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Collaborative small-group work

Because of the difficulties of managing the turn-taking of a large numbers of pupils, some observers have advocated the use of collaborative group work as a way of 'decentralizing' classroom communication so as to encourage more pupils to participate in and practice forms of academic discourse normally dominated by the teacher. Many teachers and research have explored the possibilities of teacher-less discussion as an alternative to whole class recitation.

Collaborative group work has also drawn a lot of theoretical justification from the 'social constructivist' view of learning because it allows more space for pupil initiatives or elaboration of ideas by regularly involving them in problem solving activities and sustained discussions of their own ideas. Therefore learning and teaching are seen as collaborative and involving the social and cultural perceptions of all participants; and talk is central to this process as it is the primary medium of interaction which enables learners to make explicit what they know, understand and can do. Computers certainly have the potential to alter the structure of talk in the classroom and act as a focus for effective collaboration in group work.

In this way, as Edwards and Mercer (1987) suggest, pupils can share in and practice forms of academic discourse of the classroom normally dominated by the teacher: that is, sharing, comparing, contrasting and arguing from different perspectives, providing opportunities for 'instructional conversation' or the 'shared construction or negotiation of meaning'. Therefore, pupils are given more opportunities to develop linguistically and cognitively in the discourse structure of collaborative group work. Research suggests effective teachers know how to blend individual, small group and whole class teaching successfully. Thus, for the teaching of basic skills or factual knowledge, active whole class teaching is clearly the most effective strategy, though practice or assessment of concepts taught might fruitfully incorporate some small group work. For example, mathematical problem solving and thinking skills are probably best enhanced through collaborative small group work, although an element of whole class teaching will be needed to explain the task and to teach the pupils the skills necessary to do collaborative group work.

All in all, the research literature suggests that the question is not whether to do whole class teaching or small group work, but how to do them both, in a blended fashion. It seems likely that teaching practice which blends teacher-led approaches with group work and paired work remains the organizational and behavioral blend which will produce the highest learning gain.

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The First Stage of the Development of Press Photography

The industrial revolution greatly improved the standard of periodicals. A similar influence manifested itself on the path, leading to the culmination of the democratization of the picture. Mankind required a new method of producing pictures, in connection with the necessity of obtaining practical information, which could make reproductions not only faster than painting and drawing, but also produce more realistic and detailed pictures. This urgent need was satisfied by the invention of photography, which is frequently described with respect to the time of its origin as the most beautiful child of the industrial revolution .

The early stages of the development of photography as a pictorial culture were marked by many inventions. New conditions were created for the cooperation of some photographers with the editorial staff of periodicals and newspapers.

The use of photographs as a basis for graphical reproduction started with books and albums, due to the high cost.

The first book with lithograph illustrations appeared in 1840. A historical date is May 14, 1842, when Herbert Ingram founded the famous illustrated London News. As the name indicates, it was to be a periodical relying largely on pictorial information. The illustrations were produced by a large team of graphic artists employed permanently by the publishers. Their work was based on both sketches and photographs. Due to the quality and possibilities of photography, photos were used mainly for landscapes, town views and portraits, whereas genre scenes and topical events were produced mainly after sketches made by artists sent to the spot where interesting events were expected by the editors.

The fact that the time was ripe for periodicals relying more heavily on pictorial information manifested itself in the, appearance a year later of a similar magazine in France, Lillustration, published in Paris, and the Illustrierte Zeitung I which started to appear in Leipzig, Germany.

The half tones of photograph were replaced in copies made after original photos by hatching. The confidence of the public in the printed result was not the same as in the original photograph, because engravers sometimes deprived the pictures of disturbing elements, or being pressed by time, simplified them. The need for relatively large teams of graphic artists meant extra cost for the publisher and slower production rate. For these reasons methods were sought how to use photographs in periodicals more directly. In 1882, George Meisenbach invented the method called autotype. It contributed greatly to the direct use of images in periodicals. Another way led through experiments with photogravure. The most important innovation was the heliogravure, invented in 1878 by Karel Klic.

At the end of the 1880s it was possible to print half-tone reproductions of images simultaneously with the text using either Meisenbach's autotype or Klic's heliogravure methods. Most photographers then used the dry gelatine plate, and photographic films were becoming available at that time. The state of the I art achieved in the 19th century contributed considerably to the completion of the first stage of the development of photography for press purposes.

 

Gotcha journalism

Gotcha journalism is a term often used to refer to techniques primarily used in certain versions of broadcast journalism to represent a specific person or group of people in a specifically desired manner through manipulation of images and quotes, or through editing of interviews.

The phrase gotcha journalism is reported to have been based on a headline in The Sun, the British tabloid newspaper, in 1982, when it printed a massive headline reading "GOTCHA!" in reference to an incident in the Falklands War. An early citation indicated it was used by Stuart K. Spencer in the Los Angeles Times in 1987. Former United States Vice President Dan Quayle reportedly referred to "gotcha journalism" in 1999 during an interview with talk-show host David Letterman.

Gotcha journalism generally refers to a method of interviewing or editing of interviews in which the interviewee is made to look foolish or out of touch. The effect is often to make the targeted person look uninformed or as if, he or she is lying. This effect is also achieved by replaying quotes from public speeches and following with hand-picked footage or images that appear to contradict the statement. For example, a city's mayor might give a speech in which he claims that during his tenure, employment is at a record high in his city. A news outlet may replay that speech and follow up with footage of desperate men and women at the unemployment office, and perhaps even an interview in which the person is asked to comment on the mayor's speech. The interviewee in this case may be baited with questions that have obvious answers such as, "The mayor says unemployment is a record low; how do you respond to that?" Gotcha journalism may also be achieved by misleading an interviewee about which portions of his or her statements will be aired, or misleading the audience about how an expert opinion is acquired. Manipulation of quotes, images, and archive footage is typical in the rigorous editing process, especially for news magazines, and does not cross over into gotcha journalism until there is a deliberate attempt to mislead an interviewee, expert, or the audience. Most commonly this manifests by finding footage of exceptions to a generalization given by a speaker or interviewee. For example, in the weeks following Hurricane Katrina, a number of public officials gave public statements in which they stated that progress was being made. A number of news outlets aired the statements followed by footage of flooded homes, abandoned neighborhoods, and interviews with the many people still affected by the disaster for which there clearly was no progress yet.

 

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