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Lesson 1

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Secretary (Part )

The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart," the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart". A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc).

Office secretary

Since the Renaissance until the late 19th century, men involved in the daily correspondence and the activities of the mighty had assumed the title of secretary (or in other cases, "clerk").

With time, like many titles, the term was applied to more and varied functions, leading to compound titles to specify various secretarial work better, like general secretary, financial secretary or Secretary of state. Just "secretary" remained in use either as an abbreviation when clear in the context or for relatively modest positions such as administrative assistant of the officer(s) in charge, either individually or as member of a secretariat. As such less influential posts became more feminine and common with the multiplication of bureaucracies in the public and private sectors, new words were also coined to describe them, such as personal assistant.

In the 1880s, with the invention of the typewriter, more women began to enter the field, and since World War I, the role of secretary has been primarily associated with women. By the 1930s, fewer men were entering the field of secretaries.

In an effort to promote professionalism amongst United States secretaries, the National Secretaries Association was created in 1942. Today, this organization is known as the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP) The organization developed the first standardized test for office workers called the Certified Professional Secretaries Examination (CPS). It was first administered in 1951.

In 1952, Mary Barrett, president of the National Secretaries Association, C. King Woodbridge, president of Dictaphone Corporation, and American businessman Harry F. Klemfuss created a special Secretary's Day holiday, to recognize the hard work of the staff in the office. The holiday caught on, and during the fourth week of April is now celebrated in offices all over the world. It has been renamed "Administrative Professional's Week" to highlight the increased responsibility of today's secretary and other administrative workers, and to avoid embarrassment to those who out of political correctness believe that "secretary" refers only to women or to unskilled workers.

Contemporary employment

In a business many job descriptions overlap. However, while administrative assistant is a generic term, not necessarily implying directly working for a superior, a secretary is usually a personal assistant to a manager or executive. Other titles describing jobs similar to or overlapping those of the traditional secretary are office coordinator, executive assistant, office manager and administrative professional.

At the most basic level a secretary may need only a good command of the prevailing office language and the ability to type, and may spend a large part of his or her time filing and fetching papers (or the equivalent regarding electronic files and database information) or answering telephones.

A more skilled executive assistant may be required to type at high speeds using technical or foreign languages, organize diaries, itineraries and meetings and carry out administrative duties which may include accountancy. An executive secretary / assistant may also control access to a manager, thus becoming an influential and trusted aide. Executive assistants are available for contact during off hours by new electronic communication methods for consultations.

 

. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

office secretary, daily correspondence, varied functions, to specify various secretarial work, general secretary, financial secretary, Secretary of state, administrative assistant, to become more feminine, personal assistant, to recognize the hard work, to type at high speeds, to carry out administrative duties, accountancy, during off hours.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) When has the role of secretary been primarily associated with women?

2) What test did IAAP develop?

3) What holiday was created in 1952?

4) How may a secretary spend a large part of his or her time?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. A secretarius was a) usually a personal assistant to a manager or executive.
2. A secretary is b) available for contact during off hours by new electronic communication methods.
3. An executive secretary / assistant may   c) a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially.
4. Executive assistants are d) also control access to a manager.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

It has been renamed "Administrative Professional's Week" (to describe/to highlight) the increased responsibility of today's secretary and other administrative (clerks/workers) and to avoid embarrassment to those who out of political (fairness/correctness) believe that "secretary" refers only to (women, men) or to unskilled workers.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe business; correspondence; secretarial work; executive assistant; office worker; personal assistant using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

business activity; making money; producing; busing; selling; goods; services; providing. example: Business is the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods or providing services.

 

correspondence letters; someone sends; receive; especially; official letters; business letters.

 

secretarial work work; relating to; that of a secretary.

 

executive assistant someone; work for ;one person; to help them; to do their job.

 

office worker a person; to do different jobs; in an office.

 

personal assistant someone; to work as a secretary; for one person.

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: In the 1880s, with the invention of the typewriter, more women began to enter the field.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: In an effort to promote professionalism amongst United States secretaries, the National Secretaries Association was created in 1942.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: The holiday caught on, and during the fourth week of April is now celebrated in offices all over the world.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 2

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Secretary (Part )

The largest difference between a generalized secretary and skilled executive assistants is that the executive assistant is required to be able to interact extensively with the general public, vendors, customers, and any other person or group that the executive is responsible to interact with. As the level that the executive interacts with increases so does the level of skill required in the executive assistant that works with the executive. Those executive assistants that work with corporate officers must be capable of emulating the style, corporate philosophy, and corporate persona of the executive for which they work. In the modern workplace the advancement of the executive assistants is codependent on the success of the executive and the ability of both to make the job performance of the team seamless whereas the job place evaluation is reflective of each others performance.

Governmental secretary

In the USA, many high-level government positions leading their section of the executive branch are called 'Secretaries', such as the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Defense.

In the United Kingdom government, a Principal Private Secretary is the chief assistant of a Secretary of State or Minister of the Crown. Senior civil servants may also have a Private Secretary. Depending upon the seniority of their principal, a Private Secretary may him or herself be regarded as an important official in their own right.

The Private Secretary to the Sovereign and the Private Secretary to the Prime Minister are the most important. A Private Secretary can be assisted by one or more Assistants and/or Deputy Secretaries, or even head a whole office in which those may be section chiefs.

In Australia, the appointed senior civil service administrator of each Department of State is titled Secretary, normally with various levels of Deputy Secretary and Assistant Secretary beneath them.

In several continental European states, similar positions (to a head of state or executive minister) are given names meaning chief of the 'cabinet' (e.g. Chef de cabinet in French) in the sense of personal advisory and administrative staff, indeed like a Chief of Staff heading a bureau that may in fact include one or more functions styled Secretary, e.g. Press Secretary, Social Secretary. The same function may exist under another name without the word 'Private', and to a gubernotorial dignitary, e.g. Secretary to the Governor General as in Canada.

Other cultural traditions have one or more specific terms for a similar position, e.g. in the former kingdom of Afghanistan, Shaghasi-i-Huzuri (from Shaghasi Chamberlain & Huzur Presence) meant 'Private Secretary to the King'.

In the People's Republic of China, a Party Committee Secretary, colloquially termed a party chief, is the most prominent regional Communist Party leadership office, usually the number-one figure in their respective regions. For example, Yu Zhengsheng, the Communist Party Shanghai Committee Secretary, is the city's highest ranked leader, higher than the mayor.

Medical secretary

A medical secretary provides secretarial support in clinics. Duties are e.g. to inform patients of costs and further information resources for care offered. Other duties are to answer telephones, relay messages and greet visitors. Duties depend on instructions and pre-established guidelines from medical staff.

The job requires a high school diploma or its equivalent in addition to 0-2 years of related experience.

In the United States, the average annual salary for a medical secretary is $31,620.

 

. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

general public, vendors, customers, advancement, job performance, governmental secretary, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, to be assisted by, head a whole office, similar positions, a Chief of Staff, medical secretary, to relay messages, to greet visitors, a high school diploma.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What is the largest difference between a generalized secretary and skilled executive assistants?

2) Who is the chief assistant of a Secretary of State?

3) Whom can a Private Secretary be assisted by?

4) What are duties of medical secretary?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. Those executive assistants must be capable of a) under another name without the word 'Private'.
  2. A Private Secretary can be assisted by b) emulating the style, corporate philosophy, and corporate persona of the executive for which they work.
3. The same function may exist c) instructions and pre-established guidelines from medical staff.
4. Duties depend on d) one or more Assistant - and or Deputy Secretaries.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

In the modern workplace the advancement of the (executive/medical) assistants is codependent on the success of the executive and the ability of both to (de/make) the job performance of the (team/ group) seamless whereas the job place evaluation is (reflective/affective) of each others performance.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe executive; government; Secretary of State; private secretary; administrative staffusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

executive manager; an organization; a company; to help; to make important decisions example: The executive is a manager in an organization or company who helps make important decisions

 

government a group of people; to govern a country.

 

Secretary of State a head; the US government department; to deal with; Uses relations ;other courtiers.

 

private secretary secretary; to by employed; to help a person; especial; with personal business.

 

administrative staff a group of people; to work for a department; relating to; management of a company.

 

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Senior civil servants may also have a Private Secretary.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A medical secretary provides secretarial support in clinics.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: In the United States, the average annual salary for a medical secretary is $31,620.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 3

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Records Management

Records management, or RM, is the practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created up to their eventual disposal. This may include classifying, storing, securing, and destruction (or in some cases, archival preservation) of records.

A record can be either a tangible object or digital information: for example, birth certificates, medical x-rays, office documents, databases, application data, and e-mail. Records management is primarily concerned with the evidence of an organization's activities, and is usually applied according to the value of the records rather than their physical format.

In the past, 'records management' was sometimes used to refer only to the management of records which were no longer in everyday use but still needed to be kept - 'semi-current' or 'inactive' records, often stored in basements or offsite. More modern usage tends to refer to the entire 'lifecycle' of records - from the point of creation right through until their eventual disposal.

The ISO 15489: 2001 standard defines records management as "The field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records".

The ISO defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records defines a record as "a recorded information produced or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity."

If an item is presented as a legal record, it needs to be authenticated. Forensic experts may need to examine a document or artifact to determine that it is not a forgery, and that any damage, alteration, or missing content is documented. In extreme cases, items may be subjected to a microscope, x-ray, radiocarbon dating or chemical analysis. This level of authentication is rare, but requires that special care be taken in the creation and retention of the records of an organization.

Records must be stored in such a way that they are accessible and safeguarded against environmental damage. A typical paper document may be stored in a filing cabinet in an office. However, some organizations employ file rooms with specialized environmental controls including temperature and humidity. Vital records may need to be stored in a disaster-resistant safe or vault to protect against fire, flood, earthquakes and conflict. In extreme cases, the item may require both disaster-proofing and public access, such as the original, signed US Constitution. Civil engineers may need to be consulted to determine that the file room can effectively withstand the weight of shelves and file cabinets filled with paper; historically, some military vessels were designed to take into account the weight of their operating procedures on paper as part of their ballast equation [citation needed] (modern record-keeping technologies have transferred much of that information to electronic storage). In addition to on-site storage of records, many organizations operate their own off-site records centers or contract with commercial records centers.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

records management, classifying, storing, destruction, archival preservation, tangible object, digital information, organization's activities, creation, receipt, maintenance, legal obligations, to be authenticated, to examine a document, a filing cabinet, file rooms, a disaster-resistant safe.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What may records management include?

2) How does the ISO define records?

3) Why may forensic experts need to examine a document?

4) Where may a typical paper document be stored?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. A record can be a) a microscope, x-ray, radiocarbon dating or chemical analysis.
2. Items may be subjected to   b) way that they are accessible and safeguarded against.
3.Records must be stored in such a way c) either a tangible object or digital information .
4. Civil engineers may need to be consulted d) to determine that the file room can effectively withstand the weight of shelves.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

The International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records defines a record as "a recorded information (produced/proclaimed) or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual (productivity/activity) and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to (divide/provide) evidence of the activity.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe records; digital information; business activities; transaction of business; safe using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

records information; that is written; down; stored; on computer; it can be locked at; in the future. example: The records are information about something that is written down or stored on computerso that it can be looked at in the future.

 

digital information fact; details; to tell you something about; a situation; a person; an event; information is recorded; in the form of; numbers.

 

business activities things; people; to do; in order to; achieve; a particular aim.

 

transaction of business a business deal; an action; such as; buying smt; selling smt.

 

safe a strong metal box; a cupboard; with; special lock; you keep money; valuable things.

 

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Records management is primarily concerned with the evidence of an organization's activities.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: If an item is presented as a legal record, it needs to be authenticated.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A typical paper document may be stored in a filing cabinet in an office.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 4

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Office of the Future

The office of the future is a concept dating from the 1940s. It is also known as the "paperless office". After sixty years of unfulfilled prophecies the phrase "paperless office" has been discredited somewhat. Research and development around the idea continues under the name "office of the future", with quite a few novelties.

The first practical office of the future concept was probably the series of Memex machines which were presented in Life (magazine) on November 1945. Life magazine hired an illustrator from Sperry Rand to make drawings of the concepts Vannevar Bush had presented a few months earlier in The Atlantic Monthly magazine.

The Memex article in The Atlantic is most often cited because of its longer text which details the proposal of a system of shared microfilm based hyperlinks which could be considered as a precursor to the World Wide Web. Those citations tend to overlook the massive organization it would have taken to mail all those microfilm reels between scientists, and eventually between any knowledge worker, in order to make the system work. The citations also tend to overlook that Memex was an entire system, composed not only of a massive desk which housed the microfilm hyperlinking equipment, and the microfilm library but also of a speech activated typewriter (also capable of speech synthesis from normal paper text) and other accessories.

Many concepts for future computer systems were presented in the 1960s and 1970s, but none really touched office work as much as the Memex or had such a lasting impact.

Sun Microsystems presented a complete office of the future concept when it made its Star fire video prototype public in 1994. Like the Memex system, The Starfire prototype has been sometimes touted as predicting the birth of the World Wide Web. While it is true that we see the heroine "navigating" what the narrator describes as a "vast information space" this takes up but a few seconds at the beginning of the 15 minute Starfire video.

The Starfire is much more than a Web navigating machine. The Starfire video shows in the rest of the 15 minutes a large panoply of hardware and software concepts such as a gestural interface, total integration with public telephony and other innovations. Like the Memex system the Starfire has a large, massive desk as its central feature, and proposes compatible devices in complement to the desk, such as a laptop with a chorded keyboard and advanced videoconferencing. Bruce Tognazzini was the principal driver behind the project.

At the beginning of the year 2001 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York city presented a 3 month long exhibit called "Work spheres", which explored the role of industrial designers in creating what were intended to be effective and aesthetic solutions to present and future office environment issues.

Among the 151 objects or ensembles presented there were 6 works commissioned specifically for the exhibition, from experienced industrial design companies like IDEO. While some of the works had practical aspects, they were all chosen for their artistic impact. A complete catalogue of the exhibition was produced and a special website, with its own distinctive artistic interface, was put on line.

"Office of the Future" is also the name of an ongoing research project (based at the Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) which began among a consortium of universities sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

paperless office, to make drawings, knowledge worker, a massive desk, a speech activated typewriter, office work, vast information space, public telephony, compatible devices, were intended to be, office environment issues, put on line.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What was the first practical office of the future concept?

2) When did sun Microsystems present a complete office of the future concept?

3) Who was the principal driver?

4) What is the name of an ongoing research project?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. The citations also tend a) been sometimes touted as predicting the birth of the World Wide Web.
2. The Starfire prototype has   b) a large, massive desk as its central feature.
3. Like the Memex system the Star fire has c) to overlook that Memex was an entire system.
4. They were all chosen d) for their artistic impact.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

Life magazine (hired/wanted) an illustrator from Sperry Rand to (do/make) drawings of the concepts Vannevar Bush had presented a few months earlier in The Atlantic Monthly magazine.

 

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe office; knowledge worker; typewriter; office work; deskusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

office a building to belong to; a company; an organization; rooms; people; can work; at desks example: An officeisa building that belongs to a company or organization, with rooms where people can work at desks.

 

knowledge worker someone; to work; an organization or; an office.

 

typewriter a machine; with keys; you press; in order to; to print letters; the alphabet; onto paper.

 

office work a job; you do regularly; to earn money; a room; where; to have a desk.

 

desk a piece of furniture; usually; with; drawers; you sit at; to work.

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Many concepts for future computer systems were presented in the 1960s and 1970s.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: At the beginning of the year 2001 the Museum of Modern Art in New York city presented a 3 month long exhibit called Work spheres.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A complete catalogue of the exhibition was produced and a special website was put on line.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 5

THE READING MODULE

Read the text: Enterprise Content Management (ECM)

Enterprise content management (ECM) is the strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists.

Content management has many facets including enterprise content management, Web content management (WCM), content syndication and digital or media asset management. Enterprise content management is a vision, a strategy, or even a new industry, but it is not a closed system solution or a distinct product. Therefore, along with DRT (document related technologies) or DLM (document lifecycle management), ECM can be considered as just one possible catch-all term for a wide range of technologies and vendors.

A comparison of the definitions of the different application fields of ECM and WCM makes it clear that the existing system category distinctions cannot last long, whether for products and technical platforms or for usage models. Solutions that are used as pure in-house solutions today will be made accessible to partners or customers tomorrow. The content and structure of today's outward-directed web portal will be the platform for tomorrow's internal information system. In his article in ComputerWoche. Ulrich Kampffmeyer concentrated the claimed benefit of an enterprise content management system to three key ideas that distinguish such solutions from Web content management:

Enterprise content management as integrative middleware

ECM is used to overcome the restrictions of former vertical applications and island architectures. The user is basically unaware of using an ECM solution. ECM offers the requisite infrastructure for the new world of web-based IT, which is establishing itself as a kind of third platform alongside conventional host and client/server systems.

Enterprise content management components as independent services

ECM is used to manage information without regard to the source or the required use. The functionality is provided as a service that can be used from all kinds of applications. The advantage of a service concept is that for any given functionality only one general service is available, thus avoiding redundant, expensive and difficult to maintain parallel functions. Therefore, standards for interfaces connecting different services will play an important role in the implementation of EC.

Enterprise content management as an uniform repository for all types of information

ECM is used as a content warehouse (both data warehouse and document warehouse) that combines company information in a repository with a uniform structure. Expensive redundancies and associated problems with information consistency are eliminated. All applications deliver their content to a single repository, which in turn provides needed information to all applications. Therefore, content integration and ILM (information lifecycle management) will play an important role in the implementation and use of ECM.

Enterprise content management is working properly when it is effectively "invisible" to users. ECM technologies are infrastructures that support specialized applications as subordinate services. ECM thus is a collection of infrastructure components that fit into a multi-layer model and include all document related technologies (DRT) for handling, delivering, and managing structured data and unstructured information jointly.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

manage, store, preserve, tools, strategies, document related technologies, internal information system, service concept, functionality, implementation, uniform repository, content warehouse, data warehouse, document warehouse, content integration, infrastructure components.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What is enterprise content management?

2) What are three key ideas that distinguish such solutions?

3) Why is ECM a uniform repository for all types of information?

4) When is ECM working properly?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. Enterprise content management is a) basically unaware of using an ECM solution.
2. The user is b) used to manage information without regard to the source or the required use.
3. ECM is c) vision, a strategy, or even a new industry .
4. ECM technologies are d) infrastructures that support specialized applications as subordinate services.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

A comparison of the definitions of the different (usage/ application) fields of ECM and WCM makes it clear that the (existing/ including) system category distinctions (cannot/ must not) last long, whether for products and (radio/ technical) platforms or for usage models.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe document; to store documents; to deliver documents; data warehouse; data; repositoryusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

document a piece of paper; to have; official information example: The document is a piece of paper that has official information on it.

 

to store documents to keep; documents; information until; you need; them.

 

to deliver documents to take; documents; letters; a particular place; or; person.

 

data warehouse a special place; for storing; large quantities; information.

 

data information; in a form; can; be stored; by used.
repository a place; a lot of information; be stored.

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Standards for interfaces connecting different services will play an important role in the implementation of EC.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Expensive redundancies and associated problems with information consistency are eliminated.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 6

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Secretarial

The personal assistant or private secretary of an executive deals with all his or her correspondence. She may be concerned with any aspect of the business of the company, but there are certain types of letters that are particularly in the province of secretaries, such as the making of appointments and travel arrangements, the writing of letters of introduction, congratulation or condolence, and invitations and replies to invitations. A secretary may also be called upon to help in the organization of meetings and conferences and the entertainment of visiting suppliers, customers and other associates of the firm.

All limited companies are required, under British Company Law, to have a Company Secretary, in the case of private companies the directors are free to appoint any suitable person for this position, but in the case of public companieswhere the money of the public is concernedthe Company Secretary must be a properly qualified person, a member of a recognized Institute or Association.

The correspondence of the Company Secretary is particularly concerned with shareholders' meetings, board meetings, and the various forms that must be sent in to the office of the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies (the Government department concerned with company regulation).

The Company Secretary may also deal with enquiries for information concerning other firms, although the Accounts Department often handles matters. Administrative questions outside the ordinary trading, into the sphere of the Company Secretary, under instructions of the Board of Directors.

Telegrams used to be the usual means of communication in certain types of business where a letter is too slow and buying and selling on the markets of exchanges normally involved the sending of telegrams. Today, however, these institutions are equipped with telex machines and with direct telephone lines to foreign countries and the importance of the telegram in such areas have been greatly reduced.

Nevertheless, not every firm can be reached by telex, and long-distance telephone calls are very expensive, so telegrams are still of very great importance in most branches of commerce.

In Britain, and in most other English-speaking countries, the word cable is often used for a telegram sent out of the country, whereas the term wire normally refers to an inland telegram. Both words can be used as nouns, verbs and adjectives: 'We have received your wire (cable)''You cabled (wired) us last week' 'You have not confirmed your cable (wire) reply'.

Telegrams are used for urgent messages, but speed must be paid for, and a good deal of skill is necessary if great expense is to be avoided. The cost depends on two factors: the distance the telegram has to travel, and the number of words it contains. It is of the greatest importance to make sure the telegram is clear, and economy often has to be sacrificed in the interests of clarity. The omission of, say, a preposition will save a few pence, but it may in certain cases result in ambiguity, and there will obviously be no saving of either time or money if the receivers have to telegraph back to find out what the message really means.

One of the characteristics of telegrams in English is that prepositions are usually left out and particles often convey the meaning of verbs. Similarly, pronouns, conjunctions and auxiliaries can be omitted provided this does not interfere with the meaning of the message. Punctuation is limited to the words 'stop' and 'query': the former is inserted at the end of a statement, the latter after a question.

.

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

personal assistant, private secretary, correspondence, business of the company, making of appointments, travel arrangements, writing of letters, replies to invitations, organization of meetings, a Company Secretary, public, enquiries for information, administrative questions, Board of Directors, branches of commerce, urgent messages, a good deal of skill, meaning of the message.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What may the personal assistant be concerned with?

2) Where are telex machines and with direct telephone lines installed?

3) Why are telegrams still of very great importance?

4) What is limited to the words 'stop' and 'query'?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. A secretary may also be a) a properly qualified person.
2. The Company Secretary must be b) to make sure the telegram is clear.
3. Telegrams used to be c) called upon to help in the organization of meetings and conferences.
4 It is of the greatest importance d) usual means of communication in certain types of business.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

The omission of, say, a preposition will (save/add) a few pence, but it may in certain cases (conduct/result) in ambiguity, and there will obviously be no (saving/selling) of either time or money if the receivers have (to transmit/to telegraph) back to find out what the message really means.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe telegram; appointment; meeting; writing of letters; repliesusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

telegram written; piece of information; you; send; to another person; by telegraph. example: A telegram is a written piece of information that you send to another person by telegraph.

 

appointment an arrangement; a meeting; an agreed time; place; a particular purpose.

 

meeting an event; people; to meet; to discuss; to decide things.

 

writing of letters the activity; skill; writing letters; someone; an organization; a company.

 

replies something; written; said; a way of answer; to invitations.

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: All limited companies are required, under British Company Law, to have a company Secretary.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Administrative questions outside the ordinary trading come into the sphere of the Company Secretary.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: In Britain, and in most other English-speaking countries, the word cable is often used for a telegram sent out of the country.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III.Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 7

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Business Letters

Business writing is different.

Writing for a business audience is usually quite different than writing in the humanities, social sciences, or other academic disciplines. Business writing strives to be crisp and succinct rather than evocative or creative; it stresses specificity and accuracy. This distinction does not make business writing superior or inferior to other styles. Rather, it reflects the unique purpose and considerations involved when writing in a business context.

When you write a business document, you must assume that your audience has limited time in which to read it and is likely to skim. Your readers have an interest in what you say insofar as it affects their working world. They want to know the "bottom line": the point you are making about a situation or problem and how they should respond.

Business writing varies from the conversational style often found in email messages to the more formal, legalistic style found in contracts. A style between these two extremes is appropriate for the majority of memos, emails, and letters. Writing that is too formal can alienate readers, and an attempt to be overly casual may come across as insincere or unprofessional. In business writing, as in all writing, you must know your audience.

In most cases, the business letter will be the first impression that you make on someone. Though business writing has become less formal over time, you should still take great care that your letter's content is clear and that you have proofread it carefully.

Personal pronouns (like I, we, and you) are important in letters and memos. In such documents, it is perfectly appropriate to refer to yourself as I and to the reader as you. Be careful, however, when you use the pronoun we in a business letter that is written on company stationery, since it commits your company to what you have written. When stating your opinion, use I; when presenting company policy, use we.

The best writers strive to achieve a style that is so clear that their messages cannot be misunderstood. One way to achieve a clear style is to minimize your use of the passive voice. Although the passive voice is sometimes necessary, often it not only makes your writing dull but also can be ambiguous or overly impersonal.

Of course, there are exceptions to every rule. What if you are the head of the Global Finance Team? You may want to get your message across without calling excessive attention to the fact that the error was your team's fault. The passive voice allows you to gloss over an unflattering pointbut you should use it sparingly.

Strive to be exact and specific, avoiding vagueness, ambiguity, and platitudes. If there are industry- or field-specific concepts or terminology that are relevant to the task at hand, use them in a manner that will convey your competence and experience. Avoid any language that your audience may not understand. Your finished piece of writing should indicate how you meet the requirements you've listed and answer any questions raised in the description or prompt.

Many people believe that application letters and cover letters are essentially the same but theyre different. The letter of application is a sales letter in which you market your skills, abilities, and knowledge. A cover letter identifies an item being sent, the person to whom it is being sent, and the reason for its being sent, and provides a permanent record of the transmittal for both the writer and the reader.

 

. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

humanities, social sciences, academic disciplines, business writing, a business document, to skim, respond, conversational style, contracts, business letter, be misunderstood, audience, item, cover letter, letter of application ,a permanent record.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What will be the first impression that you make on someone?

2) How do you to refer to yourself?

3) What style do the best writers strive to achieve?

4) What must you avoid?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. Writing for a business audience is a) that your audience may not understand..
2. Your readers have   b) to minimize your use of the passive voice..
3. One way to achieve a clear style is c) usually quite different than writing in the humanities, social sciences, or other academic disciplines.
4. Avoid any language d) an interest in what you say.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

Though business writing has become (more/less) formal over time, you should still (take/pay) great care that your letter's content is (clear/difficult) and that (you/they) have proofread it carefully.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe business document; letter of application; business writing; contract; memo using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

business document a piece of paper; to have; official information; on it. example: A business document is a piece of paper that has official information on it.

 

letter of application formal; written; request; such as; job; place at university; permission; to do smt.

 

business writing to have official information; to be written; or; to be printed.

 

contract official agreement; between; two people; to state; what each will do.

 

memo (s) short; official note; another person; the same company; organization.

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: When you write a business document, you must assume that your audience has limited time.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: When stating your opinion, use I; when presenting company policy, use we.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Many people believe that application letters and cover letters are essentially the same.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Lesson 8

THE READING MODULE

Read the text: The Psychology of Business (Part )

On the different aspects of consumer and employee needs that are included within the psychology of business. The modern world is dominated by global businesses and corporate houses and any large scale enterprise requires a systematic understanding of employee and consumer demands, both material and non-material. The performance of business organizations depends on the performance of employees and the needs and expectations of the consumers, and so the human factor is central to the success of any business. In recent years, say from the last part of the 20th century, there have been several changes in our understanding of human nature as it relates to work and performance in organizations and the primary focus in now on communication, leadership skills, and employee satisfaction. All these factors are important in enhancing the overall performance of any business organization.
The psychology of business is thus primarily the psychology of employees and the psychology of consumers and its the organization that is responsible for maintaining the balance between consumer demands and employee demands.

The Psychology of Employees - First let us talk about the psychology of employees. Any business house is operated by a number of employees and some of them are part of the higher management and are also considered as partners of business. The major elements that should be part of understanding the psychology of employees would be.
1. Communication Employee communication and understanding of business goals is an integral part of success and it is the duty of the management of an organization to maintain direct and clear communication procedures through video conferences or seminars and presentations that would clearly state the mission and vision of the company. The communication between management and the other employees is thus a key aspect of employee or personnel psychology.
2. Leadership Any human resource manager or career counselor would focus first on developing leadership skills and leadership is an integral part of business because our inner leadership skills help us to break the mould and do something different and pioneering. Leadership skills in employees are important as team leaders in an organization are required to motivate other employees to attain certain company objectives. Leadership is thus closely related to motivation as a highly motivated individual will also be more likely to show leadership skills
3. Satisfaction Employee satisfaction is an important aspect of business and we hear of several companies declaring large pay packages and incentives to retain the best talent. Job satisfaction, material satisfaction in terms of salary and bonuses, and social satisfaction with regard to the work ambience are essential aspects of business and all businesses will have to pay specific attention to employee social, financial and emotional satisfaction. Fulfilling the needs of employees should be the primary focus of companies and this could be in accordance with Maslows hierarchy of needs in which it has been suggested that financial security, personal safety would be very important to humans followed by emotional need for social contact and connection and then we have esteem needs for social status and reputation.
Employee psychology is thus based on these three major factors or elements of business and all businesses should pay considerable attention to employee communication, leadership and motivation and employee satisfaction as essential aspects of psychology of business that can in turn enhance performance.

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

consumer, employee, large scale enterprise, business organizations, human nature, communication, consumer demands, employee demands, partners of business, human resource manager, company objectives, employee satisfaction, salary, bonuses, social satisfaction, financial security, human factor, psychology of business.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What is central to the success of any business?

2) Who is responsible for maintaining the balance between consumer demands and employee demands?

3) What are the major elements that should be part of understanding the psychology of employees?

4) Why is leadership an integral part of business?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. Any business house is a) an integral part of success.
2. Employee communication and understanding of business goals is b) required to motivate other employees to attain certain company objectives.
3. Team leaders in an organization are c) operated by a number of employees.
4 Fulfilling the needs of employees should be d) the primary focus of companies.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

In recent years, say from the last part of (the 19th century/ the 20th century), there have been several (changes/difference) in our understanding of human nature as it relates (to company/to work) and performance in organizations and (the primary/the secondary) focus in now on communication, leadership skills, and employee satisfaction.

 

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe company; manager; consumer; employee; communicationusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

company organization; to produce; to sell; goods; to provide a service. example: The company is an organization that produces or sells goods or provides a service.

 

manager someone; whose job; to manage; part all of a company; other organization.

 

consumer someone; to buy; to use; products; and; services

 

employee someone; to be paid; to work; for someone else.
communication process; people; exchange information; to express; thoughts; feelings.

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: The psychology of business is thus primarily the psychology of employees and the psychology of consumers.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Our inner leadership skills help us to break the mould and do something different and pioneering.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A highly motivated individual will also be more likely to show leadership skills.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

both and; any; of; by.

The modern world is dominated ____ global businesses and corporate houses and ____ large scale enterprise requires a systematic understanding ____employee and consumer demands, ____material____ non-material.

Exercise 2. Fill in the table with words and expressions from the text:

 

  factors aspect major elements
Example: the psychology of business is   -   - psychology of employees, he psychology of consumers.
essential aspect of business are

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