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The System of Education in Great Britain

The Education system in Great Britain is a divided one. It is class divided and selective. The first division is between those who pay and those who do not pay the second, between those selected for an intellectual training and those not so selected.

There are 5 stages of education: nursery, primary, secondary, higher and further education. The years of compulsory schooling are from five to fifteen. There are state and private schools in Great Britain. The state schools provide the education free of charge but private schools are not free. The parents have to pay fees and these fees are very high at private schools. 80% of pupils are at state schools.

Pre-school Education is provided in nursery schools and nursery classes for children from the age of 2 to 5 years /under-fives/.

Primary schools consist of the infant schools and the junior schools. At infant school children aged 5-7in the form of games learn the 3 R's:. Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. It is learning through experience. Children sit at the tables that are grouped into 6 or 8 places. Much of the time is devoted to playing, drawing, painting and music. At 7 teachers measure children's progress in each subject.

The junior school is for children aged 7 to 11. Most junior schools carry out a policy of streaming: A - for the cleverest, - for the next in ability, and - satisfactory. A typical classroom is divided into "areas" for different activities. The children can work alone or in-groups under the guidance of the teacher. Pupils must know their multiplication tables, do basic algebra, and square and cubed roots.

At the age of 11 pupils pass the Eleven-Plus Examination / now - an assessment test/ of three papers: English, Arithmetic and Intelligence Test. About 25 % of children win places at the grammar school, which opens the way to the University. The other 75% will go to a secondary modern school. They prepare pupils for non-professional occupation.

State Secondary schools for children aged 11-16 fall into: secondary modern, grammar and comprehensive. Grammar Schools give the General Certificate of Secondary Education /GCSE/ of two levels /Ordinary/ and A /Advanced/. The GCSE-O marks the end of school career and a start of some white-collar profession. A small number of pupils remain at school until they are 18 to pass to sit for the GCSE-A, which is required by most universities.

Secondary Modern Schools concentrate on practical work. Boys are Instructed in metal and woodwork, girls - in domestic science and cooking. The children leave this school at 15 with a certificate or Written Evidence of their studies.

Comprehensive Schools provide secondary education for all children of the district irrespective of their intelligence. Over 90% of the state secondary school population in England and Wales go to comprehensive schools. The comprehensive system aims to develop the gifts of all children to the full. These schools are usually very large. At 14 children have to take an assessment test. At 16 they take exams for the GCSE /English, French and Maths or the GNVQ -General National Vocational Qualifications /design, business and tourism/. At 18 pupils can take "A"-level examinations or "AS" /half of the content of A-level/.

Independent Schools provide education of the grammar school type and are completely independent of local authorities. They receive a grant-in-aid from the Ministry of Education. They include the preparatory schools /"prep"/ and public schools /for boys and girls over 13/.

About 7% of pupils go to independent schools. Parents pay fees. Most of the schools are for boys. They live in separate houses. A house has about 50 boys under the care of housemaster and his wife. Much attention is paid to sport. "Fagging" is a public school custom in which the preps act as servants of the older boys. Eaton and Harrow are the most famous of the public schools for boys and Cheltenham Ladies* College for girls. Nearly all the men holding leading position in Great Britain were educated at public schools.

In 1993, the government introduced a new type of secondary school called the City Technology College. They are in cities and concentrate on teaching science and technology.

There are also a small number of specialist independent schools - including theatre, ballet, and choir schools. There are over 1200 special schools in England for children who have learning disabilities or behavioural problems.

Reading Text

I. Readand translatethe text into Ukrainian.

THE IDEA OF SUMMERHILL

This is a story of a modern school - Summerhill. Summerhill began as an experimental school. It is no longer such; it is now a demonstration school, for it demonstrates that freedom works.

When my first wife and I began the school, we had one main idea: to make the school fit the child - instead of making the child fit the school.

Obviously, a school that makes active children sit at desks studying mostly useless subjects is a bad school. It is a good school only for those who believe in such a school, for those uncreative citizens who want docile, uncreative children who will fit into a civilization whose standard of success is money.

I had taught in ordinary schools for many years. I knew the other way well. I knew it was all wrong. It was wrong because it was based on an adult conception of what a child should be and of how a child should learn.

Well, we set out to make a school in which we should allow children freedom to be themselves. In order to do this, we had to renounce ail discipline, all direction, all suggestion, all moral training, all religious instruction. We have been called brave, but it did not require courage. All it required was what we had - a complete belief in the child as a good, not an evil, being.

My view is that a child is wise and realistic, if left to himself without adult suggestion of any kind, he will develop as far as he is capable of developing. Logically, Summerhill is a place in which people who have the innate ability and wish to be scholars will be scholars: while those who are only fit to sweep the streets will sweep the streets. But we have not produced a street cleaner so far. Nor do I write this snobbishly, for 1 would rather see a school produce a happy street cleaner than a neurotic scholar. What is Summerhill like?...

... Well, for one thing, lessons are optional. Children can go to them or stay away from them - for years if they want to. There is a timetable - but only for the teachers.

The children have classes usually according, to their age, but sometimes according to their interests. We have no new methods of teaching, because we do not consider that teaching in itself matters very. much. Whether a school has or has not a special method for teaching long division is of no significance, for long division is of no importance except to those who want to learn it. And the child who wants to learn long division will learn it no matter how it is taught.

Summerhill is possibly the happiest school in the, world. We have no truants and seldom a case of homesickness. We very rarely have fights - quarrels, of course, but seldom have I seen a stand-up fight like the ones we used to have as boys. I seldom hear a child cry, because children when free have much less hate to express than children who are downtrodden. Hate breeds hate, and love breeds love. Love means approving of children, and that is essential in any school. You 60 can't be on the side of children if you punish them and storm at them. Summerhill is a school in which the child knows that he is approved of.

The function of the child is to live his own life - not the life that his -anxious parents think he should live, nor a life according to the purpose of the educator who thinks he knows what is best. All this interference and guidance on the part of adults only produces a generation of robots.

In Summerhill, everyone has equal rights. No one is allowed to walk on my grand piano, and I am not allowed to borrow a boy's cycle without his permission. At a General School Meeting, the vote of a child of six counts for as much as my vote does.

But, says the knowing one, in practice of course the voices of the grown-ups count. Doesn't the child of six wait to see how you vote before he raises his hand? I wish he sometimes would, for too many of my proposals are beaten. Free children are not easily influenced; the absence of tear accounts for this phenomenon. Indeed, the absence of fear is the finest thing that can happen to a child.

Notes

to make the school fit the child - ,

docile - , ,

neurotic- ,

truant -

downtrodden -

II. Look at the list below of the possible aims of education.

In column A put a number 0-5 according to the importance attached to these aims at Summerhill school ( 0 = not important at all 5 = vital). In column put a number 0-5 according to the importance attached to these aims at the school you went to. In column put a number 0-5 according to what you think the ideal school's priorities should be. When you have finished compare your conclusions.

A B C

1. Helping you to develop your personality and character.

2. Helping you to do as well as possible in exams.

3. Teaching you about right and wrong.

4. Showing you how to get on with other people.

5. Teaching you about what is going on in the world today.

6. Keeping you occupied.

7. Teaching you how to read and write well.

8. Helping you to get as good a job as possible.

9. Helping with things you will need to know when you leave school, (for example about running a home and managing money).

10.Making school a pleasant place to be in.

 

Contents

 

Unit One The English Language in Modern Life..3

Unit Two About My Family and Myself....................................... 7

Unit Three About My Friend......................................................... 11

Unit Four My Daily Routine.......................................................... 15

Unit Five My Day Off..................................................................... 18

Unit Six My Flat............................................................................... 20

Unit Seven My University............................................................... 22

Unit Eight Seasons and Weather.................................................... 26

Unit Nine Ukraine........................................................................... 29

Unit Ten Kyiv - The Capital of Ukraine........................................ 33

Unit Eleven Hlukhiv........................................................................ 38

Unit Twelve Outstanding People of Ukraine................................. 40

Unit Thirteen Great Britain............................................................. 46

Unit Fourteen London..................................................................... 48

Unit Fifteen Outstanding People of Great Britain........................ 52

Unit Sixteen Teaching Profession................................................... 58

Unit Seventeen Great Educators..................................................... 61

Unit Eighteen Education in Ukraine.............................................. 66

Unit Nineteen The System of Education in Great Britain............ 69

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