I. 1. a 2. g 3. m 4. d 5. f 6. h 7. n 8. j
  9. o 10. k 11. l 12. e 13. c 14. i 15. b  
II. 1. b 2. e 3. a 4. c 5. g 6. d 7. f
III. 1. 2c 3j 2. 2j 3d 3. 2e 3k 4. 2d 3a 5. 2a 3c 6. 2f 3b
  7. 2l 3l 8. 2k 3h 9. 2i 3e 10. 2h 3f 11. 2g 3i 12. 2b 3g
V. 1. m 2. a 3. d 4. e 5. f 6. b 7. k
  8. n 9. i 10. g 11. h 12. c 13. j 14. l
VI. 1. branches; 2. money; 3. Treasury; 4. amendment; 5. offcals; 6. ambassador; 7. authorty; 8. lawmakers; 9. Consttuton; 10. democracy.



III. 1. in, with; 2. over, to; 3. of, into; 4. of, by; 5. from, in; 6. in, of; 7. between; 8. at; 9. under, for, with; 10. for; 11. within, among.


IV. 1. a, the, the, a; 2. the, the; 3. the, the; 4. the, the; 5. the, the; 6. the, the, the; 7. the, the, the, the; 8. the, the, the, the; 9. _, the; 10. the, the; 11. _, _; 12. the.


V. 1. choose candidates, majority; 2. regardless of, equal voice; 3. staffs, executive branch; 4. national government; 5. state governments; 6. print money; 7. collect taxes; 8. Environmental, stock markets; 9. certain powers; 10. tend, support; 11. levy federal taxes; 12. representatives.
VI. 1. A voter can choose candidates from different parties. 2. The Democrats tend to be more liberal and to have more support among the working classes and the poor. 3. The Republicans tend to be more conservative and to have more support among the upper classes. 4. Under the Constitution, the president is responsible for foreign relations with other nations, he appoints ambassadors and other officials. 5. The Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government. 6. The United States Constitution established the country's political system. 7. The major departments of the government are headed by appointed secretaries who collectively make up the president's cabinet. 8. The President is the head of the executive branch and the country, he is elected for a 4-year term. 9. The President does not have to be from the party that has a majority in Congress. 10. The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution.


II. 1. A district is represented by each House member in his or her home state. 2. Specific areas are regulated by the agencies. 3. Certain powers are given to the federal government by the Constitution. 4. The laws are interpreted by the judicial branch. 5. Ambassadors and other officials are appointed by the president. 6. The department heads are appointed by the President. 7. Their own school systems are established by the states. 8. The nation's money is managed by the Treasury Department. 9. The country's political system was established by the United States Constitution.
III. 1. isnt he? 2. isnt it? 3. arent they? 4. arent they? 5. arent they? 6. cant it? 7. arent they? 8. isnt it? 9. has it? 10. isnt he?


IV. 1. was elected; 2. are used; 3. is being affected; 4. was designed; 5. was promoted; 6. was created; 7. was faced; 8. was engaged; 9. is involved; 10. is made.


VII. 1. had recovered; 2. did not wish; 3. would suppose; 4. had decided; 5. had been affected; 6. had dealt; 7. had appropriated; 8. had been softened; 9. was; 10. were.


IX. 1. The United States Constitution was written over two centuries ago. 2. Certain powers are given by the Constitution to the federal government. 3. Within the national government, power is divided among three branches. 4. Ambassadors and other officials are appointed by the president. 5. The major departments of the government are headed by appointed secretaries. 6. The number of districts in a state is determined by a count of the population. 7. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court. 8. State governments are divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. 9. The Democratic party was formed in the eighteenth century. 10. The Democrats are supported by the working classes and the poor.






I. 1. c 2. j 3. e 4. a 5. f 6. d 7. b 8. g 9. k 10. i 11. h
II. 1. a 2. d 3. e 4. f 5. g 6. b 7. c
III. 1. 2h 3k 2. 2j 3h 3. 2g 3l 4. 2d 3d 5. 2l 3j 6. 2b 3c
  7. 2k 3f 8. 2a 3e 9. 2f 3b 10. 2c 3i 11. 2i 3a 12. 2e 3g


V. 1. c 2. a 3. i 4. b 5. f 6. n 7. j
  8. m 9. e 10. g 11. d 12. h 13. l 14. k
VI. 1. admtted upon compettve examnaton; 2. employ staff; 3. busness college; 4. fre/sack staff; 5. dsmss/sack staff; 6. st for an examnaton, take an examnaton; 7. elementary school; 8. hgh school; 9. go n for/take an examnaton.
VII. 1. bachelor; 2. tranng; 3. unversty; 4. college; 5. campus; 6. tutorals; 7. self-governng; 8. examnaton; 9. dstncton.



III. 1. after, at, of; 2. at, for; 3. in, for, between, of; 4. in, to, at, of; 5. at, of, at; 6. of, in, in; 7. with, on, to; 8. between, of, in; 9. at, through; 10. in, to; 11. over, of; 12. from.


IV. 1. _, the, the; 2. the, the; 3. the, a; 4. the; 5. a, _, _; 6. _, the; 7. a, the; 8. _, _; 9. the, _; 10. _, _; 11. the, _, _; 12. _, _; 13. _, the, an.


V. 1. education; 2. curriculum, guidelines; 3. available, nursery school; 4. semi-independent; 5. opportunity, full-time, for degree; 6. leave school; 7. primary education; 8. distinctions, categories; 9. distinct laws, compulsory; 10. through television, tutors; 11. tutorials, supervisions; 12. substantial, appoint.


VI. 1. Many children start their education at the age of three or four at a nursery school. 2. British education is divided into two separate school systems: state maintained schools and private fee-charging schools. 3. All UK Secondary schools, both state and independent, teach pupils at least until the age of sixteen. 4. The Open university courses are taught through television, radio and coursebooks. 5. Education in the UK is compulsory for everyone between the ages of five and sixteen.6. Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of semi-independent colleges, each of them having its own staff. 7. Students are not supposed to take a job during the term unless their parents are rich, they receive a state grant, which covers most of their expenses, including the cost of accommodation. 8. The Open university students work individually and with tutors, to whom they send their papers. 9. The system in Scotland is subject to its own distinct laws and practices, education is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. 10. Oxford and Cambridge universities appoint their own staff and decide which students to admit. 11. The students finish their Secondary Education at the age of eighteen.



II. 1. Training on effective ways to polish every surface and clean every corner was received by all our staff. 2. One of the main reasons why community education did not become a radical movement for social change was also underlined by him. 3. The governor was described by John Kerry as an enemy of higher education. 4. Private education for their children cannot be afforded by many parents. 5. Six percent of the education budget is controlled by the federal government. 6. College students are taught by the Fellows either one-to-one or in very small groups. 7. A very big sum of money was received by the region's community education department last summer. 8. Bilingual education in schools was also proposed by them. 9. Ambitious programs in adult education are also sponsored by them. 10. Students are usually selected on the basis of A-level results and an interview.
III. 1. wasnt it? 2. arent they? 3. isnt it? 4. are they? 5. arent they? 6. arent they? 7. isnt it? 8. wasnt it? 9. arent they? 10. will it?


IV. 1. is skewed; 2. wanted; 3. have been written; 4. are expected; 5. is proposed; 6. is being distributed; 7. are required; 8. have been converted; 9. has been accomplished; 10. are welcomed.
VIII. 1. He said that the UK had two distinct systems of courses and qualifications. 2. British education is divided into two separate school systems. 3. We knew that in the state system children went to primary school at the age of five. 4. Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the medieval period. 5. Those students who have better A-level results are usually accepted. 6. Students are not supposed to take a job during the term unless their parents are rich. 7. The Open University in Britain was founded over thirty years ago. 8. The university courses are taught through television, radio and coursebooks. 9. We thought that students took the examinations for the SQC at the age of seventeen. 10. The speaker said that Scotland offered a wealth of course options at the postgraduate level.






I. 1. h 2. g 3. j 4. a 5. d 6. b 7. c 8. i 9. e 10. f
II. 1. d 2. a 3. e 4. c 5. b 6. f
III. 1. 2g 3c 2. 2i 3a 3. 2a 3g 4. 2e 3k 5. 2b 3j 6. 2h 3d
  7. 2d 3b 8. 2j 3f 9. 2l 3l 10. 2c 3e 11. 2f 3i 12. 2k 3h
V. 1. j 2. a 3. d 4. m 5. i 6. h 7. f
  8. c 9. g 10. n 11. k 12. e 13. l 14. b
VI. 1. ndependence; 2. come/fall wthn competence, fall under competence; 3. skll; 4. syllabus; 5. subject; 6. trade/vocatonal educaton; 7. dploma; 8. st for a degree; 9. professonal/trade educaton.
VII. 1. educaton; 2. dssertaton; 3. currculum; 4. doctorate; 5. competence; 6. qualfcaton; 7. dscplne; 8. autonomy; 9. research; 10. degree.


III. 1. of, for; 2. in, between, of; 3. in, into; 4. of, for; 5. at, of; 6. of, for, of; 7. to, upon, of; 8. by, for; 9. of, from, to; 10. of, in.


IV. 1. _, a; 2. _, the; 3. the; 4. _, the; 5. the, the, the, the; 6. the, the; 7. the, the; 8. the, _; 9. the, the, the; 10. _, _.


V. 1. set and enforced; 2. Bachelor's degree; 3. compulsory education; 4. subfield; 5. undergraduate thesis; 6. licensed; 7. full-time study; 8. local school districts; 9. Associate Degree; 10. Research Doctorate.
VI. 1. High schools leavers having school leaving certificates enter American institutes. 2. The highest step of education in the USA is the Doctorate. 3. For the reception of a master degree it is required to write a dissertation. 4. The Doctorate assumes specialized training and independent scientific research in the elected field of knowledge. 5. The first academic degree preparation curriculum is designed for 4 years. 6. Training for the second step reception is conducted on the program focused on specialized practical activities in various areas. 7. Training at the first step is not focused on any professional work. 8. At the end of the first four years of training at the US universities students receive a degree of the bachelor. 9. Persons who have a bachelor degree should usually study for another two years for the reception of a master degree on any speciality. 10. In most states children go to school at the age of six years. 11. In the USA the duration of training at high school is in the whole 12 years.


I. 1. are set, enforced; 2. is called; 3. is not divided; 4. are offered; 5. are designed; 6. are licensed; 7. is followed; 8. is characterized; 9. is not awarded.
II. 1. She warned them not to miss their train. 2. I warned him not to use bent coins in a slot machine. 3. The shop assistant said to the customer to pay at the cash desk. 4. The traveller asked the clerk to book him a seat in a non-smoker. 5. The secretary said to fill up this form. 6. He said to his client to read it before he signed. 7. The airhostess advised the passengers to read the notice about lifesaving equipment. 8. The manager said to the porter to send for the Fire Brigade. 9. The receptionist told me showing me into the waiting room to wait there.
IV. 1. neednt they? 2. cant you? 3. cant you? 4. mustnt it? 5. maynt it? 6. maynt he? 7. oughtnt we? 8. mustnt you? 9. oughtnt you?
VI. 1. may; 2. may; 3. might; 4. could; 5. can; 6. can; 7. can; 8. can; 9. can; 10. may, may.


VII. 1. The age of exit can vary between sixteen and eighteen years of age. 2. Primary education is followed by a number of years of middle school education. 3. Higher education in the United States is also called postsecondary education. 4. The higher education system is known for both its size and quality. 5. The Associate Degree is the first academic or professional degree that can be awarded in the United States postsecondary education. 6. Holders of Associate Degree may apply to enter other first degree programmes. 7. The Bachelor's Degree can be awarded in the United States postsecondary education. 8. The Research Doctorate may be awarded in academic disciplines. 9. The actual time to degree varies depending upon the subject and the structure of the programme. 10. Research Doctorates are awarded in the academic disciplines.





I. 1. g 2. e 3. a 4. i 5. b 6. c
  7. d 8. k 9. j 10. l 11. h 12. f
II. 1. e 2. a 3. g 4. c 5. d 6. f 7. b
III. 1. 2e 3d 2. 2a 3c 3. 2b 3e 4. 2j 3b 5. 2i 3a 6. 2k 3j
  7. 2c 3f 8. 2d 3g 9. 2h 3h 10. 2f 3k 11. 2g 3i  
V. 1. b 2. l 3. h 4. a 5. j 6. m 7. d
  8. i 9. n 10. c 11. k 12. e 13. g 14. f
VI. 1. allocaton of costs/expenses; 2. heavy consumer; 3. consumers' needs; 4. pass nto the ownershp; 5. restrct nvestments; 6. rval enterprse; 7. reduce allocaton; 8. vote down an amendment; 9. nsert/ntroduce/ssue an amendment; 10. tax ncentves; 11. check/slow back producton; 12. remuneratve enterprse; 13. promote nvestments; 14. satsfy the needs; 15. seed captal.
VII. 1. entrepreneur; 2. consumer; 3. innovation; 4. incentive; 5. allocaton; 6. enterprse; 7. investment; 8. abolton; 9. ownership; 10. producton.



III. 1. from, in, into; 2. from, to; 3. of, by, of, by; 4. in, of, to; 5. in, in, at, by; 6. in, by, of; 7. in, for, of; 8. of, by; 9. in, in, in, of; 10. of, in, of, by.


IV. 1. a, a, the; 2. a, the, a, the; 3. _, _, _; 4. _, _, _; 5. a, _; 6. a, the, _; 7. a, _; 8. a, the; 9. the, the; 10. a, the.


V. 1. private enterprises, public ownership; 2. ownership, allocation; 3. state-owned, incentive; 4. production; 5. individual goals, collective goals; 6. direct investments; 7. private ownership; 8. efficient production; 9. abolition, consumer needs; 10. incentive, consumer needs.


VI. 1. More specifically, we can identify four types of economic systems: a market economy, a command economy, a mixed economy, and a state-directed economy. 2. Economic system is a set of principles and techniques by which the ownership and allocation of economic resources are organized by society. 3. ommand economies were found in communist countries where collectivist goals were given priority over individual goals. 4. In contrast, in countries where collective goals are given prominence, the state may have taken control over many enterprises, while markets in such countries are likely to be restricted rather than free. 5. Private ownership ensures that entrepreneurs have a right to the profits generated by their own efforts. 6. The role of government in a market economy is to encourage vigorous competition between private producers. 7. In a pure command economy, all businesses are state owned. 8. In countries where individual goals are given primacy over collective goals, we are more likely to find free market economic systems. 9. In a pure market economy the goods and services that a country produces, and the quantity in which they are produced, are not planned by anyone. 10. If supply exceeds demand, prices will fall, signaling producers to produce less.


I. 1. is generated; 2. is employed; 3. are left; 4. are planned; 5. are not planned; 6. is determined; 7. are restricted; 8. are limited.
II. 1. The manager asked the customer if he had any complaints to make. 2. He added that private ownership also encouraged vigorous competition and economic efficiency. 3. He asked if command economies had been found in communist countries. 4. The manager asked the secretary how many letters he had typed since he came to the office. 5. The newspaper article said that the citizens of Ukraine had the right to education, health protection and housing. 6. The lecturer stated that the role of government in a market economy was to encourage vigorous competition between private producers. 7. The student said that economic systems differed from country to country. 8. He added that they could identify four broad types of economic systems.
III. 1. isnt he? 2. isnt it? 3. werent they? 4. isnt it? 5. wasnt he? 6. isnt it? 7. arent they? 8. arent they?
IV. 1. He must have been waiting for you for half an hour. 2. His daughter must have graduated from the university. 3. They must have gone away. 4. She must have been learning English for three years. 5. She must be cooking dinner now. 6. They must have been discussing this question since two o'clock. 7. They must have been living here for a number of years. 8. They must have seen this performance last year.
V. 1. I shall have to expel you from the circle. 2. He has to get up at half past six. 3. They had to spend the summer holidays in the Caucasus. 4. We shall have to go to the circus. 5. She had to read a lot of books in order to prepare a good report. 6. He will have to see a doctor. 7. The driver had to stop the car. 8. The girl had to take care of her younger sister.
VIII. 1. dont you? 2. dont we? 3. do I? 4. need you? 5. dont they? 6. is there? 7. do you? 8. need you?
IX. 1. have to be approved; 2. have to spend; 3. must be confirmed; 4. have to take; 5. must be fastened; 6. have to take; 7. has to be; 8. must prove.
X. 1. Students who wish to enter Oxford and Cambridge have to take certain exams. 2. We can identify four broad types of economic systems. 3. Oxford and Cambridge Universities are able to appoint their own staff. 4. The role of government is to encourage competition between private producers. 5. The government can direct all businesses to make investments. 6. The state may have taken control over many enterprises. 7. Production is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. 8. France, Italy, and Sweden can all be classified as mixed economies.



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