²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


I. Complete these sentences using the passive voice

1. I didn't realise that .

2. How do people learn languages? How .

3. People advised us not to go out alone. .

4. Somebody accused him of stealing money. He .

5. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer .

6. They are building a new ring road round the city. .

7. They cancelled all flights because of fog. All .

8. They have built a new hospital near the airport. .

9. They have postponed the concert. The .

10. When we got to the stadium, we found that .

 

II. Put the verbs in the correct voice and tense form

 

1. A new exhibition (to organize) in this building.

2. According to one version the famous library (to destroy) six centuries later.

3. All these ancient tools (to mention) above.

4. Chekhov's plays (to construct) in the same way as his stories.

5. His answer (to appreciate) by everybody.

6. The above problem (to investigate) by one of the scholars.

7. The most important archaeological collections (to house) in museums.

8. The most important documents (to sign) here.

9. These papers (to read) in their original form at a conference.

10. This paper (to publish) first in another edition.

III. Put the verb in the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive

 

1. It is a big factory. Five hundred people (to employ) there.

2. I was born in London but I (to grow) up in the north of England.

3. I saw an accident last night. Somebody (to call) an ambulance but nobody (to injure) so the ambulance (not/need).

4. Most of the Earth's surface (to cover) by water.

5. Ron's parents (to die) when he was very young. He and his sister (to bring) up by their grandparents.

6. The boat (to sink) quickly but fortunately everybody (to rescue).

7. The company is not independent. It (to own) by a much larger company.

8. Water (to cover) most of the Earth's surface.

9. While I was on holiday, my camera (to disappear) from my hotel room.

10. While I was on holiday, my camera (to steal) from my hotel room.

 

IV. Translate the following sentences into English using the Passive Voice

 

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

 

V. Complete the sentences using can, could, might, must, should, would in the proper form + the verb in brackets

 

1. I am not sure where she is now, she (to go) to the bank.

2. I had to work that evening, so I (to go) to the party.

3. I havent seen Bill for ages so I (to recognize) him if I saw him now.

4. I haven't seen our neighbours for ages, they (to go) away.

5. I posted the letter to Mary this morning, she (to receive) it tomorrow.

6. It is not raining at the moment but it (to rain) later.

7. There was a loud explosion a few minutes ago. You (to hear) it.

8. You have not had lunch yet, you (to be) hungry already.

9. You (to see) me there as I stayed at home.

10. We lost our way, as we went the wrong way, we (to turn) left.

 

VI. Make up sentences from the words in brackets

1. Ann was standing outside the cinema. (she must/wait/for somebody)

2. He was in prison at the time that the crime was committed, so (he couldn't/do/it).

3. I am surprised nobody told you that the road was very dangerous. (you should/warn)

4. Do you know what your sister is doing? I am not sure. (she may/watch/television)

5. Don't call up Ann now. (she might/have/lunch)

6. I have worked too much. Now I feel tired. (I shouldn't/work/so much)

7. I wonder why Tom didn't call on us on Sunday. (he must/forget)

8. They have signed the contract. (it/can't/change/now)

9. Why did you come to the office so early? (you needn't/come/to the office/so early)

10. Why didn't you ask me to help you? (I would/help/you)

11. Why weren't you here earlier? (you ought/be/here earlier)

 

VII. Make up sentences from the words given below

 

1. are; by; crime; from; have; in; individuals; ordinarily; practice; prosecutions; such; suffered; the; the; undertaken; who.

2. all; criminal; in; in; is; king; Kingdom; offences; prosecutor; the; the; the; United.

3. agencies; and; co-operates; Crown; investigating; jurisdictions; of; other; prosecuting; Prosecution; Service; the; the; with.

4. agency; an; Crown; Home; is; of; Office; Prosecution; Service; the; the.

5. Crown; Director; head; is; of; of; Prosecution; Prosecutions; Public; Service; the; the; the.

6. constitutional; Crown; fundamental; importance; independence; is; of; of; Prosecutors; the.

7. and; charge; crimes; investigate; people; police; the.

8. based; Code; Crown; decision; for; in; is; on; out; Prosecutors; prosecutor's; set; tests; the; the; the; two.

9. ambiguity; arises; criminal; discretion; law; of; of; out; the; the; this.

10. an; decide; factor; important; interest; is; lies; prosecutors; public; the; this; when; where.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

 

Unit 1

To be

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am   Am I   I am    
He   a traveller.   he a traveller? He      
She is   Is she   She is   a traveller.
It       it   It   not  
We       we   We      
You are travellers. Are you travellers? You are   travellers.
They       they   They      

 

There is, there are

 

When a noun representing an indefinite person or thing is the subject of the verb be a there + be + noun construction is normally used.

 

Affirmative Singular There is a dining car on many fast trains in Britain.
  Plural There are dining cars on many fast trains in Britain.
Interrogative Singular Is there a dining car on many fast trains in Britain?
  Plural Are there dining cars on many fast trains in Britain?
Negative Singular There isnt a dining car on many fast trains in Britain.
  Plural There arent dining cars on many fast trains in Britain.

 

To have

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I have   Do I     I do    
He       he     He      
She has a belt. Does she   a belt? She does   a belt.
It       it have   It   not have  
We       we you they     We      
You have belts. Do   belts? You do   belts.
They           They      

Nouns

1. The plural of a noun is usually made by adding -sto the singular.

seat seats,ship ships,train trains,plane planes

 

2. Nouns ending in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -xoften form their plural by ending -es.

hero heroes,watch watches,dress dresses,potato potatoes,bush bushes,box boxes

 

But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in -o add -s only.

auto autos,kimono kimonos,piano pianos,memo memos,kilo kilos,photo photos,soprano sopranos,radio radios,zoo zoos,video videos,solo solos

 

3. Nouns ending in -yfollowing a consonant form their plural by dropping the -y and adding -ies.

city cities,baby babies,country countries,lady ladies

 

Nouns ending in -y following a vowel form their plural by adding -s:

boy boys, day days, donkey donkeys

 

4. Twelve nouns ending in -for -fe drop the -for -fe and add -ves:calf, half, knife, leaf, loaf, life, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf.

half halves,life lives,self selves,wife wives

 

The nouns loaf, scarf and wharf take either -sor -vesin the plural.

loafs or loaves,scarf or scarves,wharfor wharves

 

Other words ending in -f or -feadd -sin the ordinary way.

belief beliefs, chief chiefs, cliff cliffs, roof roofs

 

5. A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change.

foot feet, louse lice, mouse mice, woman women, ox oxen, goose geese, man men, tooth teeth, child children

 

6. Names of certain creatures do not change in the plural:

deer, sheep, fish (fish is usually unchanged, fishes exists but is unknown).

 

7. Collective nouns, crew, family, team etc. can take a singular or plural verb:

a) singular if we consider the word to mean a single group or unit.

Our team is the best.

 

b) plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals.

Our team are wearing their new jerseys.

 

8. Certain words are always plural and take a plural verb.

clothes, police, pyjamas, trousers, binoculars, scales, scissors, spectacles, etc.

 

9. Words plural in form but singular in meaning include news:

The news is good.

certain diseases: mumps, rickets, shingles

and certain games: billiards, darts, draughts, bowls, dominoes

Possessive Case

 

The possessive case is formed by means of

a) s with singular nouns and plural nouns not ending in -s

a mansjob, the butchersshop, a childsvoice

menswork,womensclothes,the childrensroom

 

b) (apostrophe) with plural nouns ending in -s

a girls school, the students hostel, the Smiths car

 

The possessive case is chiefly used of

a) people, countries, animals, ships, boats, in time expressions, in expressions of

money + worth, with for + noun + sake, etc.

the ships bell, a weeks holiday, todays paper, ten dollars worth of books, one pounds worth of stamps, for heavens sake, a stones throw, journeys end

b) planes, trains, cars and other vehicles though here the of construction is safer

the trains heating system or the heating system ofthe train

 

Unit 2

 

Adjective

There are three degrees of comparison of adjectives: Positive, Comparative, Superlative.

 

1. One syllable adjectives and adjectives of two syllables ending in -er, -y, -ly, -ow form their comparative and superlative by adding -er and -est to the positive form.

new newer the newest,clever cleverer the cleverest,hot hotter the hottest,heavy heavier the heaviest,bright brighter the brightest,silly sillier the silliest,brave braver the bravest,narrow narrower the narrowest

 

2. All the other two syllable adjectives and adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive.

modern more modern the most modern

different more different the most different

enjoyable more enjoyable the most enjoyable

 

3. Irregular comparisons

good better the best, bad worse the worst, many/much more the most, little less the least, far farther the farthest, old older the oldest, far further the furthest, old elder the eldest

Verb

 

Transitive verbs (verbs that take a direct object) may have four forms of the Infinitive in the Active Voice: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous.

 

Infinitive Active
Indefinite to ask
Continuous to be asking
Perfect to have asked
Perfect Continuous to have been asking

There are as many groups of tenses in the English language as there are infinitives. In the Active Voice there are four tense groups: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect andPerfect Continuous. Each of them has such tenses as Present, Past, Future and Future-in-the Past.

Tenses

 

Active Voice
Indefinite Present The Indefinite tenses denote a customary repeated action in the present, past or future.
  Past
  Future  
  Future-in-the Past  
Continuous Present The Continuous tenses give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular present, past or future moment.
  Past
  Future
  Future-in-the Past  
Perfect Present The Perfect tenses give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event in the present, past or future.
  Past
  Future
  Future-in-the Past  
Perfect Continuous Present The Perfect Continuous tenses give the idea that one event is in progress immediately before, up to, until another time or event in the present, past or future.
Past
  Future
  Future-in-the Past

Unit 3

Almost all English verbs have four forms: Infinitive, Past Indefinite, Past Participle and Present Participle. All the verbs in the English language are divided into two groups: regular and irregular. If the verb is regular its second and third forms are formed by means of ending -ed. The forms of irregular verbs can be found in the table of irregular verbs.

 

  Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle Present participle
Regular to work worked worked working
Irregular to write wrote written writing

Indefinite Tenses

Formation

  Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
1. Affirmative form
  I work I   I shall  
  He   He   He    
  She works She   She will  
  It   It worked It   work
  We   We   We shall  
  You work You   You will  
  They   They   They    
2. Interrogative form
  Do I     I   Shall I  
    he     he     he  
  Does she     she   Will she  
    it work? Did it work?   it work?
    we     we   Shall we  
  Do you     you   Will you  
    they     they     they  
3. Negative form
  I dont   I     I shant  
  He     He     He    
  She doesnt   She     She wont  
  It   work It didnt work. It   work.
  We     We     We shant  
  You dont   You     You wont  
  They     They     They    
                                 

 

1. The affirmative form of the Present Indefinite coincides with the form of the Indefinite Infinitive without the particleto. The only exception is the third person singular in which the ending -s is added to the infinitive. To form the third person singular verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch, -x and -o add -es, instead of -s alone.

I dress she dresses; I box he boxes; I wash he washes; I do he does; I watch he watches; I go he goes

 

Verbs ending in -yfollowing a consonant form the third person singular by dropping the -yand adding -ies.

I carry he carries;I copy he copies;I try he tries

 

Verbs ending in -y following a vowel form the third person singular by adding -s.

I say he says; I play he plays

 

The interrogative form of the Present Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto do in the Present Indefinite and the infinitive of the main verb without the particleto.

The negative form of the Present Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto do in the Present Indefinite, the negative particlenot and the infinitive of the main verb without the particle to.

 

2. The Past Indefinite of regular verbs is formed by adding the ending-ed to the infinitive without the particleto.

Verbs ending in -yfollowing a consonant form the Past Indefinite tense by dropping the yand adding -ied.

I carry he carried,I copy he copied,I try he tried

 

Verbs ending in y following a vowel form the Past Indefinite tense by adding ed.

I play he played,I enjoy he enjoyed

 

When a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a single consonant, this consonant is doubled before -ed.

stop stopped, nod nodded

 

Verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains only one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant before -ed if the stress falls on the last syllable.

admit admitted

 

Final -r is doubled if the last syllable of the infinitive contains a stressed monophthong.

pre'fer preferred, o'ccur occurred

 

Final -l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel, stressed or unstressed.

 

The interrogative form of the Past Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto do in the Past Indefinite (did) and the infinitive of the main verb without the particleto. The auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

The negative form of the Past Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto do in the Past Indefinite, the negative particlenot and the infinitive of the main verb without the particle to.

 

3. The Future Indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbs shall andwilland the infinitive of the main verb without the particle to.Both shallandwill may be used for the first person singular and plural.

a) Will is kept for intension.

I will wait for you. = I intend to wait for you.

 

b) Shall is used when there is no intention, i.e. for actions where the subjects wishes were not involved.

I shall be twenty next week. I shall see him tomorrow.

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |