The identification of object relations from the above given angle of view is not devoid of logical foundation and seems practical and useful.

Verb-phrases with Prepositionless Object

To identify the semantic and structural traits of different variants of verb-phrases we shall compare the following:

(A) dig ground, meet our friends, build a house, observe the stars, etc.

(B) walk the streets, sit a horse, smile a sunny smile, bow one's thanks, nod approval, etc.

With all their similarity, the two types of verb-phrases differ essentially in their syntactic content. The former imply that the person or thing is directly affected by the action, i. e. the action is directed to the object which completes the verbal idea and limits it at the same time. The duty of the object in examples (B) is to characterise the action; the phrase therefore is descriptive of something that is felt as characteristic of the action itself.

Phrases of group (A) are fairly common. A limiting object may be expressed by nouns of different classes, concrete and abstract, living beings and inanimate things, names of material, space and time. The range of verbs taking such kind of objects is known to be very wide.

Phrases of group (B) are somewhat limited in their use. The range of verbs taking such descriptive objects is rather small. Many patterns of this kind are idiosyncratic in their character. Some verbs which are generally intransitive acquire a transitive meaning only in such collocation.

Objects of group (A) are functionally identical in their limiting character but are contrasted to each other in the following terms:

1) the outer character of the action: the object is acted upon without any inner change in the object itself, as in: dig the ground, clean the blackboard, apply the rule, dress the child, take a book, send a letter, etc.;

2) the inner character of the action: the object is acted upon, which results in some inner changes in the object itself: improving the method, injured the tree, weakened the meaning, intensified the idea, etc.;

3) the resultative character of the action. This kind of objects presents no difficulty and no particular interest, e. g.: painted a picture, made the dress, wrote a monograph, built a house, etc

The same kind of object is obvious after verbs like beget, create, develop, draw, construct, invent, manufacture, etc.

In terms of transformational analysis, phrases of group (A) are characterised by the following:

1) pronominal transformation noun-objects may be replaced by corresponding pronominal forms, e. g.: dug it, dressed it, took it, washed it (the linen), violated it (the rule), etc.

2) transformation through nominalisation:

dig the ground digging the ground;

violating the rule the violation of the rule;

he approved our choice his approval of our choice.

3) adjectivisation:

she washed her linen her washed linen; he deserted his friend his deserted friend; forgot his promise forgetful of his promise.

Phrases with the cognate object are stylistic alternatives of corresponding simple verbs: to live a life = to live; to smile a smile = to smile, etc. functioning as an easy means of adding some descriptive trait to the predicate which it would be difficult to add to the verb in some other form. To fight the good fight, for instance, is semantically different from to fight well; he laughed his usual careless laugh is not absolutely synonymous with he laughed carelessly as usual.

Adverbial Adjuncts

The classification of adverbial sentence-elements has its own difficulties, because adverbials different in their syntactic content can be identical in terms of the formal syntactic bond.

By "syntactic content" we mean the content of the relationships between words in sentence-structure. These are:

a) process relationship, i. e. the relation between the process and the agent of the process;

b) object relationship the relation between the object and the process or between two objects;

c) qualification relationship the relation between the quality and the object or the process;

d) adverbial (or circumstantial) relationship.

e) Syntactic content is naturally understood as abstracted from the pertainance of words to the parts of speech and concrete lexical meaning.

f) In terms of syntactic content, adverbials may reasonably be subdivied into:

g) a) qualificative and b) circumstantial. The former are closely akin to adjectives.

h) Cf. An easy thing to do. He did it easily. A kind answer. He answered kindly.

i) Circumstantial adverbials are modifiers of place, purpose, time, concession, attending circumstances, etc.


The position of words and syntactic structures relative to one another is well known to be a most important part of English syntax. On this level of linguistic analysis distinction must naturally be made between two items: the order of words in phrase-structure and the order of words in sentence structure.

Due to the scarcity of morphological devices English has developed a tolerably fixed word-order which in most cases shows without fail what is the subject of the sentence.

But this is not to say that the grammatical rules of the normal word-order are strictly observed in absolutely all cases. The form of expression may depart from the common word-order for certain logical reasons

or under the stress of emotion, considerations of style, euphonic reasons, etc. The speaker or writer generally has some special emphasis to put on some part of the sentence (rhetorical order).

The following comparison will show the departure from the normal word-order in expressing subject-predicate relations (S→ P P→S);

(a) Came frightful days of snow and frost. (London) Cf. Frightful days of snow and frost came.

(b) Oh! very well. And suddenly she burst into tears of disappointment, shame and overstrain. Followed five minutes of acute misery. (Galsworthy)

Cf. Five minutes of acute misery followed. Further examples are:

(c) He remembered Irene saying to him once: "Never was any one born more loving and lovable than Jon". (Galsworthy)

(d) Then arrived in a group a number of Nicholases, always punctual the fashion up Ladbroke Grove way; and close behind them Eustace and his men, gloomy and smelling rather of smoke. (Galsworthy)

Variations in word-order characterising a word or a phrase as to its thematic and rhematic quality have special communicative functions. Examine also the word-order arrangement in the following sentences with the front-position of objects and adverbial adjuncts:

On the hearth stood an enormous bowl, with bottles beside it, glinting in the firelight. (Ch. Snow)

...At last I turned away. On the pavement, walking towards me, was Sheila. (Ch. Snow)

Thus, dreadfully, was revealed to him the lack of imagination in the human being. (Galsworthy)

Sometimes emphatic front-position of sentence-element is found without inversion of subject and predicate. This is the case, for instance, with objects referring to what immediately precedes in the context.

To the little I told him, he was formally sympathetic; but in his heart he thought it all inexplicable and somewhat effeminate. (Ch. Snow)

, Of these she read to little Jon, till he was allowed to read to himself; whereupon she whisked back to London and left them with him in a heap. (Galsworthy)

To her new fangled dress, frilly about the hips and tight below the knees, June took a sudden liking a charming colour, flax-blue. (Galsworthy)

Her heart he only knew the value of when she said softly: uGo on out, and don't ever come in here again." (Sillitoe)

With regard to the relative positions of subject and verbal predicate there are three possibilities which may be denoted respectively:

(a) the "normal" order S→ P;

(b) the "inverted" order P → S;

(c) the inverted order with P split up into two parts and S coming between them.



13. A sentence is a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.

There are three types of sentences:
a) Simple Sentence
b) Complex Sentence
c) Compound Sentence
d) Compound-complex Sentence

The type of sentence is determined by the number and type of clauses it contains. It falls into one of the following:

Simple Sentence
In this type of sentence, there is only one independent clause and no dependent clause. The sentence contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Simple sentences can also contain compound subjects and/or verbs but it doesn't contain any conjunction.

  • Some students (subject) like (verb) to study in the mornings.
  • Juan (subject) plays (verb) football every afternoon.
  • Alicia (subject) goes (verb) to the library and studies (verb) every day.

Compound Sentence
In this type of sentence, there are multiple independent clauses and no dependent clause. All the clauses are joined together by coordinating conjunctions and/or punctuations. Here, the relationship between the two independent clauses can be changed by the proper use of coordinating conjunctions.

  • I (subject) tried (verb) to speak Spanish, and my friend (subject) tried (verb) to speak English.
  • Alejandro (subject) played (verb) football, so Maria (subject) went (verb) shopping.
  • Alejandro (subject) played (verb) football, for Maria (subject) went (verb) shopping.

Complex Sentence
This type of sentence consists of at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. One characteristic of complex sentence is that it has a relative pronoun like 'that', 'who' or 'which' or a subordinator like 'because', 'since', 'when', 'although' or 'after'. If the complex sentence begins with a subordinator then a comma is placed after the dependent clause. When the sentence begins with an independent clause and the subordinators are in the middle, then there is no need to place a comma after the dependent clause.

  • When (subordinator) he (subject) handed (verb) in his homework, he (subject) forgot (verb) to give the teacher the last page.
  • The teacher (subject) returned (verb) the homework after (subordinator) she (subject) noticed (verb) the error.
  • The students (subject) are studying (verb) because (subordinator) they (subject) have (verb) a test tomorrow.
  • After (subordinator) they (subject) finished (verb) studying, Juan (subject) and Maria (subject) went (verb) to the movies.
  • Juan (subject) and Maria (subject) went (verb) to the movies after (subordinator) they (subject) finished (verb) studying.

Compound-Complex Sentence
This type of sentence consists of multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions and subordinators.

  • The woman (subject), who (subordinate) my mom (subject) talked to, sells (verb) cosmetics.
  • The book (subject) that (subordinate) Jonathan (subject) read is (verb) on the shelf.
  • The house (subject) which (subordinate) Abraham Lincoln (subject) was born in is (verb) still standing.
  • The town (subject) where (subordinate) I (subject) grew up is (verb) in the United States.

A clause is a question, statement or command. A clause which can stand by itself is called a main clause or principal clause.

A main clause (principal clause) generally is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. The only exceptions are certain commands (Go to the bathroom!) which contain only a predicate. It does not generally begin with a subordinator (subordinate conjunction) unless it is a question.

1) Jack and Jill went up the hill when they needed water.
2) When Felicity became president of the company, she was happy.
3) No one knew what was wrong after the storm ended.
4) Why did you leave the room?
5) The student who left early will not complete the assignment.

A subordinate clause cannot stand by itself in standard written English. Although a subordinate clause can be part of a question, it cannot be a question by itself.
Subordinate clause-a clause that modifies the principal clause or some part of it or that serves a noun function in the principal clause, as when she arrived in the sentence I was there when she arrived or that she has arrived in the sentence I doubt that she has arrived. When the principal clause is in the past tense
When the principal (main) clause is in the past tense, the verb in the subordinating clause also should be in the past tense.

1) The bird saw the man who sat on the train tracks.

2) While the bird watched, another man crept up behind it.
3) He captured the animal, because it was not paying any attention.
4) It is a sad story, that I am telling.
5) Did you know that you would not enjoy it?

14. Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the vocabulary of a language and properties of words. This term is composed of two morphemes form the Greek language: lexis (word, phrase) and logos (branch of knowledge, learning). Lexicology studies the vocabulary of a given language at a given stage in history. The task of lexicology is a study and systematic description of vocabulary, its origin, development, and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, phraseological units, variable word groups, and morphemes which make up words.

The word is a basic unit of any language. Every word serves as a name for things, actions, qualities. It is a two-facet unit possessing both the form and the content.

The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit, two-facet one, but in contrast to the word it cannot function independently. We deal with them when we speak of word structure and word formation.

Phraseological units are set phrases with transferred meaning which may function as word equivalents, e.g. to lay smb to rest (to bury), monkey business (naughtiness).

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