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In fact; similar; indeed; of; sense.

In several continental European states, _____ positions (to a head of state or executive minister) are given names meaning chief _____ the 'cabinet' (e.g. Chef de cabinet in French) in the _____of personal advisory and administrative staff, _____ like a Chief of Staff heading a bureau that may _____include one or more functions styled Secretary.

 

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

Difference between a generalized secretary and an executive assistant

Some governmental secretaries

Duties of a medical secretary

 

 

Lesson 3

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Records Management

Records management, or RM, is the practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created up to their eventual disposal. This may include classifying, storing, securing, and destruction (or in some cases, archival preservation) of records.

A record can be either a tangible object or digital information: for example, birth certificates, medical x-rays, office documents, databases, application data, and e-mail. Records management is primarily concerned with the evidence of an organization's activities, and is usually applied according to the value of the records rather than their physical format.

In the past, 'records management' was sometimes used to refer only to the management of records which were no longer in everyday use but still needed to be kept - 'semi-current' or 'inactive' records, often stored in basements or offsite. More modern usage tends to refer to the entire 'lifecycle' of records - from the point of creation right through until their eventual disposal.

The ISO 15489: 2001 standard defines records management as "The field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records".

The ISO defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records defines a record as "a recorded information produced or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity."

If an item is presented as a legal record, it needs to be authenticated. Forensic experts may need to examine a document or artifact to determine that it is not a forgery, and that any damage, alteration, or missing content is documented. In extreme cases, items may be subjected to a microscope, x-ray, radiocarbon dating or chemical analysis. This level of authentication is rare, but requires that special care be taken in the creation and retention of the records of an organization.

Records must be stored in such a way that they are accessible and safeguarded against environmental damage. A typical paper document may be stored in a filing cabinet in an office. However, some organizations employ file rooms with specialized environmental controls including temperature and humidity. Vital records may need to be stored in a disaster-resistant safe or vault to protect against fire, flood, earthquakes and conflict. In extreme cases, the item may require both disaster-proofing and public access, such as the original, signed US Constitution. Civil engineers may need to be consulted to determine that the file room can effectively withstand the weight of shelves and file cabinets filled with paper; historically, some military vessels were designed to take into account the weight of their operating procedures on paper as part of their ballast equation [citation needed] (modern record-keeping technologies have transferred much of that information to electronic storage). In addition to on-site storage of records, many organizations operate their own off-site records centers or contract with commercial records centers.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

records management, classifying, storing, destruction, archival preservation, tangible object, digital information, organization's activities, creation, receipt, maintenance, legal obligations, to be authenticated, to examine a document, a filing cabinet, file rooms, a disaster-resistant safe.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What may records management include?

2) How does the ISO define records?

3) Why may forensic experts need to examine a document?

4) Where may a typical paper document be stored?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. A record can be a) a microscope, x-ray, radiocarbon dating or chemical analysis.
2. Items may be subjected to   b) way that they are accessible and safeguarded against.
3.Records must be stored in such a way c) either a tangible object or digital information .
4. Civil engineers may need to be consulted d) to determine that the file room can effectively withstand the weight of shelves.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

The International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records defines a record as "a recorded information (produced/proclaimed) or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual (productivity/activity) and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to (divide/provide) evidence of the activity.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe records; digital information; business activities; transaction of business; safe using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

records information; that is written; down; stored; on computer; it can be locked at; in the future. example: The records are information about something that is written down or stored on computerso that it can be looked at in the future.

 

digital information fact; details; to tell you something about; a situation; a person; an event; information is recorded; in the form of; numbers.

 

business activities things; people; to do; in order to; achieve; a particular aim.

 

transaction of business a business deal; an action; such as; buying smt; selling smt.

 

safe a strong metal box; a cupboard; with; special lock; you keep money; valuable things.

 

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Records management is primarily concerned with the evidence of an organization's activities.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: If an item is presented as a legal record, it needs to be authenticated.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A typical paper document may be stored in a filing cabinet in an office.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

Sometimes; but; no longer, only; often.

In the past, 'records management' was _______ used to refer only to the management of records which were _______in everyday use _______ still needed to be kept - 'semi-current' or 'inactive' records, _______ stored in basements or offsite.

 

Exercise 2. Fill in the table with words and expressions from the text:

 

  parts processes kind of analysis types of documents
Example: a record can be   -   -   birth certificates, medical, X-rays, office documents, databases, application data
RM may include        
efficient and systematic control of        
items may be subjected to        

 

Exercise 3. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

Processes included

Definitions of records

Storing records

Lesson 4

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Office of the Future

The office of the future is a concept dating from the 1940s. It is also known as the "paperless office". After sixty years of unfulfilled prophecies the phrase "paperless office" has been discredited somewhat. Research and development around the idea continues under the name "office of the future", with quite a few novelties.

The first practical office of the future concept was probably the series of Memex machines which were presented in Life (magazine) on November 1945. Life magazine hired an illustrator from Sperry Rand to make drawings of the concepts Vannevar Bush had presented a few months earlier in The Atlantic Monthly magazine.

The Memex article in The Atlantic is most often cited because of its longer text which details the proposal of a system of shared microfilm based hyperlinks which could be considered as a precursor to the World Wide Web. Those citations tend to overlook the massive organization it would have taken to mail all those microfilm reels between scientists, and eventually between any knowledge worker, in order to make the system work. The citations also tend to overlook that Memex was an entire system, composed not only of a massive desk which housed the microfilm hyperlinking equipment, and the microfilm library but also of a speech activated typewriter (also capable of speech synthesis from normal paper text) and other accessories.

Many concepts for future computer systems were presented in the 1960s and 1970s, but none really touched office work as much as the Memex or had such a lasting impact.

Sun Microsystems presented a complete office of the future concept when it made its Star fire video prototype public in 1994. Like the Memex system, The Starfire prototype has been sometimes touted as predicting the birth of the World Wide Web. While it is true that we see the heroine "navigating" what the narrator describes as a "vast information space" this takes up but a few seconds at the beginning of the 15 minute Starfire video.

The Starfire is much more than a Web navigating machine. The Starfire video shows in the rest of the 15 minutes a large panoply of hardware and software concepts such as a gestural interface, total integration with public telephony and other innovations. Like the Memex system the Starfire has a large, massive desk as its central feature, and proposes compatible devices in complement to the desk, such as a laptop with a chorded keyboard and advanced videoconferencing. Bruce Tognazzini was the principal driver behind the project.

At the beginning of the year 2001 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York city presented a 3 month long exhibit called "Work spheres", which explored the role of industrial designers in creating what were intended to be effective and aesthetic solutions to present and future office environment issues.

Among the 151 objects or ensembles presented there were 6 works commissioned specifically for the exhibition, from experienced industrial design companies like IDEO. While some of the works had practical aspects, they were all chosen for their artistic impact. A complete catalogue of the exhibition was produced and a special website, with its own distinctive artistic interface, was put on line.

"Office of the Future" is also the name of an ongoing research project (based at the Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) which began among a consortium of universities sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

paperless office, to make drawings, knowledge worker, a massive desk, a speech activated typewriter, office work, vast information space, public telephony, compatible devices, were intended to be, office environment issues, put on line.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What was the first practical office of the future concept?

2) When did sun Microsystems present a complete office of the future concept?

3) Who was the principal driver?

4) What is the name of an ongoing research project?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. The citations also tend a) been sometimes touted as predicting the birth of the World Wide Web.
2. The Starfire prototype has   b) a large, massive desk as its central feature.
3. Like the Memex system the Star fire has c) to overlook that Memex was an entire system.
4. They were all chosen d) for their artistic impact.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

Life magazine (hired/wanted) an illustrator from Sperry Rand to (do/make) drawings of the concepts Vannevar Bush had presented a few months earlier in The Atlantic Monthly magazine.

 

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe office; knowledge worker; typewriter; office work; deskusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

office a building to belong to; a company; an organization; rooms; people; can work; at desks example: An officeisa building that belongs to a company or organization, with rooms where people can work at desks.

 

knowledge worker someone; to work; an organization or; an office.

 

typewriter a machine; with keys; you press; in order to; to print letters; the alphabet; onto paper.

 

office work a job; you do regularly; to earn money; a room; where; to have a desk.

 

desk a piece of furniture; usually; with; drawers; you sit at; to work.

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Many concepts for future computer systems were presented in the 1960s and 1970s.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: At the beginning of the year 2001 the Museum of Modern Art in New York city presented a 3 month long exhibit called Work spheres.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: A complete catalogue of the exhibition was produced and a special website was put on line.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

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