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TRANSPORT AND TRANSPORTATION

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. f 2. d 3. j 4. g 5. h 6. e 7. a 8. c 9. i 10. b

 

II. 1. f 2. e 3. b 4. g 5. c 6. d 7. a
III. 1. 2h 3g 2. 2a 3j 3. 2e 3h 4. 2b 3c 5. 2i 3k 6. 2c 3d
  7. 2f 3f 8. 2l 3e 9. 2d 3b 10. 2g 3l 11. 2k 3a 12. 2j 3i
V. 1. pay; 2. payment; 3. payers; 4. payees; 5. pay-off; 6. payout; 7. payable; 8. pay; 9. pay; 10. payment.

 

VI. 1. promotional material; 2. manmade material; 3. direct financial payment; 4. pecuniary benefit; 5. confidential information; 6. consumption/utility goods; 7. consumer's rights protection; 8. containerized cargo transportation; 9. important information; 10. late/overdue/past due payment; 11. immediate manufacturer; 12. fast-selling goods; 13. outside manufacturer; 14. useful/ valuable information; 15. inside information; 16. outward cargo; 17. outward goods; 18. sea transportation; 19. pricing information; 20. raw material; 21. semi-manufactured goods.

 

VII. 1. h 2. c 3. e 4. d 5. h 6. h 7. c, h 8. c 9. d 10. g 11. e 12. h
  13. h 14. f 15. e 16. h, i 17. j 18. f 19. a, h 20. b, d, e 21. e
  22. h 23. i 24. d 25. f 26. c, f 27. d      
                                                         

 

VIII. 1. for; 2. out; 3. of; 4. into; 5. up; 6. of; 7. with; 8. off; 9. from; 10. on; 11. at; 12. out; 13. up; 14. out; 15. in.
IX. 1. identification; 2. manufacturers; 3. transportation; 4. benefits; 5. arrangements; 6. material; 7. protection; 8. principles; 9. information; 10. payment.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

III. 1. c 2. i 3. k 4. l 5. b 6. g 7. a
  8. h 9. n 10. d 11. m 12. f 13. e 14. j
IV. 1. i 2. e 3. a 4. g 5. j 6. f 7. c 8. b 9. d 10. h
V. 1. between, of; 2. before, of, of; 3. for, to; 4. in, with, for; 5. on, to, for; 6. of, of, for, of; 7. of, in, to, of; 8. by, before; 9. in, from, of, to; 10. for, for, of.
VI. 1. the, the, a; 2. the, the, the, the, the; 3. the, the; 4. the, the, a, a; 5. the, a, a; 6. the, the, the, the, the; 7. the, the, the, the; 8. the, the, a; 9. the, the, the; 10. the, a.
VII. 1. containerization, turn-around of vehicles; 2. rolling equipment, purchased on credit, affluent British; 3. newfangled motor cars; 4. industrialized country, imported from abroad; 5. scientific transport; 6. available, means of transport; 7. various materials; 8. justify their existence, new products; 9. wholesalers, transportation, retailers; 10. cater for the needs.

 

IX. 1. The world of business needs a transport system if it is to function effectively. 2. For a person in an industrialized country there is nothing that he or she consumes, from food to cars, which is not imported from abroad or made at least partially from imported raw materials. 3. Containerization helps speed up the turn-around of vehicles, reduces losses through pilferage and careless handling. 4. The containers vary in size and shape but the principle is always the same. 5. The wholesaler buys in goods from a variety of manufacturers and then distributes them to the retailers, or shopkeepers. 6. The wholesalers justify their existence by giving advice and information to retailers in relation to new products, changes in tastes and fashions. 7. The resources of all the countries in the world can be made available to all so long as there are the necessary means of transport. 8. The transport revolution dates from about 1840 to the end of the nineteenth century. 9. Whenever goods need to be loaded or unloaded, additional costs are incurred, and one way of reducing such costs is through the use of containers. 10. It is interesting to note that since containerization was introduced, the workforce employed in the docks has fallen significantly.

UNIT 12

CLASSIFICATION OF LAW

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. 1. b 2. g 3. a 4. l 5. f 6. c 7. m
  8. d 9. h 10. e 11. i 12. j 13. k  
II. 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. g 5. f 6. a 7. e
III. 1. 2j 3k 2. 2d 3i 3. 2c 3c 4. 2h 3j 5. 2l 3a 6. 2b 3l
  7. 2e 3b 8. 2g 3e 9. 2i 3f 10. 2k 3d 11. 2f 3g 12. 2a 3h

 

V. 1. executor; 2. executors; 3. executed; 4. executive; 5. executed; 6. executive; 7. execution; 8. execute; 9. executed; 10. executioners.

 

VI. 1. assume/shoulder/undertake liability; 2. concede a privilege; 3. accept/shoulder/undertake liability; 4. clear a crime; 5. negligent execution; 6. meet/repay liabilities; 7. free/release/relieve from liability; 8. exempt/release from liability; 9. serious crime; 10. usual remedy; 11. exempt/free/relieve from liability; 12. exempt/free/release from liability; 13. judicial remedy; 14. accept/assume//undertake liability; 15. accept/assume/shoulder liability.

 

VII. 1. g 2. h 3. g 4. g 5. d 6. d 7. h 8. b, a, c 9. g 10. g 11. h
  12. g 13. h 14. e 15. e 16. g 17. f 18. g 19. h 20. g 21. g 22. h
                                     

 

VIII. 1. out; 2. in; 3. from; 4. of; 5. from; 6. from; 7. from; 8. of; 9. into; 10. from; 11. from; 12. at; 13. on; 14. upon; 15. on, for.
IX. 1. summons; 2. conduct; 3. remedy; 4. liability; 5. privileges; 6. detection; 7. prevention; 8. devolution; 9. fines; 10. executions.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. h 2. k 3. f 4. g 5. n 6. j 7. c
  8. d 9. m 10. e 11. l 12. a 13. b 14. i
IV. 1. f 2. e 3. a 4. i 5. b 6. g 7. h 8. j 9. c 10. d
V. 1. of, of, against; 2. of, of, before, of; 3. of, from, upon, of, of, of; 4. for, for, of, of; 5. by, in, of, in; 6. of, of, of; 7. of, of, in, above, among; 8. of, of, between, of; 9. in, of; 10. down, in, under, under;
VI. 1. the, a, a; 2. the, the, the; 3. the, the, a, a, the; 4. the, the; 5. the, the, the; 6. the, the, the, the, the; 7. the, a; 8. the; 9. an, the; 10. the, the, the.
VII. 1. legal rights, acquire; 2. world authority, incompatible, essential characteristics; 3. structure, determine, principal functions; 4. characterizes, wrongdoings, offences; 5. enforce, proceedings, common assault; 6. civil, criminal prosecution; 7. rules of law, relationships; 8. unwritten, regulate, conduct; 9. public servants, prevention, detection; 10. ranges. money penalty.

 

IX. 1. Administrative law determines the legal rights of a private citizen whose house a local authority intends to acquire compulsorily. 2. English law presumes that an accused person is innocent until proved guilty. 3. The laws may have been unwritten, but even primitive people had rules to regulate the conduct of the group. 4. Criminal Law is that part of the law which characterizes certain kinds of wrongdoings as offences against the State. 5. Every society that has ever existed has recognized the need for law. 6. The punishment for crime ranges from death or imprisonment to a money penalty or absolute discharge. 7. The police are the public servants whose duty is the prevention and detection of crime and the prosecution of offenders before the courts of law. 8. Public International Law is the body of rules of law which govern the relationships between states, particularly rules of war. 9. A legal action is started by taking out a writ in civil cases, by a summons or an arrest in criminal cases, and ends by the trial and judgment in the court itself, followed by the execution of the judgment. 10. Civil Law is concerned with the rights and duties of individuals towards each other.

UNIT 13

ENGLISH LAW

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. g 2. b 3. c 4. e 5. a 6. f 7. d 8. i 9. h

 

II. 1. b 2. a 3. e 4. f 5. c 6. d 7. g
III. 1. 2k 3g 2. 2c 3k 3. 2i 3i 4. 2f 3b 5. 2g 3a 6. 2j 3e
  7. 2h 3c 8. 2a 3j 9. 2d 3d 10. 2e 3h 11. 2b 3f 12. 2l 3l
V. 1. subjectively; 2. subject; 3. subject; 4. subjected; 5. subjected; 6. subjection; 7. subjective; 8. subjection; 9. subject; 10. subjective.
 

 

VI. 1. cancel/repudiate/rescind/revoke a contract; 2. conclude/make/place a contract; 3. commit a breach of/infringe/violate a contract; 4. bring/serve writ; 5. codification of statutes 6. fulfil/implement a contract; 7. prime contract; 8. undue influence; 9. work contract; 10. verbal contract; 11. tariff declaration; 12. subject of dispute; 13. legal subject; 14. subject of suit.
 
 
 
 

 

VII. 1. a 2. a 3. a 4. d 5. a 6. a 7. a 8. a 9. b 10. a 11. c
  12. a 13. a 14. a 15. a 16. a 17. a 18. a 19. d 20. a 21. a  

 

VIII. 1. of; 2. up; 3. of; 4. of; 5. in; 6. on/over/upon; 7. with; 8. of; 9. of; 10. of; 11. of.
 
IX. 1. contract; 2. federation; 3. associations; 4. judiciary; 5. features; 6. subject; 7. influence; 8. codification; 9. declaration; 10. writ.
 

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. c 2. n 3. e 4. i 5. h 6. a 7. m
  8. d 9. f 10. l 11. k 12. b 13. j 14. g
IV. 1. a 2. d 3. c 4. f 5. j 6. e 7. g 8. i 9. b 10. h
V. 1. at, of, on, with; 2. of, by; 3. by, of; 4. of, of, of, by, from; 5. of, to; 6. by, to; 7. from, of, by, of; 8. by; 9. between, of, by, of, of; 10. in, in.
 
VI. 1. a, a; 2. a, _; 3. an, _; 4. the, _, _; 5. the, the, a: 6. the, the; 7. a, a; 8. the, the; 9. the, the; 10. the, a, a.
 
VII. 1. legal code, avoid; 2. codification, notably; 3. independent body, standards; 4. basis, native growth; 5. substantial proportion, ruled; 6. justice, judge; 7. influenced, remainder; 8. separate systems; 9. consistency, lower courts; 10. existence, suitable writ.

 

IX. 1. Codification was a feature of Roman law and was adopted by nearly all Continental countries, notably France, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. 2. Under the Norman kings the unwritten laws achieved a fairly uniform legal system. 3. English common law, which forms the basis of English law, was of native growth and little influenced by Roman Law. 4. English law is one of the great legal systems of the world, and a substantial proportion of it is ruled today by laws that came originally from this small island. 5. Justice requires that a judge be impartial and independent of either party to a particular legal dispute. 6. The early Norman judges were important figures appointed by the Crown whose justice they administered. 7. The English common law was formed from the customs of the people. 8. There are differences between the law of Scotland, influenced by Roman law, and that of the remainder of the United Kingdom. 9. Though the United Kingdom is a unitary State, not a federation of States, it does not have a single system of law within that State. 10. The geographical separation of England from the Continent, have tended to preserve the independent and uninterrupted growth of English law.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

UNIT 14

MAKING A LAW

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. 1. c 2. d 3. e 4. f 5. g 6. a 7. i 8. b 9. h
II. 1. e 2. d 3. c 4. g 5. f 6. b 7. a
III. 1. 2j 3e 2. 2l 3l 3. 2f 3c 4. 2e 3k 5. 2c 3h 6. 2h 3i
  7. 2g 3b 8. 2d 3j 9. 2i 3g 10. 2b 3a 11. 2a 3d 12. 2k 3f
V. 1. legislation; 2. legislators; 3. legislature; 4. legislate; 5. legislating; 6. legislation; 7. legislate; 8. legislative; 9. legislative; 10. legislators.

 

VI. 1. appoint committee; 2. budget committee; 3. secret vote; 4. decisive vote; 5. mail/postal vote; 6. legislative draft; 7. implied consent; 8. committee of inquiry; 9. introduced legislation; 10. mediation committee; 11. reciprocal consent; 12. standing committee; 13. rough draft; 14. sitting-and-standing vote.

 

VII. 1. i 2. a, b 3. f 4. f 5. l 6. f 7. b 8. b, j 9. f 10. e 11. f 12. i
  13. f, h 14. e 15. i 16. i 17. i 18. l 19. i 20. c, d, g, k 21. f 22. f
                                           

 

VIII. 1. from; 2. in; 3. of; 4. from; 5. of; 6. of; 7. from; 8. from; 9. from; 10. in; 11. with; 12. in; 13. of; 14. into; 15. from; 16. from; 17. at; 18. up; 19. on; 20. on; 21. of; 22. upon; 23. on; 24. of.
IX. 1. procedure; 2. draft; 3. amendments; 4. legislation; 5. committee; 6. stage; 7. debate; 8. detail; 9. consent; 10. chances.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

III. 1. b 2. k 3. g 4. e 5. h 6. n 7. l
  8. c 9. m 10. f 11. j 12. d 13. i 14. a
IV. 1. f 2. i 3. d 4. c 5. j 6. g 7. e 8. a 9. b 10. h
V. 1. by, without, within, of, in; 2. by, in, on, from; 3. after, into, away; 4. about, by, of; 5. for, of; 6. in, of, of; 7. by, of, in, of, of; 8. in; 9. on, of, at; 10. to, by.
VI. 1. a, a; 2. a, the, a, the; 3. a, a, an; 4. an, the; 5. a, the, the, the; 6. a, the, a; 7. the, the, the, the, the; 8. a, the, the; 9. a, a; 10. the, the.
VII. 1. money, amendment; 2. initiate, legislation; 3. passes, considered; 4. vetoes a bill, two-thirds majority; 5. US Congress, Senate, lawmaking arm; 6. new law, completed; 7. reigning monarch; 8. reviewing Bills; 9. sign, given the Royal Assent, Act of Parliament; 10. makes amendments, goes through, final.

 

IX. 1. Using the powers given to them by the Parliament ministers become lawmakers themselves. 2. No new law can be made by the Parliament unless it has completed a number of stages in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. 3. The Queen also has to sign a Bill to show that it has been given the Royal Assent. 4. Whether the Bill starts in the Commons or the Lords it will have to go through the definite stages. 5. First Reading is a formal procedure in which the name of the Bill and its main aims are read out. 6. Second Reading is the main debate on the whole Bill. 7. Only after the Royal Assent the bill becomes a new law or Act of Parliament, before this it is called a Bill. 8. The House of Lords has the job of reviewing Bills received from the Commons. 9. In the USA the US Congress, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is the lawmaking arm of the federal government. 10. Once both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill, the bill goes to the reigning monarch for the Royal Assent.

UNIT 15

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. h 2. b 3. f 4. d 5. e 6. c 7. a 8. i 9. j 10. g
II. 1. f 2. g 3. e 4. b 5. d 6. c 7. a
III. 1. 2h 3h 2. 2j 3e 3. 2f 3k 4. 2d 3b 5. 2k 3f 6. 2c 3d
  7. 2b 3g 8. 2a 3j 9. 2i 3l 10. 2l 3i 11. 2g 3a 12. 2e 3c
V. 1. electorate; 2. electoral; 3. elected; 4. election; 5. elected; 6. elect; 7. electors; 8. electoral; 9. electioneering; 10. elections.

 

VI. 1. adverse/opposing/opposite/other party; 2. canvassing/publicity campaign; 3. blanket ballot; 4. conduct a campaign; 5. chamber of trade; 6. joint campaign; 7. municipal election; 8. unsuccessful party; 9. launch/start a campaign; 10. upper chamber; 11. offended party; 12. second chamber; 13. party in fault; 14. party in interest/interested party.

 

VII. 1. j 2. d 3. g 4. i 5. g 6. a 7. e 8. e 9. g 10. f 11. i 12. j
  13. a 14. g 15. f 16. j 17. j 18. g 19. j 20. j 21. b, c, h, k 22. a
  23. a 24. a                  
                                             

 

VIII. 1. from; 2. for; 3. on; 4. on; 5. of; 6. upon; 7. in; 8. at/in; 9. in; 10. at; 11. up; 12. on; 13. on, for; 14. without.
IX. 1. electorate; 2. adviser; 3. campaign; 4. elections; 5. ballot; 6. sovereign; 7. candidate; 8. chamber; 9. parliament; 10. party.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. l 2. k 3. a 4. m 5. n 6. c 7. g
  8. h 9. d 10. j 11. e 12. i 13. f 14. b
IV. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. g 5. e 6. f 7. h 8. j 9. i 10. b
V. 1. into, of, of; 2. of, of; 3. in, in, after, of; 4. before, to, at; 5. throughout, for, about, with; 6. in, about, with, at; 7. of, until, of; 8. with, of; 9. between, at, of, at, of; 10. on, on, from, till, in.
VI. 1. a, the; 2. the, the, the, a, the, the; 3. a, a; 4. an, the, the; 5. the, the, the, the; 6. _, _, _; 7. the, _; 8. the, the, the, the, the; 9. the, the, the; 10. the, the, the.
VII. 1. Prime Minister, advisers, date; 2. constituency, polling districts; 3. democracy, majority, determine; 4. presiding officer, ballot boxes; 5. modern government; 6. General Election; 7. Official Opposition, Shadow Cabinet; 8. votes; 9. secret ballot, polling clerks, candidates, election agents; 10. Sovereign, leader, party, House of Commons.
IX. 1. Just before the poll opens, the presiding officer shows the ballot boxes to those at the polling station to prove that they are empty. 2. The United Kingdom is divided into 659 parliamentary constituencies, each with an electorate of about 60,000 voters. 3. The second largest party becomes the Official Opposition. 4. General elections are often held either in spring or in autumn 17 days after the dissolution of Parliament. 5. Each British citizen, except prisoners, lords and the mentally ill, over eighteen has one vote, which he casts for the person who will represent him in Parliament. 6. Party manifestos are published and campaigning begins throughout the country, lasting for about three weeks. 7. The Prime Minister formally asks the Sovereign to dissolve Parliament. 8. About the month before the election the Prime Minister meets a small group of advisers to discuss the date of the election which would best suit the party. 9. The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes have been counted, usually the same night. 10. Fair and free elections are an essential part of democracy, allowing the majority of citizens to determine how they want the country to be governed.

UNIT 16

TYPES OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. a 2. e 3. b 4. g 5. j 6. i 7. c 8. h 9. f 10. d
II. 1. b 2. d 3. f 4. a 5. c 6. e 7. g
III. 1. 2a 3k 2. 2l 3b 3. 2f 3i 4. 2i 3e 5. 2j 3l 6. 2b 3a
  7. 2g 3g 8. 2k 3h 9. 2c 3f 10. 2d 3d 11. 2e 3c 12. 2h 3j

 

V. 1. defensible; 2. defence; 3. defender; 4. defenceless; 5. defence; 6. defend; 7. defence; 8. defence; 9. defendant; 10. defendant.

 

VI. 1. certificate of identity; 2. birth certificate; 3. process a case; 4. law/legal case; 5. judicially appointed expert; 6. certificate of death; 7. close a case; 8. expert for the People/State; 9. temporary certificate; 10. court expert; 11. perpetual lease; 12. conduct defence; 13. certificate of acknowledgement; 14. parol will; 15. operating/short lease; 16. trumped-up case.

 

VII. 1. a 2. a 3. a 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. a 8. a 9. b 10. a 11. a
  12. e 13. a 14. b 15. b 16. d 17. a 18. a 19. a 20. a 21. b 22. a

 

VIII. 1. for; 2. on; 3. of; 4. of; 5. up; 6. upon; 7. for; 8. on; 9. on; 10. on; 11. on; 12. out; 13. at, in; 14. up; 15. to.
IX. 1. case; 2. will; 3. barrister; 4. experts; 5. lawyer; 6. certificates; 7. defence; 8. conceptions; 9. lease; 10. solicitor.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. f 5. c 6. g 7. i
  8. k 9. h 10. e 11. l 12. j 13. n 14. m
IV. 1. c 2. a 3. g 4. e 5. h 6. f 7. i 8. d 9. b 10. j
V. 1. with, outside, in, for; 2. apart, from, in; 3. in, of, with, in; 4. to, for; 5. into, with; 6. in, in, of; 7. with, for; 8. with, by, on, of; 9. of, in; 10. with, in.
VI. 1. a, the, a; 2. _, _, _; 3. the, a, the, a; 4. the, a, the, a; 5. a, a, the, the; 6. the; 7. the, the; 8. the, the, the, the, the, the; 9. the, _; 10. a, a, a, a, the.
VII. 1. deal with, serious; 2. public offices, chambers; 3. unique, separate; 4. higher Court, appear for you; 5. straightforward cases; 6. puisne judges; 7. variety; social classes; 8. petty crimes, matrimonial matters; 9. main division, inferior, superior; 10. solicitor, part time.

 

IX. 1. Barristers are different from solicitors, and to qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of the Bar Council. 2. Britain is unique in having two different kinds of lawyers in the legal system. 3. The two kinds of lawyers in Britain are solicitors and barristers. 4. There are many different levels of judges although the main division is into inferior and superior judges. 5. Almost every town will have at least one solicitor, and many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. 6. One of the most important figures in the British legal system is the solicitor. 7. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you can "practice", which means you can start business on your own. 8. The solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates' Courts, the lowest Courts. 9. To become a judge at any level it is necessary to be either a barrister or a solicitor. 10. If you get into trouble with the police you will probably ask a solicitor to help prepare your defence.

 

UNIT 17

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