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The Present Indefinite is used

1. to express a recurrent or permanent action in the present, such adverbs or adverb phrases as: always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, every week, on Mondays, twice a week, every year, whenever, when, etc. can be used.

I go to the theatre once a month. Whenever you come she is out.

 

2. to express an action permanently characterizing the subject in the present;

He speaks both French and English fluently.

 

3. to express a planned future action mostly with verbs denoting motion.

We leave London at 10 and arrive in Paris at 12.

 

4. to express an action or state which does not refer to any particular time.

Sugar dissolves in water.

 

5. to express an action going on at the time of speaking:

a) if the verb is not used in the continuous form:to see, to know, to hear, to feel, to like, to hate, to love, to understand, to believe.

don't understand it.

 

b) when the speaker does not emphasize the progress of the action but merely states a fact.

Why does she walk so slow?

 

6. to express a future action in adverbial clauses of time and condition.

As soon as he comes he will call you. If it rains tomorrow we shall stay at home.

The Past Indefinite is used

1. to express a single or permanent action which took place in the past:

a) when the time is given;

Pushkin died in 1837.

 

b) when the time is asked about;

When did you come to London?

 

c) when the action clearly took place at a definite time even though the time is not indicated.

The train was ten minutes late. saw you in the street just now.

 

2. to express a succession of past actions;

I dressed, went downstairs, had some coffee and went out to the office.

 

3. to express a recurrent action in the past.

We were at the supermarket every morning.

The Future Indefinite is used

1. to express the speakers opinions, assumptions, speculations about the future. These may be introduced by verbs such as assume, be afraid, be/feel sure, believe, daresay, expect, hope, know, suppose, think, wonder o accompanied by adverbs such as perhaps, possibly, probably, surely, but can be used without them.

(I am sure) they will wait for us. (Perhaps) well find him at the hotel.

 

2. to express a single, a permanent or a recurrent action in the future.

He will go to Britain next summer. He'll work at the factory next year.

 

3. to express future habitual actions which we assume will take place.

Spring will come again.

Unit 4

Continuous Tenses

  Present Past Future
1. Affirmative form
  I am   I     I shall  
  He     He     He    
  She is   She was   She will be
  It   working It   working It   working
  We     We     We shall  
  You are   You were   You will  
  They     They     They    
2. Interrogative form
  Am I     I   Shall I  
    he   Was he     he  
  Is she     she   Will she be
    it working?   it working?   it working?
    we     we   Shall we  
  Are you   Were you   Will you they  
    they     they      
3. Negative form
  I am   I     I shant  
  He     he     He    
  She is not she was not She wont be
  It   working. it   working. It   working.
  We     we     We shant  
  You are   you were   You wont  
  They     they     They    
                                           

 

1. The Present Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto be in the Present Indefinite and the Present Participle of the main verb.

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the negative particlenot is placed after the auxiliary verb.

 

2. The Past Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto be in the Past Indefinite and the Present Participle of the main verb.

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the negative particlenot is used after the auxiliary verb.

 

3. The Future Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Future Indefinite and the Present Participle of the main verb.

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verbshallor will is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the particle not is used after the auxiliary verbshallor will.

The Present Continuous is used:

1) to express an action going on at the present moment, at the time of speaking.

What are you doing now? You are not listening to me.

 

2) to express an action in its progress going on at the present period of time not necessarily at the time of speaking.

I'm studying at the university of Economics

 

3) to express a continuous action going on at the same time with another action referring to the present time.

What does he do when he's not studying?

 

4) to express a planned future action mostly with verbs denoting motion.

We're flying to Paris in the morning. When are you coming back?

 

The combination of the Present Continuous of the verb to go with the infinitive of another verb expresses an action, which will take place in the near future, an intention to perform an action or something which will inevitably happen.

am going to buy an open ticket to London. He is going to be a teacher.

The Past Continuous is used:

1. to express an action going on at a definite moment in the past.

He was working at his English at that time.

 

2. to express an action in its progress going on at a definite period of time in the past.

Last spring he was visiting his old schoolfellow.

 

The Future Continuous is used:

to express an action going on at a definite moment or during a definite period of time in the future.

Meet me at two o'clock. I'll be looking out for you.

 

In present-day English the Future Continuous is often used in the same meaning as the Future Indefinite, that is to express a future action.

From now on I'll be asking thousands of questions. He'll be going to school soon.

Unit 5

Adverb

 

According to their meaning adverbs are subdivided into adverbs of time, place, repetition and frequency, degree and manner.

The most important suffix by means of which adverbs are formed from other parts of speech is the suffix-ly.Final - is changed into - before the suffix-ly.

quick quickly, happy happily, gay gaily, year yearly

 

There are three forms of comparison of adverbs of manner and some other adverbs: Positive, Comparative, Superlative.

1. One syllable adverbs and two syllable adverbs ending in -y, -er, -ow form their comparative and superlative forms by adding -er and -est to the positive form.

late later latest,fast faster fastest,early earlier earliest

 

2. All the other two syllable adverbs and adverbs of three and more syllables form their comparative and superlative forms by putting more and most before the positive form.

quietly morequietly mostquietly, carefully morecarefully mostcarefully

3. Irregular comparisons

well better best, badly worse worst, much more most, little less least, far farther farthest, far further furthest

 

Perfect Tenses

  Present Past Future
1. Affirmative form
  I have   I     I shall  
  He     He     He    
  She has   She     She will have
  It   worked. It had worked. It   worked.
  We     We     We shall  
  You have   You     You will  
  They     They     They    
2. Interrogative form
  Have I     I   Shall I  
    he     he     he  
  Has she     she   Will she have
    it worked? Had it worked?   it worked?
    we     we   Shall we  
  Have you     you   Will you they  
    they     they      
3. Negative form
  I havent   I   I shant  
  He     He   He    
  She hasnt worked. She hadnt She wont have
  It     It worked. It   worked.
  We     We   We shant  
  You havent   You   You wont  
  They     They   They    
                                     

 

1. The Present Perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto have in the Present Indefinite and the Past Participle of the main verb.

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the negative particlenot is used after the auxiliary verb.

 

2. The Past Perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto have in the Past Indefinite and the Past Participle of the main verb.

3. The Future Perfect is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto have in the Future Indefinite and Past Participle of the main verb.

 

The Present Perfect is used:

1. to express an action which took place before the present moment when the speaker's aim is to emphasize the present result of this action.

have locked the door. She has gone to the theatre.

 

In this case the time of the action expressed by the Present Perfect is mostly not indicated. But it can be indicated in one of the following ways:

a) by means of adverbial modifiers denoting a period begun in the past and continued up to the present moment.

Up to now we have read three English books. You haven't read the book yet.

 

b) by means of adverbial modifiers denoting a period which has not yet ended.

My friends have not arrived today. I havent seen her today?

 

c) by means of adverbial modifiers of indefinite time and frequency.

I've oftenheard him tell the tale. Have you everthought about it?

 

The Present Perfect is not used with adverbial modifiers of past time.

Shewent two days ago. Whendid yousee her?

 

2. to express an action which began before the present moment and continued up to it. In this case the preposition for is mostly used to indicate the period of duration. The starting point of the action is indicated by means of the wordsince.

I haven't seen you for a whole year. Has he been asleep all this time?

 

In adverbial clauses of time and condition the Present Perfect is used to express an action completed before a definite future moment.

When youhave found the land where there is happiness, I will join you there.

 

The Past Perfect is used:

to express an action, which took place before another past action or before a definite moment in the past indicated by such expressions asby five o'clock, by that time, etc.

told you I had met her. had done my homework by eight o'clock.

 

The Past Perfect is used to express an action, which began before a definite moment in the past and continued up to that moment.

When he came, Ihad beenthere for half an hour.

 

In adverbial clauses of time and condition the Past Perfect is used to express an action completed before another action which was future with regard to the past.

She said that she would go home as soon as shehad passed all her exams.

 

The Future Perfect is used:

to express an action completed before a definite future moment or before the beginning of another future action.

I'll have read the story by the time you come back.

 

In adverbial clauses of time and condition the Present Perfect is used instead of the Future Perfect.

We'll get a new flat when theyhave built the house.

 

Unit 6

Perfect Continuous Tenses

  Present Past Future
1. Affirmative form
  I have   I     I shall  
  He     He     He    
  She has been She   been She will have
  It   working. It had working. It   been
  We     We     We shall working.
  You have   You     You will  
  They     They     They    
2. Interrogative form
  Have I     I   Shall I  
    he     he     he  
  Has she been   she been Will she have
    it working? Had it working?   it been
    we     we   Shall we working?
  Have you     you   Will you they  
    they     they      
3. Negative form
  I havent   I   I shant  
  He     He   He    
  She hasnt been She hadnt She wont have
  It   working. It been It   been
  We     We working. We shant working.
  You havent   You   You wont  
  They     They   They    
                                           

1. The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto be in the Present Perfect and Present Participle of the main verb.

 

2. The Past Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto be in the Past Perfect and Present Participle of the main verb.

 

3. The Future Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary verbto be in the Future Perfect and Present Participle of the main verb.

The Present Perfect Continuous is used:

to express an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is either still continuing or just finished.

His father has been working at this plant for twenty years.

 

If the verb has no continuous form, the Present Perfect is used instead of the Present Perfect Continuous.

How longhave youknown her? I'vebeen at home all the time.

The Past Perfect Continuous is used:

to express an action, which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to it and was or was not going on at that past moment.

explained that I had been looking for it for the last two hours.

 

With the verbs, which have no continuous form the Past Perfect is used instead of the Past Perfect Continuous.

When we came to see Kate, she had been ill for three days.

The Future Perfect Continuous is used:

to express an action, which began before a definite moment in the future and continued into that future moment.

I shall have been writing for two hours by the time you come back.

Unit 8

Passive Voice

 

In the English language the verb has two voices: the Active Voice and the Passive Voice. The Active Voice is used when the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is the subject of the action expressed by the predicate. My brotherwrote this letter yesterday. The Passive Voice is used when the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is an object of the action expressed by the predicate. This letter waswritten yesterday.

In the Passive Voice only two tense groups (Indefinite and Perfect) have such tenses as Present, Past, Future and Future-in-the Past. As to Continuous group of tenses it has only two tenses: Present and Past. Perfect Continuous group of tenses does not have Passive Voice forms at all.

 

Tenses

 

Passive Voice
Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present Present Present
Past Past Past
Future Future
Future-in-the Past Future-in-the Past

 

The tenses of the Passive Voice are formed by means of the auxiliary verbto bein the corresponding tense and Past Participle of the main verb.

 

Formation

Passive Voice
Indefinite Tenses
Present Past Future
I am   I     I shall be  
He     He was   He will be  
She is   She     She    
It   read. It   read. It shall be read.
We     We     We    
You are   You were   You will be  
They     They     They    
Perfect Tenses
Present Past Future
I have   I   I shall  
He     He   He    
She has   She   She will have
It   read. It had been read. It   been
We     We   We shall read.
You have   You   You will  
They     They   They    
Continuous Tenses
Present Past      
I am   I          
He     He was        
She is   She          
It   being It   being      
We   read. We   read.      
You are   You were        
They     They          
                           

The Passive Voice is used when:

the agent (the person or thing doing the action) is unknown or not important.

The magazine was founded in 2005. (I dont know who founded it.)

 

the identity of the agent is clear from the context.

The magazine is sold at newsstands. (We can assume that the newsstands owners and employers sell it. We dont need to mention them.)

 

you want to avoid mentioning the agent.

Some mistakes were made in that article. (I know who made the mistake, but I dont want to blame the person who made them.)

 

If we mention the agent we use the passive with by.

The article was written by a psychologist.

 

The tenses of the Passive Voice are used according to the same rules as the corresponding tenses of the Active Voice.

Active Voice Passive Voice
  Present Indefinite  
We use cranes for lifting heavy weights. Cranes are used for lifting heavy weights.
  Past Indefinite  
Last year the school offered new courses. New courses were offered by the school last year.
  Future Indefinite  
They will build the bridge next year. The bridge will be built next year.
  Future Indefinite in the Past  
He said that they would build the bridge next year. He said that the bridge would be built next year.
  Present Continuous  
They are discussing the question at the meeting. The question is being discussed at the meeting.
  Past Continuous  
They were discussing this question when I entered the room. This question was being discussed when I entered the room.
  Present Perfect  
The typist has just typed the letter. The letter has just been typed
  Past Perfect  
She showed me the article which her brother had translated. She showed me the article which had been translated by her brother.
  Future Perfect  
I shall have translated the article by six oclock. The article will have been translated by six oclock.
  Future perfect in the Past  
I said that I should have translated the article by six oclock. I said that the article would have been translated by six oclock.
             

Unit 9

Sequence of Tenses

 

The sequence of tenses is a dependence of the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause on that of the verb in the principal clause. The choice of the tense in the subordinate clause is free after a present or a future tense form in the principal clause. If the verb in the principal clause expresses a past action:

the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous in the subordinate clause show that the action is simultaneous with that of the principal clause.

I quite forgot youwere his friend.

the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous in the subordinate clause show the priority of the action to that of the principal clause.

thought youhad left England.

the Future-in-the Past in the subordinate clause show that the action follows that of the principal clause.

I knew that youwould understand me.

 

If the object clause is subordinated to another subordinate clause, the tense of the verb in the object clause depends on the predicate of the clause to which it is subordinated (not on the predicate of the principal clause).

He said that his sister had written him that sheworked at a plant.

The sequence of tenses is not usually observed if the object clause expresses a well-known fact.

knew that metals conduct electricity.

 

If the action of the object clause is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause or future with regard to the time of speaking, the sequence of tenses is not always observed the present or future tense can be used in the object clause though the action of the principal clause refers to the past.

Somebody asked me where I'mgoing.

Unit 10

Indirect Speech

When a declarative sentence is changed from direct into indirect speech, it becomes an object clause introduced by the conjunction that which is often omitted. Personal and possessive pronouns are shifted or remain unchanged according to the sense. The most common verbs in both direct and indirect speech are say, telland ask.

He said (that)/toldme (that) he didnt have much time.

She asked me if/whether I wanted anything.

If the reporting verb denotes a past action, tenses of the verb of the direct speech are changed according to the rules of the sequence of tenses.

 

Direct Speech   Indirect Speech
Present Indefinite → → → → → Past Indefinite
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Future Indefinite Future Indefinite in the Past

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
He said, Its great. He said it was great.
Im leaving. She said she was leaving.
I madeit. He said that he had made it.
He said to her, Ive never lied. He told her he had never lied.
Ill see it some other time. She said she would see if some other time.

 

It is often necessary to make time and place changes in relation to tense changes.

Examples of possible changes:

 

time ago before
  next week the next week
  now immediately/then
  two days ago two days before/earlier
  today that day
  tonight that night
  tomorrow the next/the following day
  the day after tomorrow two days later
  yesterday the previous day/the day before
  the day after tomorrow two days before
  last night the night before
place here there when what is referred to is clear
  this place that place
  these places those places
verbs come/bring go/take

When instructions, commands, requests and invitations are changed into indirect speech, the Imperative Mood is replaced by the infinitive. Indirect commands, requests, etc. are normally expressed by tell, order, ask, beg, advise, remind, warn, etc. with a person addressed and the infinitive.

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Come early, he said. He said to come early.
Dont go. He told her not to go.

In indirect Yes/No questions there is no inversion, the subject comes before the verb, the same as in the statement. Because of the statement word order do, does, or didare not used to form indirect questions. Ifand whetherare interchangeable after ask, want to know, wonder, etc. but whetherconveys slightly greater doubt. Whetheris always preferable when there are alternatives.

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Will you have tea or coffee? she asked.   She asked me whether I wanted tea or coffee.

 

Some verbs, like discusscan only be followed by whether. If or whethermust always be used when reporting Yes/No questions and cannot be omitted (unlike thatin reported statements).

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Is it still raining? Tom asked. Tom asked if/whether it was still raining.

In indirect wh- questions the subject also comes before the verb as in the statements, and do, does, or didare not used.

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Why did you leave your job? he said. He asked me why I had left my job.

Unit 11

Modal verbs

The verbscan, may, must, ought, shall, should, will, would, need anddare form a special class of verbs which are called modal verbs. They are used with the infinitive of another verb. They denote neither actions nor states; they show that the action or state denoted by the infinitive is considered as possible, obligatory, necessary, desirable. probable, doubtful, allowed, advisable, etc.

 

Modal verbs have certain peculiarities:

1. they have no infinitive, no gerund and no participles; accordingly they have no future tense, no continuous and perfect tenses.

 

2. they (exceptought and partlyneed and dare) are followed by the infinitive without the particle to.

 

3. they have no ending -(e)s in the third person singular of the present tense.

 

4. In the interrogative form modal verbs are placed before the subject. In the negative form the particlenot is used after the modal verb.

The length of primary education can vary from four to seven years. Can the length of primary education vary from four to seven years? The length of primary education can not vary from four to seven years.

Can

 

The verb can has two forms: the present tense(can) and the past tense(could).

It has the following meanings:

1. Physical or mental ability, capability. In this meaning can occurs in all kinds of sentences

He can read English. Canhe read English? He cannot read English.

 

This meanings can also be expressed by to be able to which has all tenses. In everyday speech can is more common than be able to in the present tense.

She can do computer graphics. She is able to do computer graphics.

 

When we speak about a specific achievement or a single event in the past was/wereable to is used.

He was able towin the Math Prize last year.

 

2. Possibility depending on circumstances.

He can get the book from the library tomorrow.

 

This meaning is occasionally expressed by to be able to which is usually found in such cases with reference to the future or past.

He will be able to get the book from the library tomorrow.

He was able to get the book from the library yesterday.

 

3. Permission. Could in this meaning is used only in interrogative sentences to express a polite request, the word pleaseis often used. Can or may are used in answers.

Youcan use my books. Youcan't use my pen. Could I take your book, please?

Yes, you can.No, you may not.

 

4. Doubt, uncertainty.

In this meaning can is used only in interrogative sentences

Can shebe travelling by train now? Can he know German?

 

5. Improbability.

In these meanings the verbcan is used only in interrogative sentences

It cantbe true.

May

 

The verb may has two forms: the present tense(may) and the past tense(might). It has the following meanings:

1. Supposition implying uncertainty. This meaning is also rendered in English by means of words perhaps and maybe. In this meaning the verb may is used in affirmative and negative sentences with all forms of the infinitive.

Hemaybe at home. Hemaynot be at home.

2. Possibility depending on circumstances. In this meaning may is used only in affirmative sentences

Youmay go there by train.

 

When might is followed by the Perfect Infinitive it shows that the action was not carried out.

might have stayed at home.

 

3. Permission. In this meaning the verb may is a little more formal than can and could.

May I use your phone?

 

This meaning may also be rendered by to be allowed and to be permitted .

I got a visa so I was allowed to cross the frontier.

 

4. Reproach, disapproval. In this meaning only might is used.

You mighthave written me a little something, anyhow.

Unit 12

Must

 

The verbmust has only one form. It is used in present-time contexts with reference to the present or future and in combination with the perfect infinitive it refers to the past. In past-time contexts this form is used only in reported speech (the rules of the sequence of tenses are not used with must).

said that she must consult a doctor.

The verb must has the following meanings:

1. Obligation, duty, necessity. In these meanings must is used in affirmative and interrogative sentences with the Indefinite Infinitive.

You must go there at once.

 

The meaning of obligation and necessity may also be rendered by to be obliged and to have to.

He is obligedto go there. He has to go there at once.

 

2. Prohibition. In this meaningmust is used in negative sentences and is followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.

Youmust not talk aloud in the reading room.

 

3. Order or advice. In these meaningsmust is used with the Indefinite Infinitive in affirmative and negative sentences

Tomorrow youmust cometo school at eight.

 

4. Supposition implying assurance. In this meaning must is used with all forms of the infinitive but only in affirmative sentences The Continuous Infinitive refers to the present.

Theymust be surrounding the house.

 

The Perfect Infinitive refers to the past. The Indefinite Infinitive is used with reference to the present if the verb has no Continuous form.

Shemust have caughtcold.

Have to

 

Have to as a modal verb is not a detective verb and can have all the necessary tense forms as well as non-finite forms. The interrogative and negative forms of the modal verbhave to in the Present Indefinite and in the Past Indefinite are formed by means of the auxiliary verb to do.

Hehad togo there at once. Did he have to do it? Hedidnt have togo there yesterday.

 

The verbhave to serves to express obligation or necessity depending on circumstances.

have to get up the next morning at seven. Ihad tosell most of my things. Youllhave togo hm now.

Be to

 

Beto as a modal verb is used in two tenses: the Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite.

Heis tocome at five. was to come at five.

 

The present tense ofbeto can be followed only by the Indefinite Infinitive. The Perfect Infinitive can be used with the past tense of beto to show that the action was not carried out.

He was to have come at five.

The modal verb beto has the following meanings:

1. Obligation resulting from a previous agreement, plan, schedule, timetable, etc.

Wewere towork two hours every morning. Weare tomeet at the theatre.

 

2. Order or instruction.

Youare to go to sleep. You'renot to come here any more. The medicineis tobe kept in a cool dark place.

 

3. Possibility. In this casebe to is mostly used with the Passive Infinitive.

He was not to be found.

Need

 

It can be used both as a modal and as a notional verb. As a modal verbneed forms its interrogative and negative forms without the verb to do and is followed by the infinitive without the particle to.

 

The verbneed expresses necessity. It is used in negative and interrogative sentences and when reference is made to the present or future is followed by the indefinite infinitive.

Youneednt go there. NeedI repeat it?

 

In interrogative sentences need usually implies that there is no necessity of performing the action in question.

 

In negative sentences it is not always the verb need that is in negative form; the negation may be found elsewhere in the sentence.

I dont think we need continue the conversation. I need hardly point it put to you.

 

The Perfect Infinitive used with the verbneed shows that an unnecessary action has been performed.

Youneedn't have done this exercise in written form.

Unit 13

Ought to, Should

 

The modal verbsought to and should have only one form which is used with reference to the present or future and it remains unchanged in reported speech.

 

The verbs ought toand should have almost the same modal meanings:

1. moral obligation, advisability, desirability.

You oughtto help your friend. Oughtshe to help him? He oughtnt to do it.

You shoulddo it yourself. Shouldhe help them? He shouldntgo it.

 

In combination with the perfect infinitive ought shows that a desirable action:

was not fulfilled in the affirmative sentence;

You oughtto have told me about it. You should have told me about it.

was fulfilled in the negative sentences

You ought notto have mentioned it. You should nothave mentioned it.

 

2. supposition implying strong probability.

Ought and should in this meaning are generally used in affirmative sentences with the indefinite infinitive.

The book oughtto be interesting. The book should be interesting.

 

The use of ought and should in this case does not seem to be very common as this meaning is normally rendered by must.

Shall

 

The modal verbshall is used with the Indefinite Infinitive which denotes an action referring to the future.

 

In affirmative and negative sentences the modal verb shall is used in the second and third persons to express an order, warning, threat, promise.

Youshall go into the dining room first. Youshall not do that again.

 

In interrogative sentences the modal verbshall is used in the first and third persons to get an order or instruction from the person addressed.

Shall I come to see you there? Shall I turn on the lights for you?

Will, Would

 

The principal meaning of the modal verbs will andwould is that of will, intention, determination. In this meaningwill andwould are used with the first person in affirmative and negative sentences

Wewill help you. Iwon't go there.

 

In interrogative sentenceswill andwould are used to express a polite request.

Will youhave a cup of tea? Won't yousit down? Would youhelp me?

 

If will andwould used in negative sentences refer to lifeless things, they show that the thing fails to perform its function.

The knifewon'tcut.The windowwouldn't open.

Willandwould as modal verbs can be used in adverbial clauses of condition.

If youwillallow me, I will see you home.

Dare

The verbdare may be used as a regular and a modal verb. As a modal verb it has two forms which are the present and the past tense forms.

The modal verb dare has the following meanings:

1. Courage to do something.

Dare he swim across the river? He dared not look at her.

 

2. Impudence to do something.

How dare you sayit?

Its use is very restricted. It is used mostly in questions beginning with how and in negative sentences

 

 

TESTS

TEST 1

VARIANT 1

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