Use common meanings of words that have multiple meanings or choose words with only one meaning. Avoid uncommon words.

Use action verbs.

Avoid making verbs out of nouns.

Be aware of words within the same language that change meanings between cultures.

Be aware of different spellings for the same word.

Avoid slang and sports terms.

Use single-word verbs rather than two-word verbs.

Use the formal tone and correct punctuation.

Use the other countrys salutation and closing; avoid using first names in salutations.

Conform to rules of grammar.

Use short, simple sentences; avoid compound and compound-complex sentences.

Clarify the meaning of words that have more than one meaning.

Adapt the tone of the letter to the reader and try to capture the flavor of the language.

Avoid acronyms, emoticons (☺), and abbreviations in writing letters, faxes, or e-mail messages.

If photocopies are appropriate, ask for a list of people who should receive them.



Letter format styles are different across countries. Some countries still use the indented letter style with closed punctuation, such as France. Latin American countries prefer the modified block format, which features the date and closing lines beginning at the center and paragraphs beginning at the left margin. 15 In the United States the preferred format is the block format (all lines beginning at the left margin) or the modified blocked (date and closing beginning at the center and paragraphs blocked). Either standard punctuation (colon after the salutation and comma after the closing) or open punctuation (no punctuation after either the salutation or the closing) is used in U.S. letters. Many countries use the U.S. format for their letters, particularly when communicating with people of the United States. Use the overstrike function, symbol function, or multinational insert function of your word processing software to add special accent marks, or diacritics, used in other languages (e.g., manana, crudites, and crepe suzette).


Follow U.S. guidelines for addressing the envelope if you do not know the correct form.

Mr./Mrs./Ms./or appropriate title plus first then last name Street number followed by street name City, state, and ZIP code. The country name is typed in full capital letters. Note the country and city are sometimes at the beginning and sometimes at the end of the address in the following examples.


  Herr Dieter Neidlinger BASH Gmbh 500 Hiller Due GERMANY   JAPAN, Tokyo Hachioji-shi 4725 Nanyodai Nakamura Yoko   Mr. George St. Clair 5230 Kirkside Cove Memphis, TN 38117 USA  


The formality of salutations and complimentary closings varies from country to country. The English equivalent of the German letter salutation would be Very Honored Mrs. McKee, and in Latin American countries, My Esteemed Dr. Frink. The English equivalent of other countries complimentary closing is Very respectfully yours.

Diplomatic titles are very important to the holders of these titles and should be addressed as shown in the following table.



Diplomatic Titles

Written Forms of Address and Salutations

Title and Address Form Salutation


His/Her Excellency (name) Excellency: (or)

The Ambassador of (country) Dear Mr./Madame Ambassador:

Charge dAffaires

The Honorable (name) Dear Sir/Madame:

Charge dAffaires of (country) Minister:

The Honorable (name) Dear Sir/Madame:

The Minister of (country) Dear Mr./Madame Minister:

Consul General

The Honorable (name) Dear Mr./Ms. (name):

Consul General of (country)


The Honorable (name) Dear Mr./Ms. (name):

Consul of (country)



WRITING: Formal and informal letters


1 Look at the organization of a formal letter in English. Is it the same as in Ukrainian? Think about ...

... the position and content of the two addresses and the date.

... the beginnings and endings of letters.

2 Choose the words that are more formal or appropriate in the letter. What makes a letter more or less formal?

3 Make the letter below a formal letter to a hotel. Think about how to open and close the letter, and how to write the address on the envelope.

117 Fulham Palace Road London SW 11

Phone 0171 437 8955

Fax number 0171 437 6900

Reservations Manager Carlton Hotel 78, Park Lane Bristol BH12 3GR

June 16



Dear Jack/Sir or Madam

I am writing/This is just a note to confirm a reservation that was made/I asked you for this morning by telephone. The reservation, for a couple of/two nights, is for me/myself, David Cook.

I want/would like a room with a bathroom, from 12-14 July inclusive. I will be attending/'m going to pop into the Trade Fair that is being held/ is going on in Bristol that week.

Is it all right/Would it be possible for me to have a room at the back of the hotel? I think/am afraid that the room I was given/you gave me last year was rather/really noisy.

Thank you/Thanks for sending me the brochure about/regarding your conference facilities, which I got/received this morning. They look most interesting/great. Unfortunately/I'm sorry I can't give you/am unable to provide you with any definite dates at the moment/now, as/because we have yet to finalize/sort out the details of our sales conference. But/However, I will contact you/'ll drop you a line as soon as I can/possible.

I look/'m looking forward to meeting you on 12 July.

Best wishes/Yours faithfully

David Cook


Unit 4.


Informative Letters

All letters are informative in a way. But when you start writing a letter that informs it means that you want to inform not ask or answer, not apologize or remind, but inform. These letters are written when you:

- send something (a sample, a document, etc.) which must be accompanied by a short letter of transmittal or covering letter (-, , , , . . );

- acknowledge the receipt of this sample or document in an acknowledgement (-, , , . .);

- announce something in an announcement or notification (- , - , , , );

- introduce something or someone in a letter of introduction (-, , ).


Covering letters

A cheque, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail should always be accompanied by a letter. The letter says what is being sent so that the recipient knows exactly what you intended to send. When you plan a covering letter, remember:

1) to state what is being sent; mention the quantity enclosed or make a brief listing;

2) to specify any action necessary on the part of the recipient;

3) to end with a courteous note offering additional assistance.

The following phrases may be helpful when:

1. Stating what is being sent:

- We are pleased to enclose

- We have pleasure in enclosing/sending

- We enclose / We are sending

- Enclosed you will find

- Please find enclosed/attached

- We send/are sending you herewith

- Enclosed are the original and one copy of the contract

2. Specifying actions of the recipient:

- Please sign both copies, return the original to me, and retain the carbon.

- Please mail the statements to these individuals/your branches in

3. Ending with a courteous note:

- If you require any additional information, please let me know.

- Any questions should be addressed to me (to this department).

- Should you have any questions or require any additional information, please do not hesitate to contact me

- For further details, please contact me at (address/phone number).

- If you have any questions or comments, please let me know.

- If you need any further details/have any questions, please call me.




1. Look at the sample letter, read and translate it:



TORNTOT MOTOR SALES CO., LTD. Fax: 525-7306 Telex: 4167 TKD Telephone: 529-393 Your Ref: Our Ref: TO/ng 6 August 2009 V/O Lugaimport 32/34 Ochakov pl. Kirovograd 69325 Ukraine Att: Mr F. Makarov     Dear Mr Makarov, We are sending you herewith our brochure about the latest engines of motors we manufacture. Should you require any additional information, please do not hesitate to contact me. Yours sincerely Takeshi Tokada Manager     Technical Service Section, Industrial Vehicle Dept  




In the following letter some words are missing. Fill in the blanks with the necessary words or phrases.


  Bouncer Sales Limited Telephone: 583-3258 Fax: (0245) 12358 Your Ref: Our : CE / mj 18 July, 2008   Mr F. Carter Wallaby Stationery Company 44 Garbel Street Leavenworth W.C. 8 England   Mr Please find three (4) copies of the addresses of our branches. Any questions should be to this department. Forman Drizzle Manager Export Department    



Complete the following letters with the correct prepositions:

a) Dear Mr. Smith,

(1)_____ reply (2)_____ your letter (3)_____ December 19 we have the pleasure (4)_____ informing you that we have considered your request and found it valid and convincing. Attached (5)____ this letter you will find all the data. (6)_____ the subject you are interested (7)_____ .


b) Dear Sir/Madam,

We are a fast developing engineering company exporting machine parts worldwide, and we have set up contracts (1)_____ Central European Customers (2)_____ the next two years. As these parts are similar (3)_____ nature and are going (4)____ the same destination over this period, we thought it might be less expensive if we insured them, (5)_____ an all risk basis, (6)____ a time policy. We would appreciate it if you could give us any information

(7)_____ this type (8)_____ cover and how it operates.

Yours faithfully,

Jobbs Turker.




Write a covering letter to OPG Industries stating the draft contract as enclosure. OPG is a Canadian firm located in Toronto, Montgomery Street, 156. In your letter, ask the firm to consider the draft and to make the necessary alterations.


You are sending samples of fabrics to the Aleppo Textile Company in Greece. The companys address is 322 Ogastes Square, Athens. Write a covering letter.




You have just received an important document and a covering letter from your partner. Naturally you must answer it and write a letter of acknowledgement. The main idea of a good letter of acknowledgement is just saying thank you to your partner.

Why do we write acknowledgements?

1. To show courtesy: the recipient need not worry you have received what he sent.

2. To avoid misunderstanding: you know what you have sent and the quantity.

3. To provide a record: just look it up in your file and you will immediately know whether you have sent it or not.

What do we acknowledge? The receipt of

a) documents (contracts, orders, invoices, etc.);

b) samples, goods;

c) money.

You may use this plan for writing it:

1. State what you have received and the amount if necessary.

2. Express thanks for sending you money, samples, etc.

3. Mention any special instructions or actions required on the part of the recipient if necessary.

4. Offer further service or think of any other courteous note.

You may use the following helpful phrases when:

1) you acknowledge receipt:

- We acknowledge (the ) receipt of your letter/your order

24/256 of 17 May, 2003.

- We duly received your Invoice 135

- We have received your letter of enclosing

- We are pleased to acknowledge your order of 30 March which is receiving attention;

2) you express thanks:

- (We) thank you for your letter dated 1 May

- We are obliged for your letter of 5 December

- (We have received your samples) for which we thank you;

3) you round off the letter or write the conclusion of the letter in a form of a polite wish or courteous notes:

- I hope this will be the beginning of a mutually profitable cooperation.

- We appreciate your promptness in making your payments /carrying out our order and we are always pleased to serve you.

- We sincerely hope that this will be a successful transaction for you and will lead to further orders.

- We appreciate your placing this order with us

- If we may be of service to you, please call us.

- Please do not hesitate to write if you require further information.



Read the following letter:


BRAHMAGITA and Co. Ltd. Delhi Bombay Madras Telex: 478dharm Fax: (085) 757-2956 Phone: 723-4537 Your Ref: Your Ref: BD/mp 5 April 2010 Shinned OConnor Bros. Ltd. 321 Parkherst Square Glasgo 4 Attention: Mr B. Slow Dear Sir, We thank you for your letter of 14 February, inquiring about our range of cartons. We have sent you under separate cover a comprehensive selection of our latest patterns. We enclose herewith our price list and catalogue. Should you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me. Yours faithfully B. Mamboladrishna   Mr. B. Mamboladrishna   Production Manager  



Rewrite the previous letter using other synonymous phrases.



Read the instructions: Parties

Mr T. Foames Mr K. Smirnitsky

Motor Exporters Ltd Interface J.V.



51 Maffin Road 16 Borschagov Street

Hullen Zhovti Vody 670003

Yorks Kiev region

England Ukraine


3.1. Mr T. Foames is sending Mr K. Smirnitsky some brochures and catalogues about their new types of office equipment. Help Mr T. Foames to write a covering letter to Mr K. Smirnitsky:

a) first state what you are enclosing with the letter;

b) write a courteous note of goodwill.


3.2.Mr K. Smirnitsky receives Mr T. Foames covering letter and his advertising materials.

Write a letter of acknowledgement for Mr. K. Smirnitsky:

a) say that you have received the promotion literature Mr. T. Foames has sent you. Do not forget to thank Mr T. Foames for that;

b) write that as soon as you have examined the materials you will get in touch with Mr T. Foames again to arrange a visit to their company and see the equipment in operation.


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