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To; often; based; which; of; as.

The Memex article in The Atlantic is most ___ cited because of its longer text ___ details the proposal ___ a system of shared microfilm ___ hyperlinks which could be considered as a precursor ___the World Wide Web.

 

Exercise 3. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

Memex desk and related, machines

Starfire video prototype

Art and beauty

 

 

Lesson 5

THE READING MODULE

Read the text: Enterprise Content Management (ECM)

Enterprise content management (ECM) is the strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists.

Content management has many facets including enterprise content management, Web content management (WCM), content syndication and digital or media asset management. Enterprise content management is a vision, a strategy, or even a new industry, but it is not a closed system solution or a distinct product. Therefore, along with DRT (document related technologies) or DLM (document lifecycle management), ECM can be considered as just one possible catch-all term for a wide range of technologies and vendors.

A comparison of the definitions of the different application fields of ECM and WCM makes it clear that the existing system category distinctions cannot last long, whether for products and technical platforms or for usage models. Solutions that are used as pure in-house solutions today will be made accessible to partners or customers tomorrow. The content and structure of today's outward-directed web portal will be the platform for tomorrow's internal information system. In his article in ComputerWoche. Ulrich Kampffmeyer concentrated the claimed benefit of an enterprise content management system to three key ideas that distinguish such solutions from Web content management:

Enterprise content management as integrative middleware

ECM is used to overcome the restrictions of former vertical applications and island architectures. The user is basically unaware of using an ECM solution. ECM offers the requisite infrastructure for the new world of web-based IT, which is establishing itself as a kind of third platform alongside conventional host and client/server systems.

Enterprise content management components as independent services

ECM is used to manage information without regard to the source or the required use. The functionality is provided as a service that can be used from all kinds of applications. The advantage of a service concept is that for any given functionality only one general service is available, thus avoiding redundant, expensive and difficult to maintain parallel functions. Therefore, standards for interfaces connecting different services will play an important role in the implementation of EC.

Enterprise content management as an uniform repository for all types of information

ECM is used as a content warehouse (both data warehouse and document warehouse) that combines company information in a repository with a uniform structure. Expensive redundancies and associated problems with information consistency are eliminated. All applications deliver their content to a single repository, which in turn provides needed information to all applications. Therefore, content integration and ILM (information lifecycle management) will play an important role in the implementation and use of ECM.

Enterprise content management is working properly when it is effectively "invisible" to users. ECM technologies are infrastructures that support specialized applications as subordinate services. ECM thus is a collection of infrastructure components that fit into a multi-layer model and include all document related technologies (DRT) for handling, delivering, and managing structured data and unstructured information jointly.

 

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

manage, store, preserve, tools, strategies, document related technologies, internal information system, service concept, functionality, implementation, uniform repository, content warehouse, data warehouse, document warehouse, content integration, infrastructure components.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What is enterprise content management?

2) What are three key ideas that distinguish such solutions?

3) Why is ECM a uniform repository for all types of information?

4) When is ECM working properly?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. Enterprise content management is a) basically unaware of using an ECM solution.
2. The user is b) used to manage information without regard to the source or the required use.
3. ECM is c) vision, a strategy, or even a new industry .
4. ECM technologies are d) infrastructures that support specialized applications as subordinate services.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

A comparison of the definitions of the different (usage/ application) fields of ECM and WCM makes it clear that the (existing/ including) system category distinctions (cannot/ must not) last long, whether for products and (radio/ technical) platforms or for usage models.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe document; to store documents; to deliver documents; data warehouse; data; repositoryusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

document a piece of paper; to have; official information example: The document is a piece of paper that has official information on it.

 

to store documents to keep; documents; information until; you need; them.

 

to deliver documents to take; documents; letters; a particular place; or; person.

 

data warehouse a special place; for storing; large quantities; information.

 

data information; in a form; can; be stored; by used.
repository a place; a lot of information; be stored.

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Standards for interfaces connecting different services will play an important role in the implementation of EC.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Expensive redundancies and associated problems with information consistency are eliminated.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

For; and; related; into; that.

ECM thus is a collection of infrastructure components __ fit __ a multi-layer model __ include all document __ technologies (DRT) __ handling, delivering, and managing structured data and unstructured information jointly.

Exercise 2. Fill in the table with words and expressions from the text:

 

  processes types of facets types of jobs
Example: method and tools are used to   -   - capture, manage, store, preserve and deliver content
content management has many facets including.      
document related technologies for      

 

Exercise 3. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

Characteristics of ECM

Three key ideals

 

Lesson 6

THE READING MODULE

 

Read the text: Secretarial

The personal assistant or private secretary of an executive deals with all his or her correspondence. She may be concerned with any aspect of the business of the company, but there are certain types of letters that are particularly in the province of secretaries, such as the making of appointments and travel arrangements, the writing of letters of introduction, congratulation or condolence, and invitations and replies to invitations. A secretary may also be called upon to help in the organization of meetings and conferences and the entertainment of visiting suppliers, customers and other associates of the firm.

All limited companies are required, under British Company Law, to have a Company Secretary, in the case of private companies the directors are free to appoint any suitable person for this position, but in the case of public companieswhere the money of the public is concernedthe Company Secretary must be a properly qualified person, a member of a recognized Institute or Association.

The correspondence of the Company Secretary is particularly concerned with shareholders' meetings, board meetings, and the various forms that must be sent in to the office of the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies (the Government department concerned with company regulation).

The Company Secretary may also deal with enquiries for information concerning other firms, although the Accounts Department often handles matters. Administrative questions outside the ordinary trading, into the sphere of the Company Secretary, under instructions of the Board of Directors.

Telegrams used to be the usual means of communication in certain types of business where a letter is too slow and buying and selling on the markets of exchanges normally involved the sending of telegrams. Today, however, these institutions are equipped with telex machines and with direct telephone lines to foreign countries and the importance of the telegram in such areas have been greatly reduced.

Nevertheless, not every firm can be reached by telex, and long-distance telephone calls are very expensive, so telegrams are still of very great importance in most branches of commerce.

In Britain, and in most other English-speaking countries, the word cable is often used for a telegram sent out of the country, whereas the term wire normally refers to an inland telegram. Both words can be used as nouns, verbs and adjectives: 'We have received your wire (cable)''You cabled (wired) us last week' 'You have not confirmed your cable (wire) reply'.

Telegrams are used for urgent messages, but speed must be paid for, and a good deal of skill is necessary if great expense is to be avoided. The cost depends on two factors: the distance the telegram has to travel, and the number of words it contains. It is of the greatest importance to make sure the telegram is clear, and economy often has to be sacrificed in the interests of clarity. The omission of, say, a preposition will save a few pence, but it may in certain cases result in ambiguity, and there will obviously be no saving of either time or money if the receivers have to telegraph back to find out what the message really means.

One of the characteristics of telegrams in English is that prepositions are usually left out and particles often convey the meaning of verbs. Similarly, pronouns, conjunctions and auxiliaries can be omitted provided this does not interfere with the meaning of the message. Punctuation is limited to the words 'stop' and 'query': the former is inserted at the end of a statement, the latter after a question.

.

 

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1.Read and memorize using a dictionary:

 

personal assistant, private secretary, correspondence, business of the company, making of appointments, travel arrangements, writing of letters, replies to invitations, organization of meetings, a Company Secretary, public, enquiries for information, administrative questions, Board of Directors, branches of commerce, urgent messages, a good deal of skill, meaning of the message.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions:

1) What may the personal assistant be concerned with?

2) Where are telex machines and with direct telephone lines installed?

3) Why are telegrams still of very great importance?

4) What is limited to the words 'stop' and 'query'?

Exercise 3.Match the left part with the right:

 

1. A secretary may also be a) a properly qualified person.
2. The Company Secretary must be b) to make sure the telegram is clear.
3. Telegrams used to be c) called upon to help in the organization of meetings and conferences.
4 It is of the greatest importance d) usual means of communication in certain types of business.

 

Exercise 4.Open brackets choosing the right words:

The omission of, say, a preposition will (save/add) a few pence, but it may in certain cases (conduct/result) in ambiguity, and there will obviously be no (saving/selling) of either time or money if the receivers have (to transmit/to telegraph) back to find out what the message really means.

 

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1.Describe telegram; appointment; meeting; writing of letters; repliesusing the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

 

telegram written; piece of information; you; send; to another person; by telegraph. example: A telegram is a written piece of information that you send to another person by telegraph.

 

appointment an arrangement; a meeting; an agreed time; place; a particular purpose.

 

meeting an event; people; to meet; to discuss; to decide things.

 

writing of letters the activity; skill; writing letters; someone; an organization; a company.

 

replies something; written; said; a way of answer; to invitations.

 

Exercise 2.Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: All limited companies are required, under British Company Law, to have a company Secretary.

2) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: Administrative questions outside the ordinary trading come into the sphere of the Company Secretary.

3) Question: ___________________________________________?

Answer: In Britain, and in most other English-speaking countries, the word cable is often used for a telegram sent out of the country.

 

THE WRITING MODULE

III.Writing Exercises:

Exercise 1.Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

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