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IV. Put the following sentences in the Passive Voice

Model: They elect President for a four-year term. President is elected for a four-year term.

 

1. Appointed secretaries who collectively make up the president's cabinet head the major departments of the government.

2. He made recommendations to the King or the Queen on many important public appointments.

3. The big firms, who have branches all over the country, eat up small shops.

4. The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine.

5. The monarch formally appoints all bishops and also creates peers on the advice of the Prime Minister.

6. The monarch gave formal assent to any legislative measure approved by the two houses.

7. The new law will become effective three months from when it receives royal assent.

8. The US Constitution works as well today as when they wrote it.

9. They entitled four groups of people to sit in the House of Lords: two archbishops, and twenty-four most senior bishops of the established Church of England.

 

V. Add question tags to the following statements and give short answers

1. At that time, Nepal was transformed from an absolute monarchy into a multiparty democracy.

2. At the beginning of February, his organization, formerly a government department, was turned into a nominally independent company.

3. Congress is divided into two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

4. He was appointed commissioner in 1975 and was quickly identified with the tough law and order stand of the coalition government.

5. He was indirectly implicated, since he oversees the state government.

6. Like the national government, state governments are divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

7. Most substantially, Rockefeller is attacked as an apostle of big government.

8. The Republicans were elected by campaigning against big government and high taxes.

9. The sixty-two year-old deputy prime minister was asked to form a government after cabinet ministers quit.

10. They were also expected to meet in Sarajevo with officials from international lending institutions and local government officials.

 

VI. Put the verbs in the correct tense form

1. According to some past and current government officials the program (to intend) for defensive purposes only.

2. All that (to suppose) to end with the new democratic government of 1994.

3. Almost all of these (to own) by government water departments.

4. Local and national governments (to force) to renege on their own laws.

5. No general grants (to pay), either by central or by local government.

6. Royal assent (to give) to the Bill in August.

7. The raising of taxes or the dispensing of laws without the assent of Parliament (to declare) to be illegal.

8. These grants (to affect) later by cuts in government expenditure.

9. Welfare benefits, local and central government (to affect).

 

VII. Refer the following statements to the past and to the future if possible

1. Compensation is made of a base salary and a bonus.

2. Estimates based on wage differentials are also reported in a study by Robert.

3. Graduated pension is increased in the same way as the basic pension.

4. Haines is unable to pay and is consigned to a debtors' prison.

5. He is allowed to take for himself an annual salary out of those revenues.

6. The experiment is regarded as the embodiment of that method.

7. The incoming Conservative government is determined to reduce this bill.

8. They are treated like other manual workers and be paid monthly salaries.

9. They have been offered jobs on lower grades and salaries or short contracts.

10. When this new creation is shown to a human, it might then extend his ideas.

VIII. Make up sentences from the words given below

1. business; by; consulted; government; minister; Monarch; on; prime; the; the; was.

2. are; entitled; four; groups; House; in; Lords; of; of; people; sit; the; to.

3. all; appointed; are; bishops; by; formally; monarch; the.

4. a; by; group; minister; ministers; of; picked; Prime; special; the; was.

5. all; are; by; Cabinet; decisions; Government; made; major; of; the; the.

6. about; by; decisions; foreign; Government; important; made; policy; the; were.

7. all; approved; by; decisions; Government; of; Parliament; the; the; were.

8. and; are; by; civil; departments; ministries; run; servants.

9. after; an; be; changed; election; Government; the; will.

10. after; be; civil; elections; employed; same; servants; the; the; will.

UNIT 9

THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

BEFORE YOU READ

Answer these questions

1. What do we mean when we say that the United States is an indirect democracy?

2. Do you agree that the United States has a federalist system? Why?

READING TASKS

A. Understanding main points

Read the text below about indirect democracy and answer the questions, beginning your answers with the following phrases:as a rule ; to tell the truth ; as far as I know ; the matter is that ; as far as I remember ; as far as I am concerned ; frankly/strictly speaking ; to make a long story short .

 

1. What document establishes the country's political system and is the basis for its laws? When was it written?

2. Does the Constitution work as well today as when it was written? Why do you think so?

3. What powers does the Constitution of the USA give to the US citizens?

4. Among what branches is power divided within the US national government?

5. Who is the head of the executive branch and the country? What term can he be elected for?

6. What power does the president have? What is he responsible for under the Constitution?

7. Who are the major departments of the government headed by? What responsibilities do they have?

8. Who is the legislative branch made up of? What does it consist of?

9. How many members do the House of Representatives and the Senate comprise? Who do they represent?

10. What are the functions of the judicial branch?

11. How many political parties does the USA have? What are they? When were they formed?

12. What is the difference between the Republican and Democratic parties?

B. Understanding details

Mark the statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Give your reason using the following phrases: as a matter of fact ...; I don't think so ; I'm of the same opinion ; in my opinion ; on the contrary ; strictly speaking ...; to my mind ... .

 

1. The Constitution of the United States doesnt work as well today as it did when it was written.

2. The United States Constitution cant be amended, or changed.

3. Within the national government, power is divided among two branches: the legislative and executive branches.

4. The President, the head of the legislative branch and the country, is elected for a five year term.

5. The executive branch consists of departments and agencies.

6. Congress is divided into two houses: the House of Representatives and the House of Commons.

7. The President has to be from the party that has a majority in Congress.

8. Like the national government, state governments are divided into legislative, and executive branches.

9. In recent years voters have tended to choose Democratic presidents and Republican congress people.

10. The Democrats tend to be more conservative and to have more support among the upper classes.

11. The Republicans tend to be more liberal and to have more support among the working classes and the poor.

 

INDIRECT DEMOCRACY

 

The United States is an indirect democracythat is, the people rule through representatives they elect. Over time, the vote has been given to more and more people. In the beginning, only white men with property could vote. Today any citizen who is at least 18 years old can vote.

The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established the country's political system and is the basis for its laws. In 200 years, the United States has experienced enormous growth and change. Yet the Constitution works as well today as when it was written. One reason is that the Constitution can be amended, or changed. Another reason is that the Constitution is flexible: its basic principles can be applied and interpreted differently at different times.

The United States has a federalist system. This means that there are individual states, each with its own government, and there is a federal, or national, government. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state governments, and yet other powers to both. For example, only the national government can print money; the states establish their own school systems, and both the national and the state governments can collect taxes.

Within the national government, power is divided among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

The President is the head of the executive branch and the country. He is elected for a 4-year term. Under a constitutional amendment passed in 1951, a president can be elected to only two terms. The president has the authority to appoint federal justices. He is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Under the Constitution, the president is responsible for foreign relations with other nations. The president appoints ambassadors and other officials, manages the nation's foreign policy. The major departments of the government are headed by appointed secretaries who collectively make up the president's cabinet. Each appointment must be confirmed by a vote of the Senate. In addition to the President, the Vice President, and their staffs, the executive branch consists of departments and agencies.

There are now 14 departments, including Treasury, State, Defence, and Health and Human Services. Each department has different responsibilities. For example, the Treasury Department manages the nation's money, while the State Department helps make foreign policy. The President appoints the department heads, who together make up the President's Cabinet, or advisers. The agencies regulate specific areas. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency tries to control pollution, while the Securities and Exchange Commission regulates the stock markets.

The legislative branch is made up of elected representatives from all of the states and is the only branch that can make federal laws, levy federal taxes and declare war. It consists of Congress that is divided into two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The House of Representatives comprises 435 lawmakers who serve two-year terms. Each House member represents a district in his or her home state. The number of districts in a state is determined by a count of the population taken every ten years. The most heavily populated states have more districts and, therefore, more representatives than the smaller states, some of which have only one.

The Senate comprises 100 lawmakers who serve six-year terms. Each state, regardless of population, has two senators. That assured that the small states have an equal voice in one of the houses of Congress. The president of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States.

The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution. It is headed by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is the most important. It has nine members who are appointed for life. The other courts are federal courts of Appeal and federal district courts.

Each state has its own constitution. Like the national government, state governments are divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. There are state senators and representatives and state court systems. Just as the President is the leader of the national government, each state has a governor as its leader. Below the state level of government, there are country and city governments.

The United States has two main political parties. The Democratic party was formed before 1800 and the Republican party was formed in the 1850s. Many other smaller parties play little if any role. Voters elect the president, as well as senators, representatives, governors. A voter can choose candidates from different parties, so the President does not have to be from the party that has a majority in Congress. In recent years, in fact, voters have tended to choose Republican presidents and Democratic congress people.

There are not clear differences between the Republican and Democratic parties. The Republicans tend to be more conservative and to have more support among the upper classes, while the Democrats tend to be more liberal and to have more support among the working classes and the poor.

VOCABULARY NOTES

democracy, n. ; a parlamentary democracy ; people's democracy .

consttuton, n. .

law, n. ; in law ; law n force ; unwrtten law ; wthn the law ;to break a law .

system, n. ; ; accountng system ; admnstratve system ; bankng system ; European monetary system ; poltcal system .

money, n. ; blood money ; capital/seed money ; danger money ; funny money ; hush money ; mad money ; money launderng ; money market ; money order ; money supply ; new money , , , ; old money ; pn money ; pocket money .

tax, n. ; ; ; general property tax ; sales tax , ; value-added tax (VAT) ; to levy a tax .

branch, n. ; ; ; executve branch ; judcal branch ; legslatve branch .

presdent, n. .

ambassador, n. .

the Treasury, n. .

amendment, n. ; ; to declne/to vote down an amendment ; to enter/to nsert/to ntroduce/to ssue an amendment ; to pass an amendment ; to renew an amendment .

stock market, n. .

authorty, n. ; ; ; ; admnstratve authortes ; cvl authortes ; governmental authortes ; legslatve authortes .

offcal, n. ; ; bank offcal ; customs offcal ; government offcal ; trade unon offcal .

lawmaker, n. .

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

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