Військова наука
Охорона Праці

Discharge Звільнення з роботи

layoff скорочення

to lay off //to fire звільняти

to be laid off // to be fired бути звільненим

to sack звільняти

to retire (on pension) вийти на пенсію (піти у відставку)

retirement plan порядок виходу на пенсію

to resign відмовлятися від посади, піти у відставку

Communicating at Work Спілкування на роботі

colleague //co-worker співробітник, колега

specialist фахівець

membership членство

standing репутація

status статус

promotion підвищення по службі

compensatory time відгул

work experience досвід роботи

skill кваліфікація, майстерність

performance review оцінка результатів праці, атестація

break for lunch/dinner перерва на обід

sick leave відпустка по хворобі

to share an idea поділитися ідеєю

employees' lounge кімната відпочинку робітників

tiring day стомливий, виснажливий день

to be an idler бути неробою, ледарем

to be out of practice не мати практики

to work by fits and starts працювати уривками

to have а big staff мати великий штат

to be а job jumper бути "літуном "(часто міняти роботу)

to be not equal to the task не справлятися з роботою

to shirk work ухилятися від роботи

to have pressing business мати невідкладну справу

to face а busy day мати багато подій

to be up to the elbows (ears, collar) in work бути поглиненим роботою

The recruitment process

Put the following stages of the recruitment process in the logical order.


The recruitment process


1. The company offeredthe job.

2. The companyinterviewed.

3. But he/she leftthe company after two years.

4. The company invited people for interview.

5. He/She joined the company.

6. The company advertised.

7. He/She was promoted to head of department.

8. The applicant completed the form.

9. The person accepted the job.

10. The company drew a shortlistof good interviewees and rejected unsuitable applicants.

11. There was a second interview.

12. The company sent an application form.

13. A person applied for a job.


Discuss each step with your group.

Learn the highlighted words by heart.

Job Search Process

A. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the job search process?

2. How much time will the job search take?

3. What do you need to know before you start?

4. What are the steps of the job search process?

5. What are transferrable skill?

6. What job search techniques work?

7. Should you keep a record of your search?


B Now read the following information and check your answers.

What is the Job Search Process?

Your job search process begins the moment you start thinking about your future job and continues until you have accepted a job offer. Over your lifespan you are likely to find yourself going through the process several times (on the average, you can expect to have between three and five career changes during your lifetime).

How Much Time Will the Job Search Take?

In general, job finding success is directly proportional to the amount of time you are willing to spend in your search and the number of strategies you use to identify potential openings. Sources suggest that you:

1. Be prepared for a long job hunt – 8-23 weeks.

2. Spend at least 20 hours per week on your job hunt.

3. Have an alternative plan.

Your persistence will eventually pay off. Make sure you have a support system of family or friends to help you when you are feeling discouraged.

What Do You Need to Know Before You Start?

There is no magic way to find a job. It is hard work, takes time and at times may be boring and frustrating. It will take all your skills in planning and follow through but when done faithfully also pays the ultimate reward: A satisfying job for you! Some rejection will be a normal part of job-hunting and a new experience for you. Rather than letting rejections discourage you, let each one teach you a new way to improve your skills for your next opportunity.

What Are the Steps of the Job Search Process?

A list of job search steps follows. The order may vary depending on your specific needs and goals.

Step 1. Self Assessment

The job search process begins with an identification of your values, interests, skills, accomplishments, experience, and goals. How can you seek a position if you don't know what you want from a job and what you have to offer prospective employers? Self-assessment, though a time-consuming process, provides invaluable information to facilitate career decisions and to prepare you to market your background effectively.


An awareness of what you value (qualities that are important and desirable) in a career will aid you in exploring career goals and attaining greater satisfaction in your work.

Review the following list of values and check those most important to you. Then rank your top five values in order of priority.

· Job security · Working as part of a team · Working independently with little supervision · Making a contribution · Professional status · Mental challenge · Pleasant surroundings · Challenging, stimulating co-workers · Different tasks to accomplish daily · Financial rewards · Creating something · Ability to advance


Interests (areas that arouse your attention or enthusiasm) are closely related to values and frequently trigger skill development. You can identify interests by looking at enduring themes in your life-activities that persist over time, consistent choices, recurring dreams, or the way you spend your time.


A skill refers to something you do well, including handling problems or tasks. The key to your successful job search is recognizing these skills and communicating their usefulness verbally and in writing to a prospective employer. Use accomplishment statements to do so. They should:

· Describe your skills in concise, unambiguous terms.

· Refer to actual experiences to demonstrate your skill level.

· Connect your skills concisely to the needs of a prospective employer.

Some of the most marketable skills are those which are useful in a wide variety of work environments. These are known as transferable skills. For example, the ability to write effectively, communicate verbally, and use word processing or database software are valued skills in the private as well as public sectors.


Types of transferable skillsThese can include technical skills such as driving, languages or IT, or they can be limited to softer interpersonal skills. The following list is not exhaustive, but it gives guidance about the type of skills employers are seeking that you might have:

a) IT literacy– there are fewer and fewer jobs that can be done without some IT skills. Make a list of all the packages and software programs you have used. Consider desktop publishing, Internet research skills, CAD, statistical analysis programs, field-related databases, systems operations, programming, and technical support skills. You might be surprised by how much you know.

What computer skills to put on a resume? To start with, one must be very well-trained in MS Office. Other computer skills to put on a resume vary with your qualifications and the job profile. For a database management job, you need to have relevant experience or knowledge of softwares like MS Access, etc. For a design job, you need to be acquainted with Adobe Photoshop. Hence the computer skills to put on a resume vary with the nature of job that you are applying to.

Below is a list of computer hardware and software to help you think of your own computer-related skills. If your computer knowledge is extensive, you might list it in sections as illustrated:


COMPUTER SKILLS   Operating Systems:   Windows XP, Windows NT, Windows ME, Windows 2000, Mac 0SX, Mac OS 8.6, Mac 0S9, Solaris, UNIX, AIX, Linux, Sun OS, OS/2, FreeBSD, DOS, Novell 2.15, Novell 3.5, Novell 4.0, Novell 4.1, Novell 5.0, Novell 5.5, Exchange 5.5 Software / Applications: Microsoft Office XP, Microsoft Office 2000, Microsoft Office 1997, MS Word, MS Access, MS Excel, MS FrontPage, MS Project, MS Visio, MS SiteServer, Internet Explorer, Outlook, Outlook Express, PowerPoint, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw Pro, Corel Coffee Cup, Quark Xpress, Homesite, ColdFusion, Studio, DreamWeaver, Inspiration, Claris, FileMaker Pro, SQL Server, MySQL, SQL 6.5 & 7.0, EZ-SQL, Enterprise Manager, IIS, LinkBot, Astra Site Manager, NetObjects Fusion, BroadVision, Vignette, Pandesic, WebSphere, Eshare, LivePerson, Borland Sidekick (PIM), Coldfusion Server, Interwoven, Open Market, Crystal Reports, Enterprise Manager, Query Analyzer, MAS 90, MAS 200, Baan, Business Works, Symbiator, Peachtree, Lotus 1-2-3, Bluebird, Pro-System Fx, Creative Solutions, Lacerte, Scheduler, Publisher, Turbo Tax, Quicken, QuickBooks, QuickBooksPro, World Ship, Suretrak Project Planner, AutoCAD, Oracle   Languages and Scripts: C, C++, Visual Basic, Visual C++, PL/SQL, Java, JavaScript, HTML, DHTML, HTTP/1, HTTP/1.1, Pop Server, TCP/IP, SQL, Oracle PL/SQL, PERL, J2EE, ODBC/JDBC, Python, PHP, mySQL, PostScript, EJB, XML, KSH, ANT, AWK, SED, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Coldfusion, Active Server Pages (ASP)   Hardware: Macintosh, Sun Servers, Compaq, Intel Servers, IBM PC-XT, AT, PS-2, PC clones, Dell, Gateway, 3Com Superstack 3 Switch 2200 with Gigabit Module, 3Com Superstack 3 Remote Access System 1500 Base Unit, Addtron Hubs, Intel Network Adapters, Intel Express 9100 Router, Adtran DSU / CSU (TI ESF CSU ACE), TCP/IP, IPX, Routers, Switches / Hubs, Raid / Mirror, TI / DSL / ISDN / Frame Relay, HP Printers (4000, 4050, 4500, 5si, 8000, P1000, 750c plotter, 1120 and 1000, IBM PC-XT, AT, PS-2; PC clones: Acer, Dell, Gateway, HP9000, IBM 36/38/AAS400


If you want to state the level of your proficiency in computer knowledge, you may write: Advanced user of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Internet, Outlook OR Extensive knowledge of Microsoft PowerPoint, FrontPage, Google Docs OR working knowledge of Corel Draw Pro.


b) Organization, Management & Leadership – being able to motivate and coach others is crucial for anyone with management ambitions. But employers also look for these skills in the wider workforce. Over a period of time, the same employees can be promoted into managerial positions rather than having to go through an expensive recruiting drive all over again. Hence one of the most relevant skills to put on a resume is leadership skills. You should also include some instances where you have displayed your leadership skills to back up your claim.


o Set goals and determine courses of action o Co-ordinate tasks o Prioritise tasks o Handle details o Manage groups o Delegate responsibility and review performance o Teach others o Coach others o Counsel o Promote change o Influence others o Manage conflict o Supervise others o Motivate/inspire others to achieve common goals o Initiate new ideas o Create innovative solutions to complex problems o Run meetings o Take risks

c) Research skills– the ability to gather accurate information and compare and contrast your sources is invaluable in most jobs. You should be able to demonstrate this if you have recently completed a period of study.


o Identify appropriate information sources o Gather information o Extract important information o Utilize electronic search methods o Compile numerical and statistical data o Classify and sort information into categories o Identify resources o Set goals o Define needs o Prioritise o Analyse o Create ideas o Express ideas o Identify problems o Solve problems o Develop evaluation strategies

d) Foreign languages– the expansion of the European Union and the globalisation of trade are putting a premium on language skills. But your prospective employer might want Polish or Chinese, not French and German. Never list your language level higher than you actually are. You never know who will be interviewing you – they just might start speaking to you in that language and if you can’t respond you’ve lost the job. include basic or working knowledge, reading/speaking/writing only (as apply), "proficient in," "fluent in," bilingual, and native speaker. For example, fluent in Russian; working knowledge of English OR native Ukrainian; (adequate/competent/proficient) in (written / spoken) English and French OR Ukrainian – native, Russian - Proficient, English – basic.

e) Presentation skills– these could relate to verbal or written presentations, or both. You might have formal experience pitching to clients or, perhaps, you regularly present your ideas on a work issue to colleagues.


o Listen attentively o Speak effectively o Write concisely o Express ideas o Facilitate group discussion o Negotiate o Provide effective feedback o Persuade others o Report information o Describe feelings o Interview o Edit

f) Organisational skills– these concern self-discipline and the ability to meet deadlines. Think of the times you have had to balance several activities at once. It could have been at work, home or a mix of the two.


o Be highly organised o Can work confidently under pressure o Be able to work unsupervised o Manage time o Meet goals o Diligent with detail o Accept responsibility o Set and meet deadlines o Be capable of recognising and meeting new challenges o Be punctual o Be accurate o Be flexible o Be a fast learner

g) Ability to Self-Manage and be Self-Motivated– A self-motivated employee or an employee having internal volition, reduces the work of the management to motivate him. A self-motivated employee also creates a positive attitude in people around him, and hence helps motivate others too.

o Be able to work unsupervised

o Be able to strive and achieve goals

o Use initiative

o Make decisions

o Implement decisions

h) Problem-solving– employers want people who can think issues through logically, determine what the issues are and come up with possible solutions. All employers like people who are logically sound, and can take care of their own problems. An analytically inclined employee reduces the work of others and hence improves the overall organizational efficiency.

o Identify problems

o Solve problems

i) Team Orientation– these days people are realizing the importance of teams in a workplace. Working in teams makes it simpler to organize the company and helps improve the efficiency of those working together, due to the synergy effect.

o Be able and willing to work with a professional team

o Be team player

o Co-operate with others

j) Work Ethic – A prerequisite for a good employee is to have a professional work ethic. This is a very basic requirement, but mentioning this gives the employers some confidence regarding the professionalism of the employee.


o Be reliable o Be responsible o Be honest o Be tolerant o Be tactful

k) Driving– don't assume that everyone drives, or underestimate how useful this can be to an employer.


The competencies or transferable skills that are particularly popular with graduate recruiters include:

· communication – ability to communicate orally, in writing, or via electronic means, in a manner appropriate to the audience;

· teamwork – being a constructive team member, contributing practically to the success of the team;

· leadership – being able to motivate and encourage others, whilst taking the lead;

· initiative – ability to see opportunities and to set and achieve goals;

· problem solving – thinking things through in a logical way in order to determine key issues, often also including creative thinking;

· flexibility/adaptability – ability to handle change and adapt to new situations;

· self-awareness– knowing your strengths and skills and having the confidence to put these across;

· commitment/motivation– having energy and enthusiasm in pursuing projects;

· interpersonal skills– ability to relate well to others and to establish good working relationships;

· numeracy – competence and understanding of numerical data, statistics and graphs.


Additionally, private sector employers like to see that applicants have some commercial awareness – an insight into how firms operate, what is happening in the business world and the impact this could have on their organisation.

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