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IV. Change the sentences into negative and interrogative. Give short affirmative and negative answers

 

1. At lunch time they usually have cold meat and salad.

2. Big shops have a large variety of goods and sell at reasonable prices.

3. From four to five the English have a very light meal called afternoon tea.

4. Harrods has a worldwide reputation for first-class service.

5. In Britain there are a lot of big and small shops.

6. In some shops there is a special department where they wrap up the purchases.

7. Some big shops have a home delivery service.

8. Staying at a motel has a lot of advantages.

9. There are lots of escalators and lifts inside the store.

10. There is a tendency in Britain and the USA for small shops to disappear.

V. Add question tags to the following statements. Give short affirmative and negative answers

 

1. Harrods has a staff of 4000, rising to 6000 at Christmas time.

2. There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, etc. in the supermarket.

3. There are several big department stores in Oxford Street.

4. There are several big street markets in London, and many small ones.

5. There are two branches of the store in Oxford Street.

6. Today there are 564 branches of Marks & Spencer all over the world.

7. Twice a year, in January and July, Harrods has a sale.

 

VI. Ask questions to which the following statements can be the answers

Model:The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England.

Where is the weather the favourite conversational topic?

 

1. In foggy weather it is often dark in the middle of the day.

2. It is natural for the English to use the comparison as changeable as the weather.

3. Motels are well constructed and comfortably furnished.

4. On every floor there is a comfortable lounge.

5. Staying at a motel has a lot of advantages.

6. The English are famous for their weather.

7. The tip is always given with a word of thanks.

8. The weather is very changeable in Britain.

9. When leaving the hotel, it is customary to tip the attendants.

VII. Give the comparative and superlative forms of the following adjectives

1. bright; calm; cheap; chief; clear; cold; cool; dear; dry; dull; full; great; hot; light; plain; poor; rough; smart; sour; sweet; warm; weak; wet; wide.

2. bulky; chilly; clever; cloudy; costly; fancy; friendly; heavy; narrow; stormy; tidy.

3. amusing; boring; changeable; comfortable; convenient; different; enjoyable; essential; expensive; famous; fashionable; friendly; interesting; luxurious; numerous; pleasant; popular; reasonable; satisfactory; splendid; suitable; usual.

 

VIII. Replace the adjectives in brackets by their comparative or superlative

 

1. Dinner is the (substantial) meal of the day.

2. Foggy weather is the very (bad).

3. Generally speaking, the (far) west you go, the more rain you get.

4. Harrods is the (expensive) store in Europe with goods displayed in sixty windows.

5. In the UK the (typical) meat is the traditional roast beef of pork, veal chops or chicken.

6. In the USA eating in a fast food restaurant takes less time and is (expensive).

7. Sleeping cars and dining cars make even the (long ) journey enjoyable.

8. The railway transport is one of the (popular) ways of travelling.

9. Travelling by plane is the (fast) and the (convenient) way.

10. Travelling by train is (slow) than by plane, but it has its advantages.

IX. Make up sentences from the words given below

 

1. a lot; are; big; cities; good; hotels; in; of; there.

2. all; conveniences; have; hotels; in; modern; most; rooms.

3. hotels; in; is; quite; satisfactory; service; the; usually.

4. a; postcards; and; selling; in; kiosk; is; lobby; picture; the; souvenirs; there.

5. also; and; are; bars; the; building; in; restaurants; same; there.

6. a; comfortable; the; every; floor; on; hotel; is; lounge; of; there.

7. attendants; customary; is; it; the; tip; to.

8. a; always; given; is; of; thanks; the; tip; with; word.

9. and; are; comfortably; constructed; furnished; motels; well.

10. additional; are; as; attractions; children's; playgrounds; such; there.

X. Give Active and Passive Infinitive forms of the verbs given below

 

Model: to book

 

Voice Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Active to book to be booking to have booked to have been booking
Passive to be booked to have been booked
Active to attach      
Passive        

 

to attach; to board; to book; to cater for; to eat; to enjoy; to fasten; to get; to make; to provide; to relax.

 

XI. Give four forms of the following regular verbs

Model: a) to ask, asked, asked, asking. b) to arrive, arrived, arrived, arriving.

 

a) to accept; to ask; to book; to discover; to enjoy; to greet; to happen; to listen; to look; to offer; to open; to press; to reach; to register; to return; to wait; to walk; to weigh.

b) to advise; to announce; to arrive; to bathe; to change; to enquire; to invite; to laze; to reserve; to serve.

 

UNIT 3

THE WEATHER

 

BEFORE YOU READ

Answer these questions

1. Have you ever thought what weather is and what it depends on?

2. What do people mean when they say that other countries have a climate, in England they have weather.

READING TASKS

A. Understanding main points

Read the text below about the weather and answer the questions, beginning your answers with the following phrases:as a rule ; to tell the truth ; as far as I know ; the matter is that ; as far as I remember ; as far as I am concerned ; frankly/strictly speaking ; to make a long story short .

 

1. What is weather? What is it connected with? What does it depend on?

2. What is the season characterized by?

3. Do you agree that people are only interested in the weather in places where it often changes? Why?

4. Do you think that the weather is important to everyone? Why?

5. What do we mean when we say that people have learned to change the weather?

6. Do you think that experiments with changing the weather are harmless? Why?

7. Do you agree with the people who think that we have to take the weather as it comes?

8. Why are the English famous for their weather? What do they say about their weather?

9. What comparison do the English use of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something?

10. What facts prove that the weather is the favourite conversational topic in England?

11. Do you agree that the popular belief that it rains all the time in Britain is not true? Why?

 

B. Understanding details

Mark the statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Give your reason using the following phrases: as a matter of fact ...; I don't think so ; I'm of the same opinion ; in my opinion ; on the contrary ; strictly speaking ...; to my mind ... .

 

1. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time or over a certain short period.

2. The weather usually depends on the geographical position of the country.

3. As a rule people are not interested in the weather, they take it as it comes.

4. The weather affects the lives of all of us in many ways.

5. People failed to learn to change the weather inside and outside their houses.

6. The British talk about the weather because they think that everybody finds this topic of conversation very interesting.

7. The British are famous for their weather as it is very changeable, never the same two days running.

8. London gets more rain in a year than most other major European cities.

9. Britain is a green country, with long rich grass for the cattle and sheep, and beautiful lawns in the gardens.

10. Everyone who comes to Britain says that it looks like one great beautiful park.

 

ABOUT THE WEATHER

 

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time or over a certain short period. It is connected with atmospheric pressure, temperature, rainfall, cloudiness and wind. The weather usually depends on the season. The season is characterized by a distinctive temperature, rainfall, vegetation and the like, which occur at different times in different regions and is determined by the position of the Earth in relation to the Sun. Rain, snow, hail, sleet, frost, and dew are all parts of the weather. So are cold spells, heat waves, clouds, breezes, gales, thunderstorms, and hurricanes. Weather can be good, bad, fine, excellent, beautiful, rainy, snowy, stormy, dry, hot, cold, warm, cool and pleasant.

In some parts of the world the weather stays very much the same day after day. In other places it often changes. A summer day that starts out bright and sunny may end with a thunderstorm. In the same way a cold and cloudy winter morning may be followed by a clear and spring like afternoon. In places where the weather often changes, everyone is interested in it. But not everyone wants the same kind of weather. A farmer may want a rainy day because his crops need rain. His neighbour may want a sunny day because it is time for him to harvest. Some people may be glad to see a heavy snowstorm because they want to go skiing. Others may not like the snow at all because it blocks the roads and makes travelling hard. Not everyone is happy when there is a week of warm, sunny weather in early spring. Some people know that the snow is melting so fast that rivers will flood. Even if a person does not mind heat or cold or rain or snow, the weather is important to him. Bad weather may ruin crops so that food will cost more. It may cause forest fires, flood homes and so on. The weather affects the lives of all of us in many ways.

We have learned to change the 'weather' inside our houses. We can make the air warmer, or we can cool it. We can put more moisture in it if it is too dry. Or, if it is too damp, we can take some of the moisture out of it. We can turn on lights if it is dark and cloudy out of doors. And by simple turning of the switch of an electric fan we can start a pleasant breeze blowing.

Even out of doors we began to experiment with changing the weather. We can make fogs disappear from aeroplane landing fields and we can cause rain. But we probably still have to take the weather as it comes.

The English are famous for their weather as it is very changeable, never the same two days running. But foggy weather is the very worst. The thick white fog rolls in from the sea all over the country. It is dark in the middle of the day and people cannot see their way, buses and cars crawl along slowly with their lights on, blowing their horns. It is natural for the English to use the comparison as changeable as the weather of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather. This statement is often made by the English to describe the meteorological conditions of their country.

The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, one of their remarks is almost certain to be about the weather. When the British go abroad they often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting. The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. One day it rains, the next day it may be sunny and the next it can be cold. You can never be sure of a dry day. In fact, London gets no more rain in a year than most other major European cities. Generally speaking, the further west you go, the more rain you get. But the popular belief that it rains all the time in Britain is not true.

Though it may not rain very much altogether it rains quite often all the year round and that's why Britain is such a green country, with long rich grass for the cattle and sheep, and beautiful lawns in the gardens. Everyone who comes to Britain says that it looks like one great beautiful park. The British people love their country and take care of it.

VOCABULARY NOTES

weather, n. ; broken weather ; dull/drty/far/fne/foul weather //// ; flyng/non-flyng weather / ; in all weather - ; rough weather ; thawng weather ; the weather forecast ; weather bureau ; weather condtons ; weather glass .

pressure, n. .

temperature, n. ; average/hgh/low/normal temperature /// ; room temperature .

rainfall, n. ; ; excess ranfall .

cloudiness, n. .

wind, n. ; adverse/contrary/far/favourable/hgh/strong wnd ///// .

vegetation, n. .

rain, n. ; contnuous/quet/steady/wdespread ran ; drvng/peltng/pourng/torrental ran ; drzzlng ran ; to get out of the rain .

snow, n. ; crusted snow , ; stcky snow , .

hail, n. .

sleet, n. ; ; ; .

frost, n. ; black frost ; bting/hard/heavy/severe/sharp frost ; early frosts ; hoar/whte frost ; rngng frost ; slght frost .

dew, n. ; evenng/mornng dew / .

heat, n. ; ; summer heat .

breeze, n. ; .

gale, n. ; ; hard/stff gale ; ; strong gale 9 ; whole gale (10 ).

thunderstorm, n. .

hurricane, n. .

season, n. ; the blossomng season () ; the busy season ; wet season .

spell, n. ; a spell of fne weather .

climate, n. ; damp/wet ; dry/healthy/humd/mld/ scorchng clmate ///'/ ; moderate/ temperate clmate .

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

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