens. However everybody knows that at present very few boys and girls go to kindergartens. It is connected with the present economic situation in the country and low incomes of the majority of the population.

Since recently children begin to go to school at the age of 6 and study at primary school for four years. Here they learn to write and read get some basic knowledge of nature and history; they also have drawing, singing and physical training lessons. Then pupils transfer to secondary school. It is known that secondary education is free of charge and it is financed by the state. Not so long ago primary and secondary schools together are eleven years of study. Since 2001 after a new school reform had been launched school education was extended up to 12 years of studying, a twelve-point system replaced a five-point one; pupils began to be estimated by the level of their achievements (low, satisfactory, good, and high). After finishing school the school-leavers get Certificate of Secondary Education. After finishing secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. To become a student applicants must take entrance exams, which are in July and August.

Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Prorectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. The faculties are headed by the Deans. Since very recently higher educational establishments in Ukraine began to provide the graduates with bachelor's and master's degrees, magistracy was organized in most universities of Ukraine. Besides after five years of studies the graduates receive their diplomas and if someone feels that he has a special talent to some sciences he may take a postgraduate course.

Besides Institutes and Universities school-leavers (either after the ninth or the eleventh form) may go to vocational schools, technical schools or colleges.

Vocational schools train future workers for plants and factories. Technical schools give wider knowledge and skills in different subjects and train specialists (technicians, secretaries, librarians, etc.) for different kinds of enterprises.

Both for pupils and for students the school (academic) year begins on the first of September. This day is called the Day of Knowledge.

Both pupils and students have two terms during the year, but pupils have holidays four times a year while students - twice a year. In winter and in summer 11 louts take their exams before having holidays.

I should admit that citizens of Ukraine show a great concern for education for themselves and their children as it gives a person the prospect for professional advance.

Reading Text

I. Read the text for obtaining information.

EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

By Julia Bukina

It is twelve years now since Ukraine became an independent country. It is obvious that a majority of Ukrainian pupils will study in our country. Of course, representatives of the rich stratum can afford to pay for their children's education abroad. The situation changed with the transition to a market economy. Nowadays, commercial institutions are founded in every city of our country. Entrants to such institutions know that either entering to such Institutions or the process of studying there will not be difficult. Therefore, oftentimes it happens that pupils with the lowest school marks enter prestigious institutions and get the diplomas of specialists.

I have been working as a teacher in a commercial institution for almost nine years. Honestly speaking, I would say that none of the students has been dismissed for poor progress in learning. Those who were dismissed have delayed payments for their studies.

When I ponder over my student years 1 remember that we highly respected our teacher, worried before passing every exam. Now students of Ukrainian commercial institutes and universities can pass their exams many times until the teacher finally yields to give the person a good mark. Oftentimes, students do not attend lectures and seminars for months and feel free to be rude to the teachers. There is one argument they learned better than any subject. I pay money for my studies", - says a student of such university and everything becomes clear. I would never like to deal with graduates of such institutes in the future. 1 would never like lo consult with such lawyers, live in the house built by such construction worker mid (God forbid) undergo medical treatment from such a doctor. In spite of all the drawbacks of the planned economy, the government managed to coordinate demand and supply of specialists. The number of specialists was strictly limited in accordance with the needs of the state. Nowadays, turning over the pages of directories and reference books one can see that the supply of specialists many lines exceeds their demand. Almost all state and commercial universities offer a standard set of the most prestigious professions. They include lawyers, economists, managers, etc. In five years these very universities will graduate new specialists that will join the ranks of unemployed Ukrainians.

In Ukraine there are a number of universities with good reputations, history and traditions. Unfortunately, the state allocates scanty amounts to cover the major expenses of these institutions. Decayed buildings, outdated equipment, low teachers' salaries are the main features of Ukrainian state institutions. Therefore, state universities are forced to introduce a new educational system based on entrants' payments to a university's budget. Gradually, the Ukrainian government, cuts faculties financed by the state. State faculties exist only to maintain the state status of Ukrainian institutions. Every year it becomes more and more difficult to enter such faculties. Entrants compete to get free education though bribes to the teachers. It is well known that deficit begets bribery. Therefore, children from poor families have little chances to get good education.

It is common knowledge that foreign institutions require payments for education. However, let me observe that people of all civilized countries can afford to master in, any field of knowledge, students earn money for their education themselves and teachers are strictly punished for taking bribes of all kinds.

In Ukraine the most intelligent and smart pupils have to distribute goods at the market instead of studying in a prestigious institution. When I watch the first but timid steps of my little daughter, I realize that I should begin to collect money for her education now.

Notes

afford - transition -

entrant -

dismiss - , ponder

over - yield - ,

drawbacks - , ,

directories -

exceed -

to allocate scanty amounts -

bribe - ,

to beget -

bribery -

timid - ,

II. Comment on the text you've just read. Suggest any way out from the situation.

Unit Nineteen

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