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LAW AND COURT SYSTEM OF BRITAIN

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. d 2. b 3. i 4. f 5. e 6. c 7. g 8. h 9. a

 

II. 1. e 2. b 3. c 4. f 5. a 6. d 7. g
III. 1. 2g 3d 2. 2h 3l 3. 2i 3a 4. 2c 3f 5. 2a 3e 6. 2d 3b
  7. 2j 3k 8. 2e 3j 9. 2f 3g 10. 2k 3h 11. 2b 3i 12. 2l 3c
V. 1. accusations; 2. accusations; 3. accused; 4. accused; 5. accused; 6. accused; 7. accusations; 8. accused; 9. accusatory; 10. accusing.

 

VI. 1. satisfy an appeal; 2. cruel punishment; 3. level an accusation; 4. prejudiced/prejudicial/partial juror; 5. reduced penalty/punishment; 6. fabricate accusation; 7. hear an appeal; 8. criminal suspect; 9. harsh/serious/severe/stiff punishment; 10. hold to bail/let to bail; 11. prescribed punishment; 12. lenient punishment; 13. prison punishment; 14. unbiased/unprejudiced juror.

 

VII. 1. c, b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. g 6. b 7. a 8. d, e 9. f
  10. b 11. c 12. d 13. b 14. a 15. a 16. e 17. g 18. b
  19. d 20. c 21. a 22. e 23. d 24. a 25. b 26. c 27. a

 

VIII. 1. under; 2. for; 3. on; 4. up; 5. for; 6. on; 7. on; 8. of; 9. to; 10. on; 11. to; 12. out; 13. on, of; 14. for; 15. of; 16. up; 17. without.
IX. 1. hierarchy; 2. punishment; 3. appellant; 4. jurors; 5. accusations; 6. magistrates'; 7. suspect, bail; 8. appeal; 9. bail; 10. dissatisfaction.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. c 2. j 3. k 4. l 5. g 6. m 7. f
  8. e 9. n 10. a 11. d 12. b 13. h 14. i
IV. 1. i 2. b 3. h 4. g 5. a 6. d 7. j 8. e 9. c 10. f
V. 1. by, against, against, to; 2. on, on, at; 3. in, for; 4. in, of, in; 5. for, of, of, for; 6. of, by, of; 7. in, by, of, of, of; 8. to, in, until, before; 9. of, from, to; 10. of, in, to.
VI. 1. a, a, a; 2. the, the, the; 3. the, _; 4. a, the; 5. the, a, the, an; 6. the, the, the, the, the, the, the; 7. the, the, a, a; 8. the, an, a, the; 9. the, the, the, the; 10. a, the.
VII. 1. defendant, guilty, appeal, punishment, judge, jury; 2. legal actions, family, juvenile; 3. lawmaking body, lower, highest; 4. suspected, crime, evidence; 5. Queen's Bench Division; 6. overturn a decision; 7. benefit, severe punishment; 8. hierarchy, bound; 9. magistrate, unconditional bail, 10. suspect, custody.

 

IX. 1. The English court system reflects the division between civil and criminal law. 2. Appeals from the Crown Court go first to the High Court, and, in special cases, to the Court of Appeal. 3. In all legal systems there are institutions for creating, modifying, abolishing and applying the law. 4. A defendant found guilty by the magistrates may appeal against the finding or against the punishment to the local Crown Court. 5. Some minor cases, such as parking violations, are dealt with only by the magistrates. 6. The House of Lords deals with all matters including appeals from Scottish and Northern Irish courts. 7. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is strictly defined in relation to other courts. 8. Judges in the lower courts are bound to follow the decisions of judges in the higher courts. 9. Only the government can overturn a decision of the House of Lords. 10. As the lowest criminal court, a Magistrates Court is empowered to hear certain cases only.

UNIT 18

LAW AND COURT SYSTEM OF THE USA

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. f 5. g 6. e 7. a
II. 1. d 2. f 3. b 4. g 5. c 6. a 7. e
III. 1. 2k 3g 2. 2b 3j 3. 2f 3h 4. 2g 3a 5. 2e 3i 6. 2a 3l
  7. 2i 3c 8. 2j 3d 9. 2l 3b 10. 2h 3k 11. 2c 3e 12. 2d 3f

 

V. 1. jurists; 2. jurisprudence; 3. jury; 4. jurors; 5. juridical; 6. jurisdiction; 7. jury; 8. jurisdictions; 9. juridical; 10. jurisdiction.

 

VI. 1. court of Appeals; 2. do/dispense/distribute/mete out justice; 3. stand court; 4. bring before the bar/bring into court; 5. put on/upon trial; 6. certificate of identity; 7. fall within the jurisdiction; 8. hold trial; 9. legal expert; 10. judicially appointed expert; 11. go to trial; 12. temporary certificate; 13. legal entity; 14. perpetual lease; 15. parol will; 16. operating/short lease; 17. thin case.
VII. 1. e 2. g 3. d 4. a 5. h 6. b 7. a 8. i 9. b 10. i 11. c 12. f
  13. g 14. g 15. g 16. b 17. e 18. i 19. d, i 20. f 21. d, i
                                     
VIII. 1. according to; 2. after; 3. at; 4. to; 5. of; 6. in; 7. to; 8. for; 9. in; 10. for; 11. out, of; 12. from; 13. for; 14. to; 15. of; 16. in; 17. at; 18. within.

 

IX. 1. court; 2. legislature; 3. jury; 4. lawsuit; 5. circuit; 6. entity; 7. statute; 8. jurisdiction; 9. judge, concept; 10. justice.

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

III. 1. a 2. c 3. g 4. b 5. m 6. f 7. e
  8. h 9. n 10. l 11. d 12. i 13. k 14. j
IV. 1. j 2. e 3. a 4. g 5. f 6. d 7. h 8. i 9. b 10. c
V. 1. of, of, to, from, of; 2. at, for, of, for, against; 3. of, for, to; 4. in, to, of; 5. of, of, by, with; 6. with, of; 7. of, in, in; 8. by, of, of; 9. up, in, of, in; 10. by, of.

 

VI. 1. the, the, the, the, the; 2. a; 3. a; 4. the, an; 5. the, the, the, the; 6. the, the, a, the, the, a; 7. the, the; 8. the, the, the, the; 9. the, the, the, the; 10. the, a, the.

 

VII. 1. appeal, major function, hear cases, 2. political importance; 3. important duties, justices; 4. specialized, specific areas; 5. complex, dual; 6. right, jury trial; 7. state, separate; 8. provisions; 9. structure, procedure; 10. circuit courts.

 

IX. 1. The American court system is complex as a dual Court system operates in the United States. 2. State courts are often specialized to deal with specific areas of law, such as family law, traffic, criminal, probate, and small claims. 3. Sometimes cases involving juveniles are heard in a special juvenile court. 4. Criminal courts hear all cases involving violations of laws for which a person could go to jail. 5. District courts and courts of appeals have somewhat less political importance, since their principal duty is to settle cases where no constitutional question is at stake. 6. The losing party can appeal the case to the U.S. court of appeals for that region, one of 13 federal courts of appeals. 7. The systems established by the states include circuit courts of appeals, and state supreme courts. 8. In some states, the appeal goes directly to the state supreme court. 9. Each state has at least one district court; a few have as many as four. 10. The federal courts are organized in three tiers, like a pyramid.

 

UNIT 19

OUTLINE OF THE LAW OF PERSONS

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. b 2. g 3. c 4. d 5. i 6. j 7. a 8. h 9. f 10. e
II. 1. a 2. e 3. c 4. b 5. g 6. f 7. d
III. 1. 2i 3c 2. 2a 3e 3. 2g 3d 4. 2d 3j 5. 2h 3f 6. 2b 3i
  7. 2j 3g 8. 2l 3l 9. 2k 3b 10. 2f 3h 11. 2e 3k 12. 2c 3a
V. 1. determination; 2. determining; 3. determinate; 4. determine; 5. determined; 6. determined; 7. determinant; 8. determination; 9. determinism; 10. determine.

 

VI. 1. develop/introduce/produce/tender evidence; 2. assess damages; 3. conform to/obey rules; 4. decisive proof; 5. estate duty/inheritance duty; 6. lay down/set rules; 7. render an opinion; 8. infallible/irrefutable proof; 9. pre-imposition statement; 10. produce/show proofs; 11. separate opinion; 12. parol statement; 13. punitive/punitory damages; 14. statement of claim.

 

VII. 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. a 5. a 6. b 7. b 8. f 9. b, d 10. b
  11. b 12. f 13. e 14. b, e 15. d 16. c, g 17. f 18. e 19. b
  20. e 21. b 22. b            
                         

 

VIII. 1. in; 2. in, with; 3. out; 4. into; 5. to; 6. to; 7. within; 8. with; 9. to; 10. to; 11. down; 12. out; 13. in; 14. on/upon; 15. in; 16. to; 17. by; 18. for; 19. of; 20. for.
IX. 1. statement; 2. rules; 3. duty; 4. determination; 5. damage; 6. capacity; 7. evidence; 8. conclusion; 9. opinion; 10. proof.

 

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. l 2. d 3. c 4. n 5. g 6. e 7. k
  8. m 9. f 10. i 11. j 12. a 13. b 14. h
IV. 1. h 2. j 3. g 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. d 8. f 9. e 10. i
V. 1. in, for, with; 2. from, from, of; 3. on, of, of, in; 4. to, of; 5. of, of, from; 6. of, from, in; 7. to, on, in; 8. of, of; 9. of, for, of, to, of; 10. to, by, to, on.
VI. 1. a, an, a, the; 2. a, an, a; 3. a, a, the; 4. a, the, a, a, a, the; 5. the, a, a, the, the, the; 6. the, the, a; 7. a, the; 8. the, the, the, the; 9. a, a; 10. the, a, the.
VII. 1. artificial person, legal entity; 2. distinguished, legal identity; 3. contents, document; 4. testify, state, interpreted; 5. signature, witness; 6. validity, execution; 7. legal capacity, subject; 8. prove, admitted, opponent; 9. general rule; 10. contract, special rules, dissolution.

 

IX. 1. The legal view of marriage is that it is a voluntary union for life of one man and one woman. 2. The general rule is that a person can give evidence of what he heard or saw, however he cannot give evidence of what he heard another person say. 3. The actual rules to which a person is subject depend on the factual situation in which he finds himself. 4. A corporation is an artificial person which is recognized in law as a separate legal entity once the formalities for its creation have been complied with. 5. Human beings generally have full legal capacity, and consequently are subject to any rule of law. 6. A person who wishes to rely on the contents of a document as a means of proving a fact must prove what the document in question contains. 7. A witness may only testify as to facts which he has directly perceived but he may not state his opinion on how those facts should be interpreted. 8. Hearsay evidence is basically 'second hand' evidence of what another person said or wrote. 9. All persons including children and mentally disordered persons are both competent and compellable as witnesses. 10. A legal person is a being that is regarded by the law as having rights and duties.

 

UNIT 20

EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

I. 1. c 2. b 3. j 4. i 5. d 6. f 7. h 8. e 9. g 10. a
II. 1. d 2. a 3. g 4. f 5. e 6. b 7. c
III. 1. 2k 3f 2. 2b 3h 3. 2l 3j 4. 2c 3a 5. 2i 3k 6. 2g 3i
  7. 2d 3e 8. 2a 3l 9. 2h 3g 10. 2e 3d 11. 2f 3c 12. 2j 3b
V. 1. judgmental; 2. judge; 3. judgment; 4. judge; 5. judges; 6. judged; 7. judgment; 8. judgment; 9. judged; 10. judgment.
VI. 1. out-of-court/voluntary settlement; 2. commuted punishment; 3. limited freedom; 4. execute judgment; 5. freedom of speech; 6. freedom of religion/worship; 7. make/pass/pronounce/render a judgment; 8. high/severe penalty; 9. legal detention; 10. legal/legitimate right; 11. light/mild punishment; 12. long-term prisoner; 13. army prisoner.
VII. 1. b 2. f 3. d 4. b 5. f 6. b 7. a 8. e 9. d 10. d 11. f
  12. b 13. b 14. f 15. g 16. c 17. c, f, e 18. f 19. c 20. c 21. c
  22. c 23. f 24. f                

 

VIII. 1. against; 2. for; 3. by; 4. by; 5. to; 6. of; 7. by; 8. in; 9. of; 10. before; 11. for; 12. of; 13. under; 14. from; 15. to; 16. in.

 

IX. 1. complaint; 2. imprisonment; 3. freedom; 4. comment; 5. priority; 6. penalty; 7. judgments; 8. settlement; 9. applications; 10. rights.

ACTIVATION EXERCISES

 

III. 1. c 2. f 3. b 4. l 5. d 6. e 7. n
  8. h 9. m 10. a 11. g 12. j 13. i 14. k

 

IV. 1. e 2. c 3. d 4. i 5. b 6. f 7. a 8. h 9. g 10. j
V. 1. for, of, over, in, on; 2. down, in, on; 3. in, for; 4. in, out, in, of, in; 5. in, to, for, out, in, in; 6. out, of; 7. on, out, to, of; 8. on, up, in, after, of; 9. for, to, of, in; 10. on, into.
VI. 1. a, _, the; 2. an, a, _, _, _; 3. the, the, the, _; 4. a, the, _; 5. _, the, the; 6. the, the, a, _; 7. the, the, the; 8. the, the, a, a, the; 9. the, a, the, the, a; 10. a.
VII. 1. Chamber, complaint, admissible, comments; 2. permanent, breached, apply direct; 3. application, habeas corpus; 4. sue, claim damages, imprisonment; 5. Magna Carta; 6. limitations, society; 7. Universal Declaration, General Assembly, United Nations; 8. negotiated settlement, give a judgment; 9. basic rights, freedoms; 10. detained, writ.

 

IX.   1. The arrested person has the right to be told of the reason for his arrest and brought before a court within a reasonable time. 2. In the English legal system the right to liberty has been important for centuries and was set out in the Magna Carta, an important document in British history. 3. In order to protect the rights set out in the Convention, a Court of Human Rights was established in 1959. 4. The European Convention on Human Rights was drawn up in order to try and protect people's rights after the horrors of the Second World War. 5. Other European countries have joined the Council of Europe and signed the Convention, making 32 members in 1994. 6. When we say that we live in a free society, we mean by this that everyone has certain basic rights and freedoms. 7. The Convention followed the Universal Declaration on Human Rights made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. 8. The Convention sets out the rights and freedoms that the people of Europe should have. 9. The Council of Europe is not part of the present European Union but a separate international organization formed in 1949. 10. In developed countries today the rights and freedoms of the individual are regarded as important.

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

To units 1

II. 1. participate; 2. became; 3. have especially won; 4. lasted; 5. disturbs; 6. choose; 7. remained; 8. began; 9. are; 10. has been.
III. 1. isnt it? 2. dont they? 3. doesnt it? 4. didnt it? 5. didnt it? 6. didnt they? 7. wasnt it? 8. didnt it? 9. doesnt it? 10. doesnt it?

 

V. 1. has been found; 2. were nationalized; 3. were passed; 4. were undertaken; 5. is demonstrated; 6. are privately owned; 7. was caused; 8. were gradually reduced; 9. is generally described; 10. are disturbed.

 

To units 2 and 12

 

III. 1. 2a 3b 3c 2. 4a 5b 1c 3. 5a 2b 2c 4. 1a 1b 5c 5. 3a 4b 4c

 

IV. 1. wanting; 2. injured; 3. alarming, howling; 4. following; 5. describing; 6. required; 7. receiving; 8. fallen; 9. involving; 10. managed.

 

V. 1. Having escaped from prison, he looked ; 2. Finding/having found no one at home, he left ; 3. Having spent all his money, he decided ; 4. Realizing that he had missed the train, he began ; 5. Having stolen the silver, he looked ; 6. Knowing that he was poor, I offered ; 7. Turning on the light, I was ; 8. Hoping to find the will, she searched ; 9. Having removed all traces of his crime, he left ; 10. Soaked to the skin, we reached .

 

VI. 1. i 2. e 3. f 4. h 5. d 6. b 7. g 8. c 9. j 10. a

 

VII. 1. British ships, built of iron ; 2. Cornered by the police, ; 3. The show having been cancelled, ; 4. Having arrived at the flat, ; 5. Incoming mail ; 6. playing the piano. 7. The remaining hours ; 8. tasks undertaken in the office.
VIII. 1. All being well; 2. Judging by Georgesattitude; 3. Considering the effort we put in; 4. spilling it all over the floor. 5. with piles of papers lying everywhere. 6. Talking of holidays.

 

IX. 1. Not having much money, I couldn't ; 2. Having waited hours, I was ; 3. Weather permitting, we might ; 4. Considering what's happened, I think ; 5. to go riding. 6. while driving a car. 7. worrying all night. 8. With the stereo blasting out rock music, conversation . 9. The winning team will . 10. Having been invited to the wedding, we've .
X. 1. saw the window broken. 2. Have you had a photo taken? 3. They went quickly out of the house, he accompanying her to the station. 4. She had her hair done. 5. The rain having stopped we went home. 6. The letter being written, I went to post it. 7. I must have my watch repaired. 8. The day being very fine, she went for a walk. 9. Her face smiling, she came into the room. 10. Weather permitting, we'll spend our day off in the forest.

 

To units 3 and 13

III. 1. becoming; 2. having barricaded; 3. having found; 4. having heard; 5. having heard; 6. having visited; 7. sleeping; 8. sitting, using; 9. thinking.

 

IV. 1. Customers complaining ; 2. Passengers travelling ; 3. The candidates sitting ; 4. The plane flying ; 5. The woman waiting ; 6. There's a crime prevention scheme for people living ; 7. There's a pension scheme for people working ; 8. There's someone knocking ; 9. Trains leaving ; 10. What can you do about a dog barking .

 

V. 1. Not knowing his ; 2. Finding the front door ; 3. Being short of ; 4. The text being too difficult, the pupils ; 5. The car being too dear, I can't : 6. The story being easy enough, I can ; 7. The weather being too bad, we couldn't ; 8. The coat being too long, she can't .

 

VI. 1. j 2. i 3. f 4. e 5. d 6. g 7. h 8. a 9. b 10. c

 

VIII. 1. As he believed that ; 2. When I read the letter ; 3. In his first race, the horse he was riding fell ; 4. Running into the room, she caught her foot on a rug and fell ; 5. Wading across ... I was swept off my feet by ; 6. When carrying . . . you should never point it ; 7. When a tank is being filled/When you are filling a tank ; 8. When leaving a car . . . you must leave the brakes ; 9. When paying by cheque, you must show ; 10. When planting . . . you must take care .

 

IX. 1. He watched the snow falling. 2. He was standing, with his arms crossed and his head bent. 3. She was sitting, with her head and one arm lying on a chair. 4. They saw her coming out just now. 5. She sat down at the table, her hands beginning to tremble. 6. We found the old man and his granddaughter sitting at breakfast. 7. We saw the eye of the old doctor turned upon us for moment. 8. The work was considered finished. 9. I saw him walking in the garden. 10. I saw her coming out just now.

 

To units 4 and 14

II. 1. repairing; 2. garderning; 3. boxing; 4. arguing; 5. sleeping; 6. retiring; 7. complaining; 8. cutting; 9. making; 10. computing.
V. 1. in; 2. for; 3. of; 4. for; 5. of; 6. of; 7. by; 8. of; 9. for; 10. of.
VII. 1. c 2. j 3. d 4. h 5. b 6. m 7. l 8. f 9. e 10. g 11. k 12. i 13. n 14. a
VIII. Possible answers 1. Fancy you/your meeting Miss N.! 2. I can't bear him/his whistling when I'm trying to concentrate. 3. I can't excuse her not answering our invitation. 4. I really miss you/your bringing me breakfast in bed. 5. Please forgive Jim/Jim's arriving so late. 6. They can't prevent us/our escaping. 7. Would you mind Jane/Jane's practising in the room next to yours? 8. You must pardon /me not getting up.
IX. 1. He is annoyed about having lost all that money. 2. He is surprised at having been found out. 3. I am sorry for having disturbed you. 4. I appreciate your having helped me. 5. I did not take it. I deny having taken it. 6. I do not mind his having been promoted above me. 7. I enjoy having worked with you. 8. I resent having been dismissed. 9. She is angry at having been posted abroad. 10. That explains his having been fired from his job.
X. 1. Your coming here is very desirable. 2. You were always in the habit of giving her toys. 3. He was afraid of my finding out the truth. 4. She was busy translating the article. 5. They stopped reading the notice. 6. The child continued sitting motionless. 7. We had come withthe intention of saying something definite. 8. They were not worth looking at. 9. I dont feel like working. 10. I told them of his coming there.

To units 5 and 15

 

III. 1. shopping; 2. reading; 3. swimming; 4. gardening; 5. turning; 6. burning; 7. regretting; 8. drawing; 9. writing; 10. shopping.

 

IV. 1. of; 2. in; 3. for; 4. for; 5. for; 6. for; 7. before; 8. for; 9. in; 10. for.

 

VI. 1. I'm looking forward to going away. 2. I was aware of not having eaten for some time. 3. I was excited by the game in spite of being a neutral. 4. I was really annoyed at having been tricked/at being tricked out of my money. 5. I was sorry to hear the bad news. 6. I won't tolerate you/your telling lies about me. 7. In those days the copying of books was a laborious task. 8. At last we succeeded in getting the car started. 9. It isn't worth spending a whole day in the town. 10. We haven't a hope of finishing the work in time.

 

VII. 1. Everyone congratulated Emma on passing her test. 2. I admire the woman for getting to the top in her profession. 3. I don't remember having written a cheque. 4. We have the job of analysing the figures. 5. Let's do some fishing this weekend. 6. No boxer should resort to biting his opponent. 7. It was quite an experience riding/to ride in a racing-car. 8. The woman is famous for impersonating the Queen. 9. This crisis will necessitate me/my going into the office tomorrow. 10. Your not doing any work is a cause for concern.

 

VIII. 1. Gambling all your money away is ridiculous. 2. Sitting at a computer can be bad for you. 3. Travelling by train can be relaxing. 4. We can have fun going out to discos. 5. It s no good feeling sorry for yourself. 6. I had problems getting to work. 7. There was no difficulty getting tickets. 8. It was a nuisance not having a map. 9. It is no use trying to repair the machine. 10. Seeing Madonna was quite a thrill.

 

IX. 1. She was trying to proach without his seeing her. 2. do not like him going there. 3. It's no use my telling you a lie. 4. remember his sister taking part in the concert. 5. Forgive my saying it. 6. hadn't much hope of its working. 7. insist upon your staying. 8. don't know the reason of your leaving. 9. don't forgive you for being late for dinner. 10. I entered the room without his seeing it.

Revision

I. 1. looking/having looked; 2. Catching/having caught; 3. having been eaten; 4. having filled; 5. having searched; 6. biting; 7. being stared/stared; 8. having achieved; 9. hidden.

 

III. 1. thinking; 2. not knowing; 3. shouting; 4. violin playing; 5. thinking; 6. cooking; 7. singing; 8. breathing; 9. training; 10. refusing.

 

V. 1. d 2. i 3. c 4. a 5. j 6. h 7. g 8. f 9. b 10. e

 

VI. 1. As I passed/When I was passing ; 2. When I am reading/When I read ; 3. As he left ; 4. I led the dog, barking furiously, out ; 5. After I had paid my taxes, the amount ; 6. As I was writing ; 7. The boat, tied to a post, was being tossed up and down by the sea. 8. As the question had been misunderstood, the wrong answer ; 9. We saw the first star, shining in the sky. 10. When driving carelessly it is easy to have an accident.

 

VII. 1. Always look in your mirror before driving off. 2. I am sure you'll have a great time without me/ my being there. 3. I bought this special brush for painting ceilings. 4. Far from enjoying the film, I was totally bored by it. 5. Since being mugged/Since the/my mugging, I've been afraid to go out on my own. 6. My friend is in trouble on account of (him/his) not renewing his visa. 7. On hearing the news, my sister fainted. 8. Sending an e-mail is quicker than posting a letter. 9. The prisoners escaped by digging a tunnel. 10. In borrowing money, we added to our problems.

 

To units 7 and 17

 

IV. 1. go/Let's not go; 2. clear up; 3. stay; 4. not have; 5 go; 6. post; 7. go; 8. not stay/Don't let's stay; 9. wear; 10. to scrub.
VI. 1. a 2. b 3. h 4. d 5. g 6. j 7. e 8. f 9. c 10. i
VII. 1. make, come, want; 2. do, to do; 3. to criticize; 4. supply; 5. to come, turn; 6. to practice; 7. allow, to do; 8. join; 9.try, to think, to get; 10. meet.
IX. 1. to see; 2. to have forgotten; 3. so as not to/in order not to splash; 4. to sit; 5. to do/in order to do/so as to do; 6. never to return; 7. didn't tell us to feed; 8. not to feed; 9. to find; 10. to have been.

 

X. 1. Britain is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers. 2. He can use the time to seek their aid in finding solutions to problems. 3. Keeping pace with technology is fundamental to success in the industry. 4. Most federal courts hear cases involving questions of constitutional law. 5. Sometimes cases involving juveniles are heard in a special juvenile court. 6. There are a few most widely used reasons for detaining people. 7. There is the possibility of coming to a friendly negotiated settlement. 8. This is usually done by producing the original of the document. 9. Under no circumstances can voting take place unless a quorum is present. 10. Voting takes place in a booth.
XI. 1. He expected her to return. 2. She wanted them to read that book. 3. They all watched him walk up the hill. 4. He seemed to be thinking about something. 5. This text-book is said to be printed in London. 6. Her mother had chanced to look into her room. 7. We consider him to be the best pupil of our school. 8. I was supposed to meet him. 9. The delegation is reported to have arrived in London. 10. The meeting is expected to begin this morning.

Units 8 and 18

II. 1. be; 2. keep; 3. be; 4. attend; 5. to cater; 6. use; 7. solve; 8. occupy 9. give.

 

XI. 1. bring; 2. believe; 3. happen/happening; 4. playing; 5. look at; 6. know; 7. drawing; 8. laughing; 9. marching; 10. ringing.
XII. 1. Handwriting isthe commonest method of proving the validity of a document. 2. He is responsible for keeping the brazier glowing and preparing the metal. 3. It is a very effective way of ensuring that the team is kept fully informed. 4. Machines started performing repetitive operations faster than people. 5. One way of reducing costs is through the use of containers. 6. The voter folds the paper to conceal the vote before placing it in the ballot box. 7. There is no merit in maintaining a backlog of unanswered mail. 8. This worker is responsible for stretching and cutting. 9. Voting takes place on Polling Day, usually on Thursday. 10. With standard units stacking is easier and identification is also facilitated.
XIII. 1. It was too dark for her to see him. 2. Your mother wants you to come and see her. 3. It's dangerous for us to be going out in this car. 4. turned out to be a good chess-player. 5. She seems to have spoken on the subject before. 6. They are likely to be late. 7. She didn't seem to have heard what I said. 8. We are sure to ring you up. 9. It's time for us to go. 10. For me to see you is the happiest minute in my life.

To units 9 and 19

IV. 1. came; 2. reached; 3. need; 4. would be; 5. were; 6. would have spent.
VII. 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. e 5. f 6. c
VIII. 1. if they know you can pay it back. 2. If we had delayed any longer ; 3. If anything goes wrong, 4. I could take a photo. 5. I would have refused. 6. it will burst into flames. 7. If they had bought a group ticket, 8. I'll be angry . 9. If you could have gone to the concert, 10. it would take longer. 11. and you'll regret it. 12. if anyone approaches the house.
IX. 1. It was extremely important that he remain at school. 2. He only demanded that the man should leave the ountry at once. 3. Yesterday I would have said the same. 4. wish I knew where you are and what you are doing. 5. If I were you I wouldn't think of it. 6. It is necessary that he should go there at once. 7. It is necessary that the place be clean. 8. It's a pity I have no time. We would play chess. 9. I'd write him a letter but don't know his address. 10. If she learned English, I'd buy her this book.

 

To units 10 and 20

II. 1. contrast; 2. time; 3. condition; 4. condition; 5. wish; 6. condition; 7. condition; 8. condition; 9. reason; 10. time.

 

III. 1. contributed, would be; 2. would meet, maintained; 3. were, would insist; 4. waited, would give; 5. had rung, would have gone; 6. would apply, had; 7. would be, were not; 8. would you change, were.
V. 1. accepted, would not spend. 2. lost, would move; 3. had, would phone; 4. were, would call; 5. were, would accept; 6. moved, would need; 7. had, would expand; 8. were, would use.
VII. 1. get, applied; 2. were, think; 3. were, spoke; 4. were, earn; 5. were, produce.

 

IX. 1. finding/to find; 2. telling/to tell; 3. being told/to be told; 4. finding/to find; 5. helping/to help; 6. driving/to drive; 7. finding/to find; 8. arranging/to arrange.

 

XI. 1. Evidence should be given orally and in open court. 2. I wish there were a photocopier in the office for making copies of letters. 3. I wish you had sent a written message yesterday. 4. If a number of new staff joined the firm it would be expedient to make clear the firm's policy on this important subject. 5. If she had to do some calculations, she would use an electronic calculator. 6. If the committee had passed the bill, it would have been considered by the House of Representatives as a whole. 7. If they had predicted correctly their business would have survived and prospered. 8. Incoming mail should be dealt with promptly. 9. It would be unfair to admit a statement which was not made under oath. 10. Token curtness should be avoided, no matter how overworked you might be.

 

XII. 1. She closed the window lest the children should catch cold. 2. She would have bought a watch but the shop was closed. 3. wish she would come home. 4. wish you could give it to me. 5. Mary dreaded lest he should come in. 6. Toward evening he looked so badly that she suggested that he go to bed. 7. knew something would happen today. 8. But for the rain we would work in the garden today. 9. If you should meet her somewhere, you might travel with her. 10. If I saw him tomorrow I should tell him about it.

 

Revision

II. 1. made to wear; 2. let us wear; 3. made us change; 4. (to) be; 5. made me suffer; 6. 'Let's expand; 7. made the shoes expand; 8. helped me (to) get.

 

III. 1. to eat/eating; 2. waiting; 3. to tell; 4. to understand; 5. to talk/talking; 6. eating, eating; 7. to play/playing; 8. to go/going; 9. to have; 10. to come.

 

VII. 1. to phone; 2. staying; 3. to go; 4. visiting; 5. to tell; 6. drinking; 7. dancing; 8. talking; 9. to lock; 10. to stop.

 

VIII. 1. The man saw a notice pinned to the door ; 2. They read the words 'No Entry' written in ; 3. While he was cleaning his gun it went off ; 4. When/As I was wondering where to go, an advertisement ; 5. As I rushed out of the house, a lorry ; 6. As I sat by the fire, it all comes back ; 7. We thought he would never survive after falling from ; 8. When a fuse is being changed, the electricity ... ; 9. I saw a trailer with a boat on it being towed behind ; 10. As he was sitting at the foot... a stone fell .

 

IX. 1. cry; 2. tell, promise; 3. type, use; 4. lend; 5. to ask; 6. wear; 7. adjusting/to be adjusted; 8. eat, wait; 9. to practice; 10. renewing/to be renewed.

 

XI. 1. looked as if he had never seen me before. 2. She is considered to be the best singer. 3. His father is said to work at this plant. 4. The sky looked as if it would never clear before morning. 5. It is necessary that he should pay us a visit. 6. was supposed to work on Sunday and evenings. 7. The pupils were allowed to use dictionaries. 8. should call on him but have very little time. 9. I insist that you should consult a doctor. 10. But for the late hour they would stay here longer.

IRREGULAR VERBS

 

arise arose arisen lie lay lain
be was, were been lose lost lost
bear bore borne make made made
become became become mean meant meant
begin began begun meet met met
bind bound bound misread misread misread
blow blew blown pay paid paid
bring brought brought put put put
build built built read read read
buy bought bought resell resold resold
choose chose chosen ring rang rung
come came come rise rose risen
cost cost cost run ran run
cut cut cut say said said
deal dealt dealt see saw seen
do did done seek sough sough
draw drew drawn sell sold sold
drink drank drunk send sent sent
drive drove driven set set set
eat ate eaten show showed shown
fall fell fallen sit sat sat
feel felt felt sleep slept slept
find found found speak spoke spoken
fight fought fought spell spelt spelt
fly flew flown spend spent spent
forbid forbade forbidden spread spread spread
forget forgot forgotten stand stood stood
get got got steal stole stolen
give gave given swing swung swung
go went gone take took taken
grow grew grown teach taught taught
have had had tell told told
hear heard heard think thought thought
hold held held understand understood understood
hurt hurt hurt undertake undertook undertaken
keep kept kept uphold upheld upheld
know knew known wear wore worn
lay laid laid win won won
lead led led withdraw withdrew withdrawn
learn learnt learnt write wrote written
leave left left      

 

 

SYNONYMS


able 9capable

absent 12missing

absolute 12complete

acceptable 2satisfactory

accessible 2available

accused 12charged

actual 19real

acute 8shrewd

admissible 19allowable

advanced 1forward

affluent 11plentiful

alive 7living

appointed 17nominated

appropriate 6fitting

approved 18sanctioned

artificial 19man-made

authentic 19genuine

available 6accessible

average 1standard

basic 10fundamental

beautiful 18attractive

boring 8dull

bountiful 8plentiful

broad 13universal

central 12key

certain 5undoubted

charitable 4philanthropic

chief 10principal

clear 9sure

clever 10intelligent

close 15private

common 5general

comparable 6similar

competent 19qualified

complex 18elaborate

compulsory 17obligatory

conditional 17qualified

continual 3recurrent

continuous 8uninterrupted

conventional 2approved

core 9centre

courteous 9well-mannered

created 18established

creative 10inventive

criminal 17illegal

crucial 4decisive

customary 13habitual

dangerous 20risky

developed 20advanced

different 7dissimilar

difficult 16complicated

direct 5uninterrupted

distant 8faraway

distinct 12separate

domestic 10internal

dual 18double

dynamic 2powerful

early 7forward

economic 1productive

effective 6efficient

efficient 3effective

empty 15unfilled

enforced 18administered

equal 18identical

equitable 12just

essential 12basic

established 18organized

exclusive 16unique

extensive 3spacious

fair 15just

false 20untrue

fashionable 8up-to-dare

favourable 11beneficial

fierce 4ferocious

final 14ultimate

flagrant 2shocking

flamboyant 4elaborate

flexible 9adaptable

foreign 10external

formal 6official

free 15independent

frequent 5customary

full 19complete

fundamental 10basic

general 14widespread

generous 4plentiful

genuine 5real

giant 11immense

good 16gifted

gradual 1slow

grand 4first-rate

great 13principal

guilty 17culpable

harmonious 6friendly

healthy 5beneficial

heavy 3large

hereditary 17inherent

high 8tall

human 19understanding

ill 15unhealthy

immediate 11current

immense 4tremendous

immovable 1steadfast

impartial 6neutral

important 3essential

inappropriate 6unsuitable

incompatible 20antagonistic

incredible 8unbelievable

independent 5autonomous

individual 14independent

inferior 16junior

innocent 12guiltless

insignificant 1meaningless

intelligent 7smart

internal 1inward

international 3worldwide

invisible 8imperceptible

involved 15included

joint 5united

junior 7subordinate

juvenile 18young

known 18famous

large 14great

lasting 5continuing

late 7overdue

lawful 20legal

legal 12lawful

limited 17restricted

little 13insufficient

local 12regional

long 17lengthy

lower 16subordinate

main 14chief

major 5leading

native 13natural

outstanding 13prominent

practical 13pragmatic

puritanical 4severe

rapid 3speedy

raw 11natural

reasonable 20acceptable

recent 3contemporary

recurrent 2frequent

redundant 9unnecessary

regular 2systematic

relevant 9pertinent

remarkable 1outstanding

remote 16detached

responsible 3dependable

rich 11wealthy

routine 7customary

royal 14sovereign

safe 11harmless

same 14changeless

scientific 11physical

secret 15unknown

sentimental 8emotional

separate 7different

serious 6significant

severe 17strict

significant 1meaningful

similar 14analogous

single 5separate

sleek 8shiny

small 15little

social 2public

manual 7had-operated

massive 10enormous

matrimonial 16conjugal

middle 18central

minor 17lesser

modern 8contemporary

national 3domestic

natural 3pure

necessary 11required

new 14recent

next 15following

normal 6habitual

numerous 10innumerable

obvious 7evident

operative 12functioning

opposite 15contrary

oral 19verbal

ordinary 15standard

outward 11external

own 16individual

particular 10special

permanent 20invariable

personal 6individual

petty 16unimportant

polite 9respectful

popular 7universal

possible 6probable

potential 10possible

powerful 4forceful

present 20existing

primary 3fundamental

primitive 12ancient

principal 18chief

private 14personal

productiveconstructive

professiona1 1skilled

profitable 4beneficial

profound 4knowledgeable

proper 2appropriate

public 14civil

special 17definite

specific 1particular

straightforward 16easy

substantial 13considerable

successful 2triumphant

successive 14uninterrupted

suitable 9appropriate

superior 13higher

supreme 13highest

sure 9certain

temporary 9momentary

typical 11usual

unconditional 17unqualified

unemployed 15jobless

unfair 19unjust

uninterrupted 13continuous

unique 16exceptional

united 20joined

universal 20general

unlawful 20illegal

unwilling 2reluctant

unwritten 13verbal

valid 19legal

valuable 10important

various 4different

violent 20powerful

vital 7important

void 19invalid

voluntary 19free

vulnerable 11unprotected

wide 5immense

wrongful 9illegal

unwritten 13verbal

young 16inexperienced


 

 

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A

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achievement (4)

advertiser (10)

advertising (10)

adviser (15)

appeal (17)

appellant (17)

applicant (7)

application (20)

arrangement (11)

B

backlog (9)

bail (17)

ballot (15)

barrister (16)

benefit (11)

branch (6)

breach (20)

business (4)

C

campaign (10)

campaign (15)

candidate (15)

capacity (19)

cargo (11)

case (16)

certificate (16)

chairperson (6)

chamber (15)

circuit (18)

codification 13

comment (20)

commerce (4)

commission (5)

committee (14)

communication (7)

community (5)

competitiveness (1)

competitor (4)

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contract 13

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D

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debate (14)

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demand (10)

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detail (14)

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determination (19)

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dimension (9)

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distribution (3)

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duty (19)

E

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election (15)

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employee (9)

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enterprise (2)

entity (18)

equipment (7)

evidence (19)

execution (12)

expansion (2)

expert (16)

extent (8)

F

feature 13

federation 13

formulation (9)

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fine (12)

G

goods (11)

H

hierarchy (17)

I

identification (11)

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influence 13

information (11)

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J

judge (18)

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M

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maintenance (9)

management (4)

manager (7)

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marketing (10)

material (11)

media (10)

minutes (6)

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