²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


VII. Change the sentences given in the Past Perfect into negative and interrogative. Give short affirmative and negative answers

 

Model: We had already had dinner when he came. We hadnt had dinner yet when he came. Had we had dinner yet when he came? Yes, we had. No, we hadnt.

 

1. His wife had left for Paris when he found this letter.

2. It had already grown dark when we came home.

3. It had already stopped raining when we left for the airport.

4. She had already packed her things when he called.

5. The train had already left when we came to the station.

6. We had already come home when it began to rain.

7. We had already shipped the goods when we received your telegram.

 

VIII. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect

 

1. By the end of the eighties most small shops in Britain and the USA (to disappear).

2. By the end of the year customers (to make) over 14 million purchases here.

3. By six oclock we (to buy) everything we (to want).

4. By the time we (to get) to the shopping centre it (to close).

5. In a special department they (to wrap up) our purchases and (to hand) them over to us.

6. In half an hour we (to choose) a very good suit and a pair of shoes.

7. Last year the shop (to offer) a number of special services to its customers.

8. She complained that she (to be) penniless as she (to spend) all her money.

9. There (to be) a tendency in Britain and the USA for small shops to disappear.

IX. Change the sentences given in the Future Perfect into negative and interrogative. Give short affirmative and negative answers

 

Model: They will have finished supper by nine oclock. They wont have finished supper by nine oclock. Will they have finished supper by nine oclock? Yes, they will. No, they wont.

 

1. By the end of the month five thousand people will have seen the exhibition.

2. I shall have come back home when you drop in at my place.

3. The train will have left before we reach the station.

4. They will have arranged everything by tomorrow.

5. They will have begun to experiment with changing the weather by next year.

6. They will have eaten everything by the time we get to the restaurant.

7. They will have reached their destination by 5 oclock.

X. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Future Indefinite or the Future Perfect

 

1. Fashionable young Londoners (to buy) their clothes in many small boutiques.

2. Harrods (to export) over 40 million worth of goods by the end of the year.

3. The shop (to stock) a wide and exciting range of goods by the end of the year.

4. Harrods (to increase) its staff to 6000 by next Christmas time.

5. Next year they (to export) over 45 million worth of goods.

6. The Export Department (to deal) with any customer's purchase every day.

7. They (to sell) some things almost half price by the end of July.

8. They (to stock) 30 types of shirts and 70 ties to go with them next month.

9. Woolworths (to sell) a lot of cheap consumer goods by the end of next week.

 

XI. Add question tags to the following statements and give short answers

1. A number of hotel staff had relied on tips before their wages were raised.

2. By the end of the flight he will have read the book.

3. By the end of the month London will have got more rain than most other major European cities for the same period of time.

4. He had already signed his name when a new guest arrived.

5. She will have cooked dinner by the time you return.

6. The receptionist has entered the guests room number into the computer.

7. The stewardess has given us all the information about the flight.

8. You had just driven up to the door of your room when I saw you.

9. We have already realized all the advantages of travelling by air.

10. Weather has affected the lives of all of us in many ways.

 

XII. Make up sentences from the words given below

 

1. already; booked; a; destination; flight; a; has; he; his; on; seat; to.

2. the; according; destination; has; of; the; on; port; reached; schedule; ship; their; time; to.

3. and; been; continents; countries; has; he; lately; many; to.

4. air; brought; from; Gulf Stream; Gulf; has; the; Mexico; of; the; warm.

5. changed; the; has; store; the; times; with.

6. already; Britain; by; from; had; he; Monday; returned.

7. a; by; end; goods; the; Harrods; have; lot; of; stocked; the; will; of; year.

8. a; attracted; customers; great; has; of; store; the; variety.

UNIT 6

THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

BEFORE YOU READ

Answer these questions

1. Is Great Britain the name of an island or a country?

2. What is the full name of the country situated on the British Isles?

Reading tasks

A. Understanding main points

Read the text below about the United Kingdom and answer the questions, beginning your answers with the following phrases:as a rule ; to tell the truth ; as far as I know ; the matter is that ; as far as I remember ; as far as I am concerned ; frankly/strictly speaking ; to make a long story short .

 

1. Where is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland situated?

2. How many islands do the British Isles consist of and what is their total area?

3. What seas and oceans are the British Isles washed by? Are the seas surrounding Great Britain shallow and rich in fish?

4. What countries is the United Kingdom made up of? How many administrative counties do they consist of?

5. What island lies off the western coast of European continent?

6. What do you know about the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man?

7. What two main regions is the island of Great Britain subdivided into?

8. What parts of the British Isles have complete internal self-government? Who are they ruled by?

9. What does Lowland Britain comprise and what does Highland Britain consist of?

10. What is the humid and mild climate of the country good for?

11. What can you say about the population of the UK? What cities with populations over 500.000 do you know?

12. What are the differences between England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland? What facts explain them?

 

B. Understanding details

Mark the statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Give your reason using the following phrases: as a matter of fact ...; I don't think so ; I'm of the same opinion ; in my opinion ; on the contrary ; strictly speaking ...; to my mind ... .

 

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, lying off the southeast coast of continental Europe.

2. The island of Great Britain is washed by the seas of the Pacific Ocean.

3. Lowland Britain comprises northern and western England and Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines, and the Lake District.

4. The highest mountains on the British Isles are Ben Nevis in Wales and Snowdon in Scotland.

5. The Severn is the swiftest flowing river in the British Isles, flowing along the border between England and Wales.

6. The climate in Britain is generally mild and temperate because of the Gulf Stream, which brings warm water and air across the Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico.

7. In summer it is very hot in Britain and it is very cold there in winter.

8. Although Britain is densely populated, there are large areas which contain fewer than 100 people per square kilometre.

9. The UK is inhabited by the English, French, German, and Northern Irish, who constitute the British nation.

10. The British are the descendants of different peoples who settled on the British Isles at different times.

11. No differences in education, religion and the legal systems can be found between England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

 

THE UNITED KINGDOM

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, lying off the northwest coast of continental Europe. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands five hundred smaller islands with the total area of over 244 000 square kilometers. The island of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the northeast, north and northwest. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea, the Straits of Dover and the English Channel. In the west Great Britain is separated from Ireland b the Irish Sea, North Channel and St. George's Channel. The seas surrounding Great Britain are shallow and rich in fish.

Great Britain is an island lying off the western coast of Europe, comprising the main territory of the United Kingdom. With an area of 229.850 km it is the largest of the British Isles, an archipelago that also includes Ireland and the Isle of Man. It is the largest island in Europe, and ranks either eighth or ninth in size among the islands in the world, depending on how Australia is classified. It stretches over approximately ten degrees of latitude on its longer, northsouth axis.

The United Kingdom has the total area of about 242 000 sq. km. It is nearly 500 km. across at the widest point, and almost 1 000 km. long. It is made up of four countries: England consisting of 46 administrative counties, Wales of 13 counties, Scotland of 33 counties, including the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands, and Northern Ireland (or Ulster), consisting of 6 counties. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London. The largest cities of Britain are: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds and Edinburgh. The most important ports are: London, Liverpool, Southampton, Belfast, Glasgow and Cardiff.

There are two small parts of the British Isles which have special political arrangement. They are the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. Each has complete internal self-government, including its own Parliament and its own tax system. Both are ruled by a Lieutenant Governor appointed by the British government.

Geographically, the island of Great Britain is subdivided into two main regionsLowland Britain and Highland Britain. Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines, and the Lake District. The Pennine Chain extends southward from the Cheviot Hills into the Midlands, a plain region with low hills and valleys. England is separated from Scotland by the Cheviot Hills, running from east to west.

The highest mountains are in Scotland and Wales: Ben Nevis is 1.343 metres and Snowdon is 1.085 metres. In fact everything in the United Kingdom is rather small the longest rivers are the Severn (354 kilometres), flowing along the border between England and Wales, tributaries of which include the Avon, famed by Shakespeare, and the River Thames (346 kilometres), which flows eastward to the port of London. The swiftest flowing river in the British Isles is the Spey. There are a lot of lakes in Great Britain. On the northwest side of the Pennine system there is the Lake District, containing the beautiful lakes which give it its name.

The climate in Britain is generally mild and temperate because of the Gulf Stream, which brings warm water and air across the Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico. That means that it is never too hot or cold, too wet or dry. The humid and mild climate is good for plants and flowers. Some of them have become symbols in the UK. Poppy is the symbol of peace, the red rose is the national emblem of England, the thistle is the national emblem of Scotland and the Edinburgh International Festival. The daffodils and the leek are the emblems of Wales, the shamrock is the emblem of Ireland.

The United Kingdom is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million people. The distribution of the population is rather uneven. About 80 percent of the population is urban. Over 46 million people live in England, a little over 5 million live in Scotland, over 3 million in Wales and about 1.5 million in Northern Ireland. Although Britain is densely populated, there are large areas which contain fewer than 100 people per square kilometre. London's population is 7 million. There are only five cities with population over 500.000, although Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle also exceed this figure if neighbouring towns are included. The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scottish, the Welsh, and the Northern Irish, who constitute the British nation. The British are the descendants of different peoples who settled on the British Isles at different times. These various origins explain many of the differences to be found between England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland differences in education, religion and the legal systems, but most obviously, in language.

VOCABULARY NOTES

ocean, n. .

archpelago, n. .

sland, n. ; small sland ; to lve on an sland .

regon,n. syn. area, zone ; ; .

country, n. syn. state, power ; country sckness ; ; ths country ; .

county, n. ; .

captal, n. syn. metropols. .

port, n. ; cargo port ; commercal port ; port of arrval/departure /; port of call/of destnaton /; port of dscharge/of loadng /; port of dstress ; port of entry ; to call at a port .

channel, n. ; channel fever ; the Englsh Channel -.

sle, n. ; the Brtsh sles; the Isle of Man; the Isle of Wght; the Shetland sles.

hll, n. ; ; a chan of hlls ; hll country ; sharp/steep hll ; the slope of a hll ; to go up the hll .

mountan, n. ; mountan ar ; mountan chan/range ; mountan clmate ; mountan flowers ; mountan pass ; mountan plants ; mountan stream .

rver, n. ; rver lne ; transboundary rvers , .

trbutary, n. .

Gulf Stream, n. .

Gulf of Mexco, n. .

symbol, n. .

emblem, n. ; natonal emblem .

populaton, n. ; cvl populaton ; fall n/ncrease in populaton / ; indigenous populaton ; legal/resdent populaton ; populaton pressure ; rural/urban populaton / ; workng populaton .

naton, n. ; .

descendant, n. ; descendant of an ancent famly ; direct/lneal descendant .

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |