III. Put verbs in brackets in the correct form. Give two forms where both are possible

1. He had just started (eat) when the waiter took his plate away!

2. I dread (wait) for the telephone to ring.

3. I hate (tell) you this, but your jacket's torn.

4. I'll never begin (understand) how he thinks.

5. She continued (talk) all through the film.

6. She prefers (eat, eat) at home to at restaurants.

7. The conductor raised his baton and the orchestra commenced (play).

8. We intended (go) to the concert, but we were both ill.

9. What will you have? I'd prefer (have) steak, please.

10. Would you like (come) to the beach with us tomorrow?


IV. Paraphrase the sentences as in the model

Models: I have no dictionary, so I can't translate the text.

If I had a dictionary, I could translate the text.

1. He can't sing, so he doesn't take part in the concert.

2. I couldn't see them, so I didn't tell them about today's meeting.

3. It is late, so they can't finish this work today.

4. My friend does not know English, so he can't read this book in the original.

5. She couldn't go to the cinema, so she didn't see the film.

6. They didn't know your address, so they couldn't send you a letter.

7. We can't get tickets, so we shan't go to the circus.

8. You didn't see him yesterday, so you couldn't tell him about it.

V. Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in italics


Model: Apologize to her? I refuse . I refuse to apologize to her.


1. Can you move the desk on your own? Can you manage .

2. He'd like to buy a car. He can't afford it. He cant .

3. He'll pay for all of us. He's offering .

4. He wants to join the army. He's just applied .

5. I didn't pass my driving test. I failed .


VI. Complete these sentences according to the model


a) Model: I can't do the job myself. I need .

I can't do the job myself. I need two people to help me.


1. I don't want anyone to know about it. I'd hate .

2. I don't want to speak to the manager. I want .

3. don't want to write to them. I'd like .

4. She doesn't expect to pay. She expects .

5. You won't listen to me. How many times do I have to ask .

6. We can't move it. Perhaps you can help .


b) Model: My wife and I play tennis. He invited .

My wife and I play tennis. He invited my wife and me to play tennis.


1. She didn't peel the potatoes. You didn't tell .

2. Take out a loan. My bank manager advised .

3. The public should not approach this man. The police have warned .

4. The soldiers fired. The officer ordered .

5. You can apply for free travel. This certificate entitles .

6. We work hard. Our teacher taught .


VII. Complete these sentences using to-infinitive or gerund

1. Did you remember ... (phone) her last night?

2. He regretted ... (stay) in the same job for so long.

3. I forgot ... (go) to the chemist's on my way home.

4. I remember (visit) Paris when I was very young.

5. I regret ... (tell) you that there's been an accident.

6. If you want to stop coughing, why don't you try ... (drink) some water?

7. If we hadn't turned the music off they'd have gone on ... (dance) till morning.

8. Just stop ... (talk) and listen for a moment.

9. Please remember ... (lock) the door on your way out.

10. We all tried ... (stop) him, but he just wouldn't listen to any of us.

VIII. Each of these sentences is incorrect. Write the correct sentence


1. Pinned to the door by a knife, the man saw a notice.

2. Written in large letters they read the words 'No Entry'.

3. While cleaning his gun it went off unexpectedly.

4. Wondering where to go, an advertisement caught my eye.

5. Rushing out of the house, a lorry knocked me over.

6. Sitting by the fire, it all comes back to me.

7. Falling from such a height, we thought he would never survive.

8. When changing a fuse the electricity should first be switched off.

9. Towed behind the car, 1 saw a trailer with a boat on it.

10. While sitting at the foot of a cliff a stone fell on him.


IX. Complete each sentence using the correct form of the most suitable verb in the box. Sometimes two forms are possible


adjust, ask, cry, eat, lend, practice, promise, renew, tell, type, use, wait, wear.


1. Chopping onions makes me .

2. I can't you what Sally said. She made me that I wouldn't tell anyone.

3. I couldn't the letter because my brother wouldn't let me his typewriter.

4. 'I haven't got any money.' 'Let me you some'.

5. I went to see her because I needed her some questions.

6. It's very cold today. You'd better a coat when you go out.

7. The brakes on my car aren't working very well. I think they need .

8. 'Why don't we dinner now?' 'I think I'd rather until later.'

9. You need the piano every day if you want to improve.

10. Your passport is out of date. It needs .


X. Explain the use of the Subjunctive Mood and translate the sentences into Ukrainian

1. He looked at you as if he had never seen a woman before.

2. I am afraid she would have had no holiday if you had not invited her.

3. I wish you would tell me how to become young again.

4. I wish you would write and tell me.

5. I wouldn't have believed it unless I saw it with my own eyes.

6. It was necessary that the sacrifice should be made.

7. We are asking that wages should be raised.

8. Would you know him if you saw him?

XI. Translate into English

1. , .

2. ﳭ.

3. , .

4. , .

5. , .

6. , .

7. .

8. , .

9. , .

10. , .





The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive. The verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verb, do not express person, number or mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense and voice distinctions.

The characteristic traits of the verbals are as follows:

1. They have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun.

2. The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute, but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future; it only shows whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.

3. All the verbals can form predicative constructions, i. e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive).


The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has verbal, adjectival and adverbial properties. There are two participles in English: Present Participle (or Participle I) and Past Participle (or Participle II). The difference between them is not a difference in tense, but chiefly a difference in voice.

Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. Participle II of regular verbs is formed by adding the suffix -ed to the stem of the verb. Participle II of irregular verbs may be found in the third column of the table of irregular verbs.

When we form Participle I the following spelling rules should be observed:

a) if a verb ends in a mute e, the mute e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing:

to give giving, to close closing.

b) if a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel rendering a short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix -ing:

to run running, to forget forgetting, to admit admitting.

A final l is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel letter rendering a short vowel sound, stressed or unstressed: to expel expelling, to travel travelling.

c) the verbs to die, to lie and to tie form Participle I in the following way:

dying, lying, tying.

d) a final is not changed before adding the suffix -ing:

to comply complying, to deny denying.

The participle has a verbal and an adjectival or adverbial character. Its adjectival or adverbial character is manifested in its syntactic functions, those of attribute or adverbial modifier.

I hated the hollow sound of the rainpattering on the roof. (attribute)

Having garaged his car, he entered the house. (adverbial modifier)

Some participles have lost their verbality altogether and have become adjectives:

interesting, charming, alarming, etc., complicated, distinguished, furnished, etc.

an interesting book, a charming girl, the alarming news; a complicated problem, a distinguished writer, a furnished apartment.

The verbal characteristics of the participle are as follows:

1. Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object.

Opening the door, he went out on to the terrace.

2. Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb.

Leaving the room hurriedly, he ran out.

3. Participle I has tense distinctions. Participle I of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. Participle I has the following forms:


  Transitive Verbs Intransitive Verbs
  Active Voice Passive Voice Active Voice
Present Participle asking being asked going
Perfect Participle having asked having been asked having gone


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