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Applications of Nanotechnology

The development of devices that are small, light, self-contained, use little energy and that will replace larger microelectronic equipment is one of the first goals of the anticipated nanotechnology revolution. The second phase will be marked by the introduction of materials not feasible at larger than nanotechnology levels. Given the nature of quantum variance, scientists theorize that single molecule sensors can be developed and that sophisticated memory storage and neural-like networks can be achieved with a very small number of molecules.

Traditional engineering concepts undergo radical transformation at the atomic level. For example, nano-technology motors may drive gears, the cogs of which are composed of the atoms attached to a carbon ring. Nanomotors may themselves be driven by oscillating magnetic fields or high precision oscillating lasers.

Perhaps the greatest promise for nanotechnology lies in potential biotechnology advances. Potential nano-level manipulation of DNA offers the opportunity to radically expand the horizons of genomic medicine and immunology. Tissue-based biosensors may unobtrusively be able to monitor and regulate site-specific medicine delivery or regulate physiological processes. Nanosystems might serve as highly sensitive detectors of toxic substances or used by inspectors to detect traces of biological or chemical weapons.

In electronics and computer science, scientists assert that nanotechnologies will be the next major advance in computing and information processing science. Microelectronic devices rely on recognition and flips in electron gating (e.g. where differential states are ultimately represented by a series of binary numbers ["0" or "1"] that depict voltage states). In contrast, future quantum processing will utilize the identity of quantum states as set forth by quantum numbers. In quantum cryptography systems with the ability to decipher encrypted information will rely on precise knowledge of manipulations used to achieve various atomic states.

Nanoscale devices are constructed using a combination of fabrication steps. In the initial growth stage, layers of semiconductor materials are grown on a dimension limiting substrate. Layer composition can be altered to control electrical and/or optical characteristics. Techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are capable of producing layers of a few atoms thickness. The developed pattern is then imposed on successive layers (the pattern transfer stage) to develop desired three dimensional structural characteristics.

 

4. (A) (B):

A B

heavily divide

permanent easy

high cheap

quick easily

solid easy

external temporary

expensive liquid

complex internal

multiply slow

 

.

6. :

1. Whats the first goals of the anticipated

nanotechnology revolution?

2. What will the second phase of this revolution be marked

by?

3. How can the advantages in nanotechnology be used in traditional engineering?

4. Where does nowadays the greatest promise for nanotechnology lie?

5. Where will the next major advance of nanotechnologies according to the scientists assert?

6. What techniques are capable of producing layers of a few atoms thickness ?

7. Nanomedicine , 7 Unit 2.

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).

Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health, including the funding in 2005 of a five-year plan to set up four nanomedicine centers.

 

UNIT 4

1. :

a term ,

to refer to

intersection ,

related technologies ()

merger ,

to enhance

to allow smb to do smth - -

nanoparticle -

biologically inspired ,

peptoid nanosheet

to refine application

tissue

concerning -

cantilever ,

array sensor

living cell ,

oxidation state

aqueous phase

environmentally benign condition -

sustainable development

 

2. :

phenomenon (. phenomena)

to occur

approach

objective ;

to involve ;

frequently

purpose

opportunity

to explore

research

3. Nanobiotechnology 5 :

BIO- NANO-

 

-biology - nanoparticles

4. Nanobiotechnology 5 :

For example, discipline subject.

appeared - e.......................................

to invent - c.......................................

close - .r............................................

scholar/ explorer - s..........................

problem - .i.......................................

exploration - ...r....................................

aim/ task - .o.....................................

utilization - ...a.....................................

 

5. :

NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY

 

Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. Bionanotechnology generally refers to the study of how the goals of nanotechnology can be guided by studying how biological "machines" work and adapting these biological motifs into improving existing nanotechnologies or creating new ones. Nanobiotechnology, on the other hand, refers to the ways that nanotechnology is used to create devices to study biological systems.

This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices, nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created. However, as with nanotechnology and biotechnology, bionanotechnology has many potential ethical issues associated with it.

The most important objectives that are frequently found in nanobiology involve applying nanotools to relevant medical/biological problems and refining these applications. Developing new tools, such as peptoid nanosheets, for medical and biological purposes is another primary objective in nanotechnology. New nanotools are often made by refining the applications of the nanotools that are already being used. The imaging of native biomolecules, biological membranes, and tissues is also a major topic for the nanobiology researchers. Other topics concerning nanobiology include the use of cantilever array sensors and the application of nanophotonics for manipulating molecular processes in living cells.

Recently, the use of microorganisms to synthesize functional nanoparticles has been of great interest. Microorganisms can change the oxidation state of metals. These microbial processes have opened up new opportunities for us to explore novel applications, for example, the biosynthesis of metal nanomaterials. In contrast to chemical and physical methods, microbial processes for synthesizing nanomaterials can be achieved in aqueous phase under gentle and environmentally benign conditions. This approach has become an attractive focus in current green bionanotechnology research towards sustainable development.

6. :

1. Can you explain the meaning of the words nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology? Can we say that all these terms are closely related?

  1. What does nanobiotechnology as a discipline help to indicate?
  2. What does the technical approach to biology allow scientists to do?
  3. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created, doesn't it?
  4. Do the most important objectives of nanobiology involve applying nanotools to relevant medical/biological problems and refining these application? Can you give us the examples of nanotools?
  5. What are the main objectives concerning nanobiology?
  6. Does the use of microorganisms or chemical substances help to synthesize functional nanoparticles?

 

7. Nanobiotechnology.

 

UNIT 5

1. :

to treat / /

to generate cures

cultured bladder

a young embryo ,

stem cell treatment

harsh chemicals

to be quenched ( )

to encounter ,

to detect = to track down ,

metabolites ( )

to fix disease

to merge with

mimicking -

nanofoundries ,

to artificially tap into smth / -

software

DNA

inherent property

nucleic acid

amyloid

protein folding

2. 5 1 .

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