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IX. Replace the infinitive in brackets by the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous

 

1. Ann usually does shopping but I (to do) it today because she is unwell.

2. Dick is in London now. He (to stay) at the Park Hotel.

3. For most people, speed is a very important factor when they (to travel).

4. It more often (to rain) in England than in other European countries.

5. She (to have) a good time now and (not want) to come back.

6. Some people know that the snow (to melt) so fast that rivers will flood.

7. The announcer says when and at what gate your flight (to board).

8. The cost of living (to increase). Every year things are more expensive.

9. The population of the world (to rise) very fast.

10. Travelling by car (to become) very popular nowadays.

 

X. Change the sentences given in the Past Continuous Tense into negative and interrogative. Give short affirmative and negative answers

Model: At ten oclock it was raining heavily. At ten oclock it wasnt raining heavily. Was it raining heavily at ten oclock? Yes, it was. No, it wasnt.

 

1. At six oclock they were still having a chat over a cup of tea.

2. At that time they were sitting at supper.

3. In London he was mainly visiting art galleries.

4. Last month he was strictly keeping to his meal times.

5. She was doing shopping when she suddenly ran into him.

6. She was travelling when she met the Smiths.

7. The storms were raging there all the winter.

8. The sun was dropping fast behind the roofs.

9. We were approaching the station at that time.

 

XI. Replace the infinitive in brackets by the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous Tenses

 

1. As he (to get) into the bus it (to start) and he (to fall) backwards on the road.

2. He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (to blow).

3. He suddenly (to realize) that he (to travel) in the wrong direction.

4. I saw you last night, you (to wait) for a bus.

5. She (to carry) an open umbrella as it (to rain) slightly.

6. The morning was very beautiful, the sun (to shine), the birds (to sing).

7. They (to have) fish and chips for dinner yesterday.

8. When I last (to see) her she (to hurry) along the road to the station.

9. When I arrived she (to have) lunch.

10. When he (to arrive) at the station Mary (to wait) for him.

 

XII. Replace the infinitive in brackets by the Future Indefinite or the Future Continuous

 

1. Accommodations as well as rates (to vary) from hotel to hotel.

2. I dont know whether he (to travel) on business or as a tourist next week.

3. She (not to fight) the city traffic to get a comfortable bed for the night.

4. They (to take) an outside room, as they can't stand the noise of the street.

5. The bellboy (to take) the guests and their luggage up in the lift to their room.

6. The receptionist (to ask) the guest to sign his or her name.

7. This Saturday Ann (to celebrate) her birthday.

8. This year he (to get) accommodation in one of the motels.

 

XIII. Add question tags to the following statements and give short answers

1. At the moment another plane is landing.

2. During the flight some of the passengers were reading.

3. I am meeting her at the station at eleven.

4. The bellboy was expecting tips for taking your luggage to your room.

5. The sales are starting on Wednesday.

6. They were having dinner when you called.

7. We are travelling to the UK one of these days.

8. When I met her she was doing some shopping.

9. While you were sleeping he was listening to the radio.

 

XIV. Make up sentences from the words given below

 

1. all; are; now; of; over; people; the; thousands; travelling; world.

2. are; big; cities; country; going; in; living; people; spend; the; their; time; to; visiting.

3. at; be; a; booking; destination; flight; four; he; a; his; oclock; on; seat; to; will.

4. a; ago; asking; belts; the; fasten; minute; passenger; seat; stewardess; the; to; was.

5. and; is; mineral; now; offering; passengers; she; some; sweets; the; water.

6. bellboy; guest; the; his; is; room; showing; the; to.

7. the; all; country; fog; the; from; in; is; over; rolling; sea; the; thick; white.

8. a; customers; Harrods; is; month; number; of; offering; its; services; special; this; to.

9. are; blowing; from; Gulf; hot; Mexico; now; of; the; winds.

 

UNIT 5

SHOPS AND SHOPPING

 

BEFORE YOU READ

Answer these questions

 

1. Is there a tendency in Ukraine for small shops to disappear? Why?

2. Do you agree that most people prefer to do shopping at supermarkets? Why?

READING TASKS

A. Understanding main points

Read the text below about shopping in Britain and answer the questions, beginning your answers withthe following phrases:as a rule ; to tell the truth ; as far as I know ; the matter is that ; as far as I remember ; as far as I am concerned ; frankly/strictly speaking ; to make a long story short .

 

1. Do you agree that many people regret the disappearance of small shops? Why?

2. What are the advantages of big shops called department stores?

3. What large stores in Europe do you know? What store is the largest one in Europe?

4. What do you know about the history of Harrods?

5. What services does Harrods offer to its customers?

6. What facts prove that Harrods has a worldwide reputation for first-class service?

7. Where are the smartest and most expensive shops like Harrods situated in London?

8. What are the best known shopping centers in London?

9. What department stores sell the cheapest kinds of goods in London? What goods do they specialize in?

10 What is shopping in Britain also famous for?

 

B. Understanding details

Mark the statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Give your reason using the following phrases: as a matter of fact ...; I don't think so ; I'm of the same opinion ; in my opinion ; on the contrary ; strictly speaking ...; to my mind ... .

1. There is a tendency in Britain and the USA for big shops to disappear.

2. In big shops the customers are demanded to pay cash.

3. Big shops dont have a home delivery service.

4. Small shops have a large variety of goods and sell them at reasonable prices.

5. Marks & Spencer offers a number of special services to its customers.

6. Selfridges has a worldwide reputation for first-class service.

7. Every month all shops in Britain have sales and some things are sold almost half price.

8. Covent Garden market is the main market in London. It is open once a week.

9. Today there are very few branches of Harrods all over the world.

10. Special free gifts and reduced prices are used to tempt customers into the stores.

 

SHOPPING IN BRITAIN

 

In Britain there are a lot of big and small shops. There is a tendency in Britain and the USA for small shops to disappear. They are eaten up by big firms, which have branches all over the country. Many people regret the disappearance of small shops.

In big shops called department stores one can buy everything: suits, dresses, coats, shoes, food and what not. In big shops the customer does not pay the shop assistant, but takes the bill to the cash desk and pays the cashier. Many people pay by check or by check card. If you want to pay by check, you dont have to worry about holding up lines of impatient cash payers behind you. In some stores you have to go to a special desk to have your check approved before going to the checkout line.

In some shops there is a special department where they wrap up the purchases and hand them over to customers. In many supermarkets you dont have to sack your own groceries at the checkout. They will do it for you. You can actually have your purchases taken to your car for you. Some shops have a home delivery service. But big shops are very useful to the public. They have a large variety of goods and sell them at reasonable prices.

Harrods is the largest store in Europe with goods displayed in sixty shop windows and five hectares and a half of selling space. It was opened in 1849 and now it has 230 departments, a room where you can have a rest if you are tired and even a kennel for customers dogs. There are lots of escalators and lifts inside the store. Harrods also offers a number of special services to its customers including six restaurants, some bars and tea rooms, a bank, an insurance department, a travel agency, London's last circulating library, a theatre ticket agency and a funeral service.

There can be about 50.000 customers a day. You can buy almost everything in Harrods and you know you're getting the best. In one year over 14 million purchases are made in its departments where you can buy anything from a pin to an elephant. It is Harrods' policy to stock a wide and exciting range of goods in every department, to give the customer a choice of goods which is unique in its variety and which no other store can offer. For example, Harrods stocks 450 different cheeses, 500 types of shirts and 9000 ties to go with them, 8000 dresses and 150 different pianos, etc.

Harrods has a worldwide reputation for first-class service. It has a staff of 4000, rising to 6000 at Christmas time. Over 40 million worth of goods are exported annually from Harrods. The Export Department can deal with any customer's purchase or order and will pack and send goods to any address in the world.

Twice a year, in January and July, Harrods has a sale. Some things are sold almost half price, and there are thousands of bargains. On the first days of the sale the shop is very crowded. Some people stand and wait all night so that they can be the first in the shop when it opens.

The smartest and most expensive shops like Harrods are in the district of London called Knightsbridge, but more people come to Oxford Street, London's most popular shopping centre. There are several big department stores in Oxford Street. The best known is Selfridges. It was founded by an American Gordon Selfridge in 1909.

Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street are the best known shopping centers in London, but in some ways King's Road in Chelsea is more fun. This is where fashionable young Londoners buy their clothes in many small boutiques.

You can buy what you like in big shops, but small markets have a lot to offer too. There are several big street markets in London, and many small ones. Some markets are open only one day a week. Covent Garden market is the main market in London. It is open every day. Here shoppers can buy antiques, old clothes, handmade jewellery and many other special things.

The department stores that sell the cheapest kinds of goods in London are Woolworths and Marks and Spencer. There are two of them in Oxford Street, and branches of these stores can be found in almost every town in Britain. Woolworths sells cheap consumer goods while Marks and Spencer is a large clothes and food store. They attract a great variety of customers from house wives to millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime Minister are just a few of its famous customers.

It all started 105 years ago when a young Polish immigrant Michael Marks had a stall in Leeds market. He didn't have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons and a few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the famous notice: Don't ask how much it's a penny. Ten years later he met Tom Spencer and together they started penny stalls in many towns in the North of England. Today there are 564 branches of Marks & Spencer all over the world: in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium and Hungary. The store bases its business on three principles: good value, good quality and good service. It also changes with the times, once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it is food, furniture and flowers as well. Top fashion designers advise on styles of clothes. Perhaps, the most important key to its success is its happy well-trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent. There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, etc. And all the staff can have lunch for under 40 pence.

Shopping in Britain is also famous for its chains of supermarkets and many of them have branches in all the towns of any size. In the beginning the stores sold only foodstuffs, but in recent years they have diversified enormously and now sell clothes, books, records, electrical and domestic equipment. The success of the chain has been due to an enterprising management and to attractive layout and display in the stores. The stores are organized completely for self-service and customers are encouraged to wander around the spaciously laid out stands. Special free gifts and reduced prices are used to tempt customers into the stores and they can't stand the temptation.

VOCABULARY NOTES

shop, n. ; baker's shop ; butcher's/frut/grocer's shop '// ; chemst's shop ; fashonable shop ; general shop ; shop hours .

department store, n. ; fancy goods department .

customer, n. .

shop assstant, n. .

cash desk, n. .

casher, n. ; casher's check .

store, n. ; store prces ; to patronze a store - .

purchase, n. .

supermarket, n. .

checkout, n. ; checkout clerk .

delvery, n. ; charge for delvery ; delvery of goods ; home delvery servce ; to make prompt delvery ; to pay on delvery .

shop wndow, n. ; to dress a shop wndow .

goods, n. ; captal goods ; consumer goods ; fnal/fnshed goods ; industrial goods ; pershable goods ; range of goods .

sale, n. ; marked down sales ; on sale , , ; summer/wnter sale(s) / .

prce, n. ; at a prce of ; buyng/purchase prce ; dscount prce ; market prce ; retal/wholesale prce / ; tender prce , ; to force down/to send down prces ; to force up/to push up/to put up/to send up prces .

bargan, n. ; bad/hard/losng bargan ; good bargan ; to be off wth one's bargan ; to make/to strke a bargan wth smb. ;

shoppng center, n. .

boutque, n. .

market, n. .

shopper, n. .

value, n. ; at value ; commercal/market value / ; current values ; nomnal value ; surplus value ; under value ; to decrease/to fall/to go down n value ; to go up/to ncrease/to rse n value .

qualty, n. ; goods of hgh/low qualty / .

servce, n. ; frst-class servce .

shoppng, n. ; shoppng mall ; to do one's shoppng .

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

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