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Etymological structure of the English vocabulary. Native and borrowed words, types of borrowings.

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Etymological structure of the English vocabulary. Native and borrowed words, types of borrowings.

Vocabulary 1) the totality of words in a language; 2) individual vocabulary:

- active vocabulary;

- defining vocabulary;

- distinctive vocabulary;

- 'dramatic'/ distinctive vocabulary;

- general vocabulary;

- marginal vocabulary;

- passive vocabulary;

- specialised vocabulary;

- working vocabulary;

 

Native words words of the English word-stock which belong to the following etymological layers of the English vocabulary:

- words of common Indo-European origin;

- words of Common Germanic word-stock;

- purely Anglo-Saxon words.

Native words characteristics:

— Meaning vital concepts, qualities, natural phenomena, formal words

— Polysemy have many meanings

— Word-Building power and Combinability

— Sound Form monosyllabic, stressed on the 1st syllable

NativeEtymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. It consists of two layers - the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary. The native words have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency, they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.

Borrowings-the term is used to denote the process of adopting words from other languages and also the result of this process. Borrowed words or loanwords are words taken from another language and modified according to the patterns of the receiving language. In many cases a borrowed word especially one borrowed long ago is practically indistinguishable from a native word without a thorough etymological analysis.

Source of borrowings. - is appliede to the lang from which particular words were taken into Engl. Original borrowings. - the term is applied to the language the word may be traced to. Assimilation- the process of the changing of the adopted words. A. of thr borrowings includes changes in: sound form; morphological strct; grammar charact-s; usage.

Completely assimilated borrowings - are the words which have undergone all types of Assimilation. They are active in word formation. Partially assim-d b. - the words which lack one of the types of A. They are subdivided into: borrow. not ass-d grammatically (nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek); borrow. not ass-d phonetically (contain peculiarities in stress, not standard for English); barbarisms - words from other lang. , used by English people in conversations or writing, but not assimilated in any way.

Why are words borrowed?Wars, conquests; trade, international and cultural relations; to fill the gap in vocabulary; words, which express some particular notion; enrichment of word groups (syn., ant).

 

Borrowing of French words.

25. There are the following semantic groups of French borrowings:

26. a) words relating to government : administer, empire, state, government;

27. b) words relating to military affairs: army, war, banner, soldier, battle;

28. c) words relating to jury: advocate, petition, inquest, sentence, barrister;

29. d) words relating to fashion: luxury, coat, collar, lace, pleat, embroidery;

30. e) words relating to jewelry: topaz, emerald, ruby, pearl ;

31. f) words relating to food and cooking: lunch, dinner, appetite, to roast, to stew.

32. Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through French literature, but they were not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:

33. a) words relating to literature and music: belle-lettres, conservatorie, brochure, nuance, piruette, vaudeville;

34. b) words relating to military affairs: corps, echelon, fuselage, manouvre;

35. c) words relating to buildings and furniture: entresol, chateau, bureau;

36. d) words relating to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine.

LEXICAL MEANING - NOTION

The lexical meaning of a word is the realization of a notion by means of a definite language system. A word is a language unit, while a notion is a unit of thinking. A notion cannot exict without a word expressing it in the language, but there are words which do not express any notion but have a lexical meaning. Interjections express emotions but not notions, but they have lexical meanings, e.g. Alas! /disappointment/, Oh,my buttons! /surprise/ etc. There are also words which express both, notions and emotions, e.g. girlie, a pig /when used metaphorically/.

The term notion was introduced into lexicology from logics. A notion denotes the reflection in the mind of real objects and phenomena in their relations. Notions, as a rule, are international, especially with the nations of the same cultural level. While meanings can be nationally limited. Grouping of meanings in the semantic structure of a word is determined by the whole system of every language. E.g. the English verb go and its Russian equivalent have some meanings which coincide: to move from place to place, to extend /the road goes to London/, to work /Is your watch going?/. On the other hand, they have different meanings: in Russian we say : , in English we use the verb come in this case. In English we use the verb go in the combinations: to go by bus, to go by train etc. In Russian in these cases we use the verb .

The number of meanings does not correspond to the number of words, neither does the number of notions. Their distribution in relation to words is peculiar in every language. The Russian has two words for the English man: and . In English, however, man cannot be applied to a female person. We say in Russian: . In English we use the word person/ She is a good person/

Development of lexical meanings in any language is influenced by the whole network of ties and relations between words and other aspects of the language.

Polysemy. Semantic structure of a word.

POLYSEMy

The word polysemy means plurality of meanings it exists only in the language, not in speech. A word which has more than one meaning is called polysemantic.

Different meanings of a polysemantic word may come together due to the proximity of notions which they express. E.g. the word blanket has the following meanings: a woolen covering used on beds, a covering for keeping a horse warm, a covering of any kind /a blanket of snow/, covering all or most cases /used attributively/, e.g. we can say a blanket insurance policy.

There are some words in the language which are monosemantic, such as most terms, /synonym, molecule, bronchites/, some pronouns /this, my, both/, numerals.

There are two processes of the semantic development of a word: radiation and concatination. In cases of radiation the primary meaning stands in the centre and the secondary meanings proceed out of it like rays. Each secondary meaning can be traced to the primmary meaning. E.g. in the word face the primary meaning denotes the front part of the human head Connected with the front position the meanings: the front part of a watch, the front part of a building, the front part of a playing card were formed. Connected with the word face itself the meanings : expression of the face, outward appearance are formed.

In cases of concatination secondary meanings of a word develop like a chain. In such cases it is difficult to trace some meanings to the primary one. E.g. in the word crust the primary meaning hard outer part of bread developed a secondary meaning hard part of anything /a pie, a cake/, then the meaning harder layer over soft snow was developed, then a sullen gloomy person, then impudence were developed. Here the last meanings have nothing to do with the primary ones. In such cases homonyms appear in the language. It is called the split of polysemy.

In most cases in the semantic development of a word both ways of semantic development are combined.

Synchronic and diachronic approaches to polysemy.

Synchronic

1. extension (manuscript)

2. narrowing (voyage)

3. elevation (minister)

4. degradation (vulgar)

Diachronic

1. metaphor

2. metonymy

 

NEOLOGISMS

At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so called neology blowup. R. Berchfield who worked at compiling a four-volume supplement to NED says that averagely 800 neologisms appear every year in Modern English. It has also become a language-giver recently, especially with the development of computerization.

New words, as a rule, appear in speech of an individual person who wants to express his idea in some original way. This person is called originater. New lexical units are primarily used by university teachers, newspaper reporters, by those who are connected with mass media.

Neologisms can develop in three main ways: a lexical unit existing in the language can change its meaning to denote a new object or phenomenon. In such cases we have semantic neologisms, e.g. the word umbrella developed the meanings: , . A new lexical unit can develop in the language to denote an object or phenomenon which already has some lexical unit to denote it. In such cases we have transnomination, e.g. the word slum was first substituted by the word ghetto then by the word-group inner town. A new lexical unit can be introduced to denote a new object or phenomenon. In this case we have a proper neologism, many of them are cases of new terminology.

Here we can point out several semantic groups when we analize the group of neologisms connected with computerization, and here we can mention words used:

a) to denote different types of computers, e.g. PC, super-computer, multi-user, neurocomputer / analogue of a human brain/;

b) to denote parts of computers, e.g. hardware, software, monitor, screen, data, vapourware / experimental samples of computers for exhibition, not for production/;

c) to denote computer languages, e.g. BASIC, Algol FORTRAN etc;

d) to denote notions connected with work on computers, e.g. computerman, computerization, computerize, to troubleshoot, to blitz out / to ruin data in a computers memory/.

There are also different types of activities performed with the help of computers, many of them are formed with the help of the morpheme tele, e.g. to telework, to telecommute / to work at home having a computer which is connected with the enterprise for which one works/. There are also such words as telebanking, telemarketing, teleshopping / when you can perform different operations with the help of your computer without leaving your home, all operations are registered by the computer at your bank/, videobank /computerized telephone which registers all information which is received in your absence/.

In the sphere of lingusitics we have such neologisms as: machine translation, interlingual / an artificial language for machine translation into several languages / and many others.

In the sphere of biometrics we have computerized machines which can recognize characteristic features of people seeking entrance : finger-print scanner / finger prints/, biometric eye-scanner / blood-vessel arrangements in eyes/, voice verification /voice patterns/. These are types of biometric locks. Here we can also mention computerized cards with the help of which we can open the door without a key.

In the sphere of medicine computors are also used and we have the following neologisms: telemonitory unit / a telemonitory system for treating patience at a distance/.

With the development of social activities neologisms appeared as well, e.g. youthquake - , pussy-footer - , , Euromarket, Eurodollar, Europarliament, Europol etc.

In the modern English society there is a tendency to social stratification, as a result there are neologisms in this sphere as well, e.g. belonger - , . To this group we can also refer abbreviations of the type yuppie /young urban professional people/, such as: muppie, gruppie, rumpie, bluppie etc. People belonging to the lowest layer of the society are called survivers, a little bit more prosperous are called sustainers, and those who try to prosper in life and imitate those, they want to belong to, are called emulaters. Those who have prospered but are not belongers are called achievers. All these layers of socety are called VAL /Value and Lifestyles/ .

The rich belong also to jet set that is those who can afford to travel by jet planes all over the world enjoying their life. Sometimes they are called jet plane travellers.

During Margaret Thatchers rule the abbreviation PLU appeared which means People like us by which snobbistic circles of society call themselves. Nowadays /since 1989/ PLU was substituted by one of us.

There are a lot of immigrants now in UK , in connection with which neologisms partial and non-partial were formed / /.

The word-group welfare mother was formed to denote a non-working single mother living on benefit.

In connection with criminalization of towns in UK volantary groups of assisting the police were formed where dwellers of the neighbourhood are joined. These groups are called neighbourhood watch, home watch. Criminals wear stocking masks not to be recognized.

The higher society has neologisms in their speech, such as : dial-a-meal, dial-a-taxi.

In the language of teen-agers there are such words as : Drugs! /OK/, sweat / /, task /home composition /, brunch etc.

With the development of professional jargons a lot of words ending in speak appeared in English, e.g. artspeak, sportspeak, medspeak, education-speak, video-speak, cable-speak etc.

There are different semantic groups of neologisms belonging to everyday life:

a) food e.g. starter/ instead of hors doevres/, macrobiotics / raw vegetables, crude rice/ , longlife milk, clingfilm, microwave stove, consumer electronics, fridge-freezer, hamburgers /beef-, cheese-, fish-, veg- /.

b) clothing, e.g. catsuit /one-piece clinging suit/, slimster , string / miniscule bikini/, hipster / trousers or skirt with the belt on hips/, completenik / a long sweater for trousers/, sweatnik /a long jacket/, pants-skirt, bloomers / ladys sports trousers/.

c) footwear e.g. winklepickers /shoes with long pointed toes/, thongs /open sandals/, backsters /beech sandals with thick soles/.

d) bags, e.g. bumbag /a small bag worn on the waist/, sling bag /a bag with a long belt/, maitre / a small bag for cosmetics/.

There are also such words as : dangledolly / a dolly-talisman dangling in the car before the windscreen/, boot-sale /selling from the boot of the car/, touch-tone /a telephone with press-button/.

Neologisms can be also classified according to the ways they are formed. They are subdivided into : phonological neologisms, borrowings, semantic neologisms and syntactical neologisms. Syntactical neologisms are divided into morphological /word-building/ and phraseological /forming word-groups/.

Phonological neologisms are formed by combining unique combinations of sounds, they are called artificial, e.g. rah-rah /a short skirt which is worn by girls during parades/, yeck /yuck which are interjections to express repulsion produced the adjective yucky/ yecky. These are strong neologisms.

Strong neologisms include also phonetic borrowings, such as perestroika /Russian/, solidarnosc /Polish/, Berufsverbot / German /, dolce vita /Italian/ etc.

Morphological and syntactical neologisms are usually built on patterns existing in the language, therefore they do not belong to the group of strong neologisms.

Among morphological neologisms there are a lot of compound words of different types, such as free-fall- appeared in 1987 with the stock market crash in October 1987 /on the analogy with free-fall of parachutists, which is the period between jumping and opening the chute/. Here also belong: call-and-recall - , bioastronomy -search for life on other planets, rat-out - betrayal in danger , zero-zero (double zero) - ban of longer and shorter range weapon, x-rated /about films terribly vulgar and cruel/, Ameringlish /American English/, tycoonography - a biography of a business tycoon.

There are also abbreviations of different types, such as resto, teen /teenager/, dinky /dual income no kids yet/, ARC /AIDS-related condition, infection with AIDS/, HIV / human immuno-deficiency virus/.

Quite a number of neologisms appear on the analogy with lexical units existing in the language, e.g. snowmobile /automobile/, danceaholic /alcoholic/, airtel /hotel/, cheeseburger /hamburger/, autocade / cavalcade/.

There are many neologisms formed by means of affixation, such as: decompress, to disimprove, overhoused, educationalist, slimster, folknik etc. Phraseological neologisms can be subdivided into phraseological units with transferred meanings, e.g. to buy into/ to become involved/, fudge and dudge /avoidance of definite decisions/, and set non-idiomatic expressions, e.g. electronic virus, Rubics cube, retail park, acid rain , boot trade etc.

International Words

It is often the case that a word is borrowed by several languages, and not just by one. Such words usually con vey concepts which are significant in the field of communication.

Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences are international, e. g. philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, lexicology. There are also numerous terms of art in this group: music, theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, artist, primadonna.

It is quite natural that political terms frequently occur in the international group of borrowings: politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, communism, anti-militarism.

20th c. scientific and technological advances brought a great number of new international words: atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, sputnik. The latter is a Russian borrowing, and it became an international word (meaning a man-made satellite) in 1961, immediately after the first space flight by Yury Gagarin.

The English language also contributed a considerable number of international words to world languages. Among them the sports terms occupy a prominent position: football, volley-ball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf, etc.

Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries often transport their names too and, being simultaneously imported to many countries, become international: coffee, cocoa, chocolate, coca-cola, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit.

It is important to note that international words are mainly borrowings. The outward similarity of such words as the E. son, the Germ. Sohn and the R. should not lead one to the quite false conclusion that they are international words. They represent the Indo-Euron group of the native element in each respective language and are cognates, i. e. words of the same etymological root, and not borrowings.

 

 

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Etymological structure of the English vocabulary. Native and borrowed words, types of borrowings.

Vocabulary 1) the totality of words in a language; 2) individual vocabulary:

- active vocabulary;

- defining vocabulary;

- distinctive vocabulary;

- 'dramatic'/ distinctive vocabulary;

- general vocabulary;

- marginal vocabulary;

- passive vocabulary;

- specialised vocabulary;

- working vocabulary;

 

Native words words of the English word-stock which belong to the following etymological layers of the English vocabulary:

- words of common Indo-European origin;

- words of Common Germanic word-stock;

- purely Anglo-Saxon words.

Native words characteristics:

— Meaning vital concepts, qualities, natural phenomena, formal words

— Polysemy have many meanings

— Word-Building power and Combinability

— Sound Form monosyllabic, stressed on the 1st syllable

NativeEtymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. It consists of two layers - the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary. The native words have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency, they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.

Borrowings-the term is used to denote the process of adopting words from other languages and also the result of this process. Borrowed words or loanwords are words taken from another language and modified according to the patterns of the receiving language. In many cases a borrowed word especially one borrowed long ago is practically indistinguishable from a native word without a thorough etymological analysis.

Source of borrowings. - is appliede to the lang from which particular words were taken into Engl. Original borrowings. - the term is applied to the language the word may be traced to. Assimilation- the process of the changing of the adopted words. A. of thr borrowings includes changes in: sound form; morphological strct; grammar charact-s; usage.

Completely assimilated borrowings - are the words which have undergone all types of Assimilation. They are active in word formation. Partially assim-d b. - the words which lack one of the types of A. They are subdivided into: borrow. not ass-d grammatically (nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek); borrow. not ass-d phonetically (contain peculiarities in stress, not standard for English); barbarisms - words from other lang. , used by English people in conversations or writing, but not assimilated in any way.

Why are words borrowed?Wars, conquests; trade, international and cultural relations; to fill the gap in vocabulary; words, which express some particular notion; enrichment of word groups (syn., ant).

 

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