²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


²̲Ҳ Ͳ ̲ в ˲ί

 

 

US British Example
tcion xion connection/ connexion complection/ complexion
dg dge judgment/ judgement abridgment/ abridgement
e ae, oe ecology/ oecology anemia/ anaemia
er re theater/ theatre center/ centre
ize ise organize/ organise moralize/ moralise
l ll leveling/ levelling
ll l fulfillment/ fulfilment enrollment/ enrolment
or our humor/ humour color/ colour
s c defense/ defence offense / offence

 

NUMBERS

 

Decimal points are not the same the world over. Whereas in the United States people would write 68.5, in Europe it would be written 68,5. The period is also used for separating thousands in Europe: 7.652 is equal to

7,652 in the United States. In some countries, the decimal may be located halfway up the line such as 685. Another area of confusion is what is a billion and what is a trillion. In the United States, Russia, France, Italy,

Turkey, Brazil, and Greece, a billion has nine zeros (1,000,000,000) but is called a milliard in Russia, Italy, and Turkey; in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Spain,

Portugal, Serbia, Croatia, and some South American countries, what they call a billion has 12 zeros (1,000,000,000,000), which is equal to the U.S. trillion. Some other interesting differences you may see is a one (1) written so that it looks like a V, sevens written with a slash across the middle that can be mistaken for a Y or a 4, eights that start at the bottom loop rather than the top loop, and zeros that may be crossed. 20 Although the British government announced in 1974 that all government reports and statistics would use the United States system for billion, you would want to check twice when doing business in Britain. A misplaced comma cost Lockheed $70 million, according to James A. Micky Blackwell, president of Lockheeds aeronautics division. However, Lockheed would not name the company that held them to the misplaced comma price.

 

1.

Render the following proper names into English. Use the table above where appropriate.

A.³, , , , , , ; , ; ϳ- ; ; ; .

B.; ; ѳ, , , , .

C., , , , , , ; , ; ; ; , .

 

UNIT 3

OTHER TYPES OF MESSAGES

, .

 

, , , , , . , , .

asap as soon as possible

attn mr bean to the attention of Mr Bean

bk break

cfm confirm

dtd dated

fin I have finished my message

fin? Have you finished your message?

ga go ahead: send your message/may I send my message?

hr(s) hours

mns minutes

msg message

n and

occ occupied

ok agrees/do you agree?

pls please

r received

recd received

rgds regards

rpt aa repeat all after..

rpt ab repeat all before

rpt all repeat all

tlx telex

wk(s) weeks

Facsimile (Fax)

In fact faxes are just quick letters, so all the requirements of letters can be applied to them. Moreover, in some cases the sending of fax message is confirmed by sending of ordinary letter.

The use of fax messages is increasing as a quick method of communication between countries. Points of etiquette regarding fax transmission follow.

Calling ahead to confirm the fax number and allowing the person to switch the line to the fax machine in case the fax shares a telephone are very helpful. This will also alert the person that you are sending a message. You should send the message immediately because you are disabling their ability to receive telephone calls.

Sending documents that are longer than 10 to 15 pages, personal or confidential information, and negative news should not be done using a facsimile.

Using the fax when impressions are important should be avoided. Printed documents that have been faxed are not always as crisp and clean looking as the original document nor can you control the paper quality.

In many countries, global businesses have found the facsimile (fax) machine to be more dependable than the mail service. If the telephone system is of poor quality, however, then the fax machine may not be any better than the mail. Countries that have very stormy seasons generally will have poor mail and phone service during those time periods. Another problem is the regularity of maintenance and delivery service in remote areas. Telecommunication satellites, cell towers, and cell phone service are becoming more dependable in many locations around the globe.

Faxes require the same good writing skills that letters or e-mails require. When sending production schedules, budgets, or other types of written information, use a cover letter or transmittal sheet so that the receiver knows to whom the fax is directed, from whom the material originates, and how many total pages are included.

Example of a fax message

 

Savil Row, London W1 PT 4AZ

 

Tel: 0020 753465321

 

Fax Transmission

 

TO: Mr. Stewart

FROM: Ashley Nilson

FAX NUMBER: 0020 753465322

DATE: 20.11.2009

NUMBER OF PAGES: (including this) 2

 

Dear Mr. Stewart.

As you requested, I send you all the information about our paintballing club.

 

Peace or War was opened in 2001. Paintball is not only sport, but also an adventure. It helps people to acquire team spirit which is so necessary for success of the company.

 

First of all I would like to inform you about our schedule. We are open during all the week including weekends from 9 A.M. till 11 P.M. There are also night games but you should inform us about wish for playing at night in advance. There is a prior reservation in our club. You can let us know about the data as soon as you make the decision.

 

As regards the prices we have a special discount for corporate clients. Enter is 30 pounds per person and palls with paint cost 70 pounds for a box. In each box there are 2000 balls which is enough for 3-4 persons to play 2-3 hours.

 

All other necessary materials you can find on the 2nd page. The rules of the game, its aim and maps are described there. If you have any questions I will answer them willingly.

 

Thank you for your interest in our services.

We are looking forward to seeing you and your colleagues in our club.

Yours sincerely,

 

Ashley Nilson

Managing director

 

 

Writing Telexes

 

At the average typed business letter costs 10 pounds to produce, a telex can be much cheaper, and of course it will arrive quickly and can be answered by return.

Telexes are normally shorter than letters, but if they are too brief they may be hard to understand. The extra cost of a few more words may be better than spending time and money to put right a misunderstanding. The kind of language that's used in a telex is also used in electronic mail (Email) where messages are sent from one computer to another. Telex language does not have fixed rules. Each writer has his/her own style. However, there are some common features of telexes, for example:

we generally miss out articles (the, a), pronouns, prepositions and auxiliaries. E.G. Full sentence: We have sent the spare part to you.

 

TELEX: SEND SPARE PARTS.

 

Electronic Mail (E-Mail)

Electronic mail is a separate, special way of communication which enables to perform live exchange of information and at the same time the one that has great possibilities as well as considerable difficulties because of peculiarities of electronic correspondence. On one sideelectronic letters almost dont differ from ordinary paper letters. They have the name of the addressee and the address of the sender, they automatically provide the date and time of sending, space for the text of the letter and the signature of the sender. There is the line Subject and the option to send a copy, the enclosed file performs the function of The Enclosure. Bu there are some differences as well.

The Internet and e-mail are connected to major cities around the world. Because e-mail sends documents in their original format as attachments, it has become a very convenient way to send documents. Normally, e-mail printouts are clearer than those from a fax machine. Again, the quality of the infrastructure in the country is important to the quality and dependability of e-mail, faxes, and telephone service, and the cost for these services may be much higher than the cost to which you are accustomed. E-mail as a communication medium has not been totally adopted by non-Western countries, and one reason given for this is different communication preferences. Culturally based resistance is common if proper managerial intervention does not take place so culture has an important role in technology adoption. It has been found that people with highpowered distance values perceive e-mail as not fulfilling their desired goal of social interaction with individuals.

For your international e-mail, use the same good writing skills you would use for a letter. The format is a memorandum form with the TO, FROM, DATE, and SUBJECT already stated. Because of this automatic formatting, you would not use an inside address in the body of the e-mail. Rather than using a proper salutation as you would in writing a letter, address the receiver by name in the first sentence (e.g., Mr. Chou, your kindness is greatly appreciated). Avoid first names unless the person has given you permission to use the first name. Your electronic mailbox should be checked at least once a day, but two or three times is probably a better idea. Responses should be made within 24 hours. Messages should be concise and brief; no more than two screens should be used. An electronic signature is necessary because, unlike a letter, it is not on company letterhead.

When composing an e-mail message, you must consider your receivers e-mail habits and resources. If English is the receivers second language, be sure to use words that you are sure will be understood and state points clearly. Use normal grammar and paragraphing, use politeness markers such as please or this might work because nonverbal cues are absent. Do not use jokes or informal idioms, and edit carefully. Rules of e-mail etiquette should be observed. The following are examples of improper netiquette: If you type in all caps, it is the same as shouting. You should not speak ill of someone; doing so is called dissing. Sending vicious or insulting messages is called flaming and should not be done. Sending mass messages is called spamming and is wasteful of the receivers time. Avoid the use of humor and sarcasm globally because it is probably going to be misinterpreted. Cultural variations exist in what is perceived as humorous. Also, maintain a positive tone rather than even a slightly critical one. A company is responsible for information leaked into cyberspace; employees should be very careful about the messages they send. A good rule to follow: If you would not want your message posted on the company bulletin board, do not send it via e-mail. Hitting the delete key does not necessarily remove the message or a trail from your computer. Choosing a channel by which to send a message is something that needs to be thought about. The advantage of e-mail is its low preparation and fast delivery time as well as being personal and convenient for the receiver. The disadvantages of e-mail include the lack of confidentiality and the lack of nonverbal interaction. Also, all countries do not use e-mail as frequently as do people in the United States. Internet access is available to 68.8 percent of the people in the United States (third highest of the top 20 countries); almost 75 percent of the residents in Sweden; 72.5 percent of the people in Hong Kong; 66 percent of the residents of the Netherlands, Australia, and Canada; 58.5 percent of the residents of the United Kingdom; and 52.2 percent of Japanese residents. 36 Some other suggestions to avoid misunderstanding include spelling out the name of the month, including country codes in telephone numbers, and indicating whose time zone you are referring to when you wish to make contact at a specific time of day.

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